Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I16. Bodily anomalies of early humans .11.12.19.-.24.


The first people do not have a mouth, anus, genitals, and their women do not know how to give birth.

People without an anus or mouth. See motive I14, I15. Kaonde, Baruya, Kukukuku, Abelam, Dafla, Khmer, Ghadaba, Gondas, Cond, Pardhan, Sora, Southern Selkups, Chukchi, Tanaina, Ne Perse, Blackfooted, Huastecs, Aztecs, Nahuatl San Luis Potosi, Tsotsil, Eastern Panama kamsa and ingano, yabarana, sanema, taulipan, urubu, takana, tupari, botocudo.

Women do not know how to give birth or are deprived of genitals. Tobanga, Majprat, Abelam, Buka, Siwai, Ngatik (Eastern Carolina; Marshall Islands (Islinglapalap), Tikopia, Hawaii, Kayan, Seram, Central Yupik, Tanaina, Tanana, Taltan, Yurok, Viyot, Karok, Hoopa, guajiro, waorani, shuar, aguaruna, urarina, sharanahua, cachinahua, botocudo.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Kaonde [Leza created the first men Mulonga and Mwinambuzhi, they did not have genitals or anus; L. gave Mulonga two bundles, told him to put one between his legs and the other Mwinambuzhi; he put himself , became a man; smelled bad from the second bundle, threw it away; Mv. came to L., he gave a new one, Mv. became a woman; for the man to throw away the first parcel, the young men pay a ransom for bride]: Melland 1967:156-157.

West Africa. Tobanga [pregnant women had their bellies ripped open, they died; a pregnant woman went to buy firewood and began to cry; a monkey taught her how to give birth; since then, women do not eat monkey meat, because monkeys like humans, only with a tail]: Ruellard, Caprille 1993:23-27.

Melanesia. Baruya [people without anus]; kukukuku [people without anus]; abelam [people without anus]: Huber-Greub 1988, No. 8.1. 13:283; Majprat [women did not have genitals; they were copulated with through the mouth or ear; to remove the baby, the pregnant woman was fried to death at the fire, then her stomach was ripped open; the young Karet N'Bejun has a pregnant sister (his woman; from the following it is clear that she is a sister); he I saw a fruit floating along the river, went to look for a tree; filled two bags with fruit from the tree at the source of the river; beautiful Ratu sat on the top of her head, smelling of possum; they went down, she had a possum vagina; K. how to use his vagina rather than her mouth; they swam to his house, R. chewed ginger, blew all parts of Sister K.'s body from her head down; the fetus in her womb did not move up as before, but down, vagina opened, the baby was born; since then, women have been giving birth and the smell of possum remained in their vaginas]: Elmberg 1968, No. 15:263-264; Buka [Porana taught women how to give birth, before that they had their stomachs ripped open]: Thur. 417-418 in Wheeler 1926:43; Siouai (Bougainville) [Orphan (Panaźa) taught people to wait for the sago to settle in the trough, drain the water, then carry the trough home rather than carry full water; peel nuts from husks; make slit gongs (they used to hit a stone with a stick); sleep inside houses, not on top of them; went with my brother's wife to pick nuts, told her to climb a palm tree, looked at her vagina when the woman went down, began to touch her; she replied that her husband considered it a wound and inserted his penis under her arm; P. got along with the woman correctly; her brother noticed blood, the wife replied that P. had cured her wound; her brother took P. to sea, deliberately dropped the coconuts, P. swam after them, brother sailed away; P. got to the island; ash came; P. told ash to collect everything it could find and bake; since then people have been eating cooked food; brother came look at the dead P., saw the bones of animals and birds eaten by them, decided that they were P.'s bones; climbed a tree to look around; P. jumped into his boat, sailed away; his brother died on the island; P. married his widow; when the baby was ready to be born, people came with knives to cut her stomach; P. drove them away, explained that only the umbilical cord should be cut; P. arranged a party, christened the child]: Oliver 1955:43-45.

Micronesia-Polynesia. Ngatik (Eastern Carolina) [a boat sailed from Losap (more precisely from Peace Island) to Truk, brought to Ngatik; the men in the boat attacked the locals, who killed them, but the chief ordered not to kill the Melewi woman , took his second wife; at that time, women did not know how to give birth on Ngatik; they organized a holiday, the pregnant woman's stomach was cut, she died, the baby was fed coconut milk; M. taught me how to give birth; wanted to go home for Peace; she was brought in, but she stayed with her family, and the companions sailed away because they wanted to attack them; they disappeared, they did not return to Ngatik]: Mitchell 1973, No. 37:104-105; Marshall Islands (Ailinlapalap) [husband a pregnant woman on Mäjil is going to cut her belly to take out the baby; the rats, who were his wife's perfume, came to teach her how to give birth normally; the husband is happy to see that the baby was born]: Erdland 1914, No. 9.2:243-244; Hawaii: Beckwith 1970:283-284 [Muleiula, Olopana's daughter, is pregnant and about to cut her belly; Haumea (goddess of procreation) arrives, hears lamentations, says in her country, women give birth without a caesarean section, give the woman in labor the flower of a particular tree; after childbirth, the tree flies to Fr. Maui], 284 [Muleiula, daughter of Olopana, is pregnant and is about to cut her stomach; she has a "tree that changes leaves" with two flowers that make different sounds; Haumea comes and agrees to teach her how to give birth in exchange for this tree; plants a tree on Fr. Maui; a man cuts it down, a thunderstorm washes a tree into the sea, various gods emerge from its branches and trunk]; Tikopia [pregnant women used to cut their bellies, women were then buried; a man with West, married, wife pregnant, her relatives are going to slaughter her, husband skaal that the baby will come out through the vulva; since then, women have not been slaughtered]: Firth 1967:39-40.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Dafla [Abo-Tani's daughters Niriyo and Nimiyo, Talang married Nimiyo; AT came to visit her; she was dissatisfied, hid her father in the basket, told her not to look; he saw T. come with other men, they began to cut each other with swords; then the old woman collected and revived the bodies, everyone began to feast; felt the presence of a stranger; at's forehead noticed drops of blood, realized that he spied; gave them supplies, warning him that something bad could happen in his house now; AT found ashes; went to look for who killed his family members; saw monkeys, tied their bows, and became as a bird, began to sing that monkeys are murderers; the monkeys are surprised because no one knows that they killed members of the AT family; rushed to their bows, began to pull a bunch, could not untie themselves, pierced themselves in despair with sharp sticks, died; one monkey hid the bow in the bushes, AT did not find it; shot at the AT bird with a hole in the ass; since then people have an anus]: Bora 1995, No. 14:18-20.

Burma - Indochina. Khmers [above Mount Sumeru is the heavenly world of beautiful long-lived creatures - tevoda; they decided to punish the people living on earth for their sins; first, the earth was burned by seven suns, then everything was flooded by the flood; when the waters began to fall, eight creatures were sent from the sky - próm; they began to eat sea foam, the flood, the earth, then plants (when they appeared); according to another version, they ate mushrooms first, then the fruits of the vine , then rice; rice filled their bellies with excrement, they made two holes, P. split into men and women, gave birth to new people]: Chesnov 1982a: 340.

South Asia. The first people spewed what they had eaten through their mouths or (by rubbish, cond) swollen from what they had eaten; they made anal holes. Gadaba; gondas; cond; pardhan; sora.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Kayan [when making a boat, a person sees heavenly maidens who have arrived, hides the winged clothes of one of them, marries; cries when he finds out that his wife is pregnant; flies to heaven, brings night, tells them not to open the bag until everything is collected from the forest; the husband opens; the remaining in the forest become Punan, Sihan (forest dwellers); chickens become wild, domestic pigs become wild; the husband grieves that he will have to slaughter his wife to extract the baby; she says the magic formula, since then women have given birth normally]: Guerreiro 1989 in Macdonald 2005:96; Seram [once all pregnant women have their stomachs ripped open, after which the woman, and sometimes a child died]: R. v. Eck 1884:288 in Fischer 1932:243.

Western Siberia. The Southern Selkups [people had a blanket shiny like nails all over their bodies; people were strong; when they went to bed, they spit in the cup and had a baby there; they left us with only our nails on arms and legs; those people did not eat, they sniffed at the smell, so they were fed up; (the absence of an anus is not mentioned, but the motive is implied)]: Pelikh 1972:342.

SV Asia. Chukchi [the first person doesn't have an anus].

The Arctic. Central Yupik [the first people rip women's bellies open to get a baby; one woman gives birth normally; people want to kill her husband; he swims away in a kayak; ends up in a women's village; those They kill the caribou with a big stick; he sails to people without a mouth; they feed on the smell of food; after that, the food becomes rotten; he continues his journey]: Fienup-Riordan 1983, No. 19:247.

Subarctic. Tanaina [without details; there was only rainwater; Kitlguyo let the water out by cutting horse cabbage; cut through the mouths of animals (=ancestors) so that they could speak; taught women how to give birth; women in labor used to have their bellies ripped open]: Osgood 1937:173; tanana [there is only one girl, she sits and keeps silent; the Raven pretends to be sick; she goes to get firewood to warm him; he takes her bag with women's clothes, puts several men on by women, they turn into women; Raven teaches how to have children; pregnant women are going to rip their bellies open; Raven tells how to give birth, how to feed children breasts]: De Laguna 1995, No. 1:84; taltan [people don't know about sexual intercourse; Raven copulates with a girl, her legs are swollen; to recover, he tells her to find something sticking out of the ground and sit down from above; this is his penis; the girl gets pregnant; the Raven forgets to explain how to give birth; at first, women had their bellies ripped open; one refused, gave birth normally; since then all women have given birth like this]: Teit 1919, No. 1.8: 206-207.

The coast is the Plateau. Ne perse [mouth].

Plains. Blacklegs [the first women don't have a mouth]).

California. Yurok: Kroeber 1976, No. F2 [Wohpekumen finds no women on earth, comes to heaven; there are 10 siblings; she has a child (from W.?) , the brothers are going to cut her stomach and W. kill; W. made a potion, gave the woman a drink, she gave birth; since then, her bellies have not been cut; W. paid for the woman dentalium shell, returned with his wife and son to earth], K2 [W. got married, his wife is going to cut her stomach, he gave her an ash drug to drink, since then normal childbirth], O1 [a woman used to rip her bellies open; W. made a potion for his son to be born normal], P1 [W. became pregnant with two women on the other side of the river; helped give birth, women used to have their bellies ripped open], Q3 [W. became pregnant with two women, helped give birth, women used to be ripped open bellies], X4 [W. became pregnant with two women, their five brothers want to kill him; he helped give birth, women used to have their bellies ripped open]: 281-283, 327, 353-355, 361-363, 375-376, 424; vilot [ Gudatrigaquitl created the world; Gatzwokvir (aka Rakshuatlaketl) makes women pregnant with one wish; wonders why they die after childbirth; sees a husband going to rip open wife's belly; creates a drug that helps with childbirth]: Kroeber 1906a, No. 4:96-97; Karok: Harrington 1932, No. 9 [Lizard: Let women in labor rip open their bellies; and if childbirth, through the mouth; Coyote: Let the baby be born from below]: 26-27; Kroeber, Gifford 1980, No. C2 [like yurks]: 33; hoop: Goddard 1904, No. 1 [pregnant women had their bellies ripped open; the cultural hero first thinks they could give birth to legs from calf; then makes the uterus out of his mesh bag], 32 [like yurks]: 126, 279.

Mesoamerica Huasteci [anus]; Aztecs [anus]; Nahuatl San Luis Potosi [anus]; tzotzil [mouth]; tsotzil (San Pablo Chalchihuitán) [first people are small, weak, ate by the smell of food]: Köhler 1979a: 272.

Honduras-Panama. Eastern Panama [anus].

The Northern Andes. Guajiro [women had teeth in their vulvas; to remove the baby, the pregnant woman had to rip open her stomach; then her stomach was sutured; Mareiwa throws a stone at the vulva, knocks out their teeth, now children can be born normally; that woman's name was Worunka; this place is now a rock shaped like her vulva; the birds touched this rock and got their red plumage; as long as the vulvas had teeth, men inserted a penis into the navel of women; in Vorunka's time, a woman bought a man, came to have sex with him at his house; Mareiva did the opposite (a man moves into a woman's house and manages there )]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1986 (1), No. 34:91-92; kamsa, ingano [anus]

Southern Venezuela. Anus. Yabarana; sanema.

Guiana. Taulipan [anus].

Western Amazon. The rat explains how to give birth. Waorani [husbands ripped their wives open while taking out a child; women died; Rat sees a man with a knife; teaches his wife how to give birth]: Rival 1998:625; shuar: Barruego 1988:76-77; Naikiai 1992:28; Pelizzaro 1961, No. 24:15; 1993 [rabbit helps]: 23-24; Rueda 1987, No. 14:95-96; Aguaruna: Chumap Lucía, García-Rendueles 1979, No. 34, 34a [also guinea pig and rabbit]: 361-375; Guallart 1958:92.

Eastern Amazon. Urubu [first people eat rotten wood, spew digested food through their mouths, women don't have a vagina; Anavira (originated from a walnut tree of the same name) pierces spicy anuses and vaginas with a stick; the penises were small, A. enlarged them; did not tell them to copulate in public; showed how to clear the area and plant cassava]: Huxley 1956:171.

Montagna - Jurua. Urarina: B. Dean, Personal Report, 1993; Sharanahua [mouse explains]: Siskind 1973:167; Kashinahua [rat explains]: Ans 1978, No. 16:182-184.

Bolivia - Guaporé. Anus. Takana; tupari.

SE Brazil. Botokud [mouth].