Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I22B. Birds are on their way to another world.


Migratory birds fly from our world to another; the hole to another world is narrow, the path lies between the crushing rocks, or the sky hits the ground, crushing those who fly by; and/or at the entrance to Another world is a character who feeds on birds; and/or there is a bird mistress on the other side of a pulsating barrier.

Arabs (written sources), Ancient Greeks, Sami, (Swedes), Komi, Altaians, Teleuts, Mansi, Nordic (?) Khanty, Northern Selkups, Dolgans, Kets, Northern Yakuts, Nanai, Nivkhs, Chukchi, Koryaks, Asian Eskimos, Central Yupik, Yurok, Crowe, Mountain Mivok, Barasana.

(Wed. North Africa. Ancient Egypt [every year, all herons gather on the mountain now called Gebel-et-ter; they take turns sticking their beak into the crevice until it clamps the beak of one of the birds; it stays and dies the rest fly away]: Maspero, Life in Ancient Egypt, p.141 in Crooke 1908:184).

Western Asia. Arabs (written sources) [al-Idrisi (12th century): There is a gap in the mountain range, to which myriads of birds gather on a certain day of the year; each one sticks its head into it, and then flies back to the other side; when the gap closes, one of the birds remains trapped and dies; the rest return a year later; this is well known in Egypt and many books say it]: Stang 1982:27-28.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece [Athen.4,325-6: "The Pleiades, like doves, bring Zeus ragweed, but one of them dies each time passing through the Plankts, and Zeus replaces her with a new one]: Grimm 1883:728.

Baltoscandia. Sami: Napolskikh 1992 [barbmo - 'land', that is probably the place where heaven meets earth]: 5; Toivonen 1937 [migratory birds fly to Loddaši nnám, 'The Land of Birds', for the winter aka barbmo-riika; they are hunted by little men, they do not break the bones of eaten birds, but they are piled up; they have been visited by two people, fulfilled the request not to break bones; the mistress of migratory birds - Barbmo-akka; a crane leads birds back from a warm country, reports to B. how many birds were born and how many died; after receiving a report, B. decides how many birds she keeps for herself, how many to release into the world]: 100-103; (cf. Swedes [swans were arguing about who would fly next; one pack refused to stop even when they reached the border of our world; but they froze because it is very cold there; it's cool when you can see these swans they beat their wings]: Balzamo 2011, No. 12:22).

Volga - Perm. Komi [at the doors through which ducks fly in our direction, an old man and an old woman are the guards of these doors; when they fall asleep, ducks fly by]: Rochev 2006, No. 97:148.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Altaians ["Maadai-Kara", poems 3088-3097, 3102-3107; two black rocks achylar-jabylar ("opening and closing") are the gates between heaven and earth; they crush many flying birds running through animals; the hero skips on horseback, only the horse's tail is cut off by rocks]: Surazakov 1982:113; Teleuts: Dyrenkova 1949 [the sky goes down and rises at regular intervals; the shaman must have time to pass through the base of the sky with the victim, otherwise he will be crushed by a vault of heaven; at this passage there are piles of bones of animals and birds swat here; the ground beyond the base of the sky is called cheun j är, "true land"]: 137; Funk 2005 [(to Anokhin 1912); Jöö-Kahn (T'öö-kan) lives on land beyond the horizon and beyond empty space; on on the way there, the shaman passes the golden gate, which, when passing the Kama, opens and locks themselves; outside the gates of the sky there is a field dotted with dead bones of animals and birds; then the steppe, lakes, a crevice of the earth, at which lives "Mother of the World Enkei-Kang with Two Shiny Eyes"]: 167.

Western Siberia. Muncie, western (i.e. northern?) Khanty [migratory birds fly to the country of morti-mā (mans.), morta-mex (hunt.); it is separated by a curtain in the form of the edge of the sky; the wind shakes it, only the most dexterous birds can slip under it; an old man and an old woman feed on birds killed by the edge of the sky; bones are thrown into the sea of living water near their home; new birds are born from bones; when they grow old, they bathe and become young]: Karjalainen 1927:26 (trans. Karjalainen 1996:25); Napolskikh 1992:8; Northern Mansi: Lukina 1990, No. 105 [see motif A4; where the sky hangs, a rock with a hole; covered with an iron margin; Mir-Susne-Hum slips through pike through it, but the old man catches him in the iron net; tries to kill, but only beats himself and his wife, M. escapes; flies a goose to the southern edge; the southern old woman killed, cooked two teals, M. ate them; she threw her bones into a lake with live water, the teals flew away; M. gets the daughter of the Southern old man and old woman; migratory geese and ducks are her dowry; wearing the skins of M. - a goose, she is a swan, flew into our world through a rock with hole], 106 (zap. A. Balandin, 1937, p. Vejacors on the river. Ob) [water is everywhere; there is an old man and an old woman in the house; an iron loon flew in, dived, popped up, his neck burst, blood appeared under his neck, a piece of earth in his beak, stuck between the logs of the house, flew up; then but the second loon dives three times, blood on his neck, a piece of land stuck between the logs; the earth began to grow; the old man goes out three times, each time after three days; the third time there is land everywhere; the old man sends three times the white crow flies around the ground; he returns in 3, 5, 7 days; the third time is black, pecking a deceased person; the old man told him not to catch the beast from now on, only fish or take blood for himself when a person He will kill the beast and take meat; a tree has grown in the backyards; the old man brought it with roots and branches, began to cheat it, cut his hand, the old woman sucked blood, told him to carry the tree back; at night the old woman was gone in the morning, an old man found her in a small house, she gave birth to a son there, called Taryg-Pesch-nimalya-sov; T. hunts; every time she sees a line in the ice-hole; then she sees his reflection, he has a beard, needs a wife; found a home, took a horse out of the basement of the barn, washed it from the manure, his mother gave chain mail, a sword, a whip and a saddle; T. jumps to look for his wife, pierced an aspen leaf with an arrow; in the house an old woman says that T. punched a piece of her bed; that Num- Torum, his father let his wife down from heaven, and Paraparsekh stole him; gave him the skins of pike, hawk, mammoth, hare and scissors; T. meets people, shepherding horses; people: herd horses P.; T.: answer: we herd horses T., otherwise, the Fire King following me will burn you with fire; the same will be cow shepherds; T. comes to P.'s house, he is not there, the woman tells you to hide in moss; the winged P. descends on the larch; the woman assures that P. dead, P. does not believe, flies away; T. pursues with the skin of a hawk; P. became an iron loon into the sea, T. became a pike; P. was a hare, T. is another hare; P. is a teal duck, T. shot him with an arrow, burned him in the fire; horse carried him across the sky through Torum's fire, ordered him to hide in his nostril for this time; Kul is on the way, swallows everyone, the horse tells them to wear mammoth skin, cut off Kul's nose and ears with scissors; Kul: I'll die now; 30 aspens from one root go into girth, strangle people with branches; the horse is gone, T. thinks about that old woman, she appears, breaks aspens, says that the eternal era of human life will come, and with these aspens it was it would be impossible; the horse tells him to wrap him in birch bark, grab Kirp-Nelp Equa's granddaughter; K. chases, grabs the horse, but only rips off his birch bark, cuts his hands on his sword; T. comes to his wife, clutching his leg with him horse, daughter K.; T. now has two wives, all P.'s wealth; in heaven T. comes to the old man, in sledges, the Sun Girl; T. volunteered to take her himself; looks down, sees people quarreling, thought he would kill everyone, people die; the old man tells them to be resurrected; he resurrected them; the same place where the Month Girl (or are these girls daughters of the Sun and the Month?) ; with two wives, T. comes to a place where earth and sky meet; there is a hole, an old man is waiting for ducks, waiting for geese; T. tries to fly like a hawk, falls, dives into the lake with a pike, brings it to the old woman and the old man ducks; the old woman cooks them, does not tell them to break their bones, puts their bones in a lake with live water, the ducks fly out alive; T. sleeps with their daughter; T. returned to earth with all his wives, now there are 5 wives; then gets another wife]: 258-272, 272-290; Kets [Tom äm lives where the sky meets the ground in the south, near the "hole in the ground" through which migratory birds fly one by one into the warm sunny world; if they fly a little higher, they are burned by heavenly fire resembling the northern lights; T. guards the hole and feeds on the best ducks and other birds]: Donner 1933:85-86 (quoted in Toivonen 1937:108); northern Selkups [(data from G.N. and E.D. Prokofiev); Ylynta kota is an old woman from heaven plucking ducks and throwing duck feathers on the ground, which are again turn into ducks; lives in an iron house in a seven-hole swamp at the source of shamanic rivers, the Kedrovka River and the Eagle River; the house is guarded by half-bears; "heavenly birds" ducks and blacksmiths live nearby, forging iron pendants for a shaman costume]: Tuchkova 2004:322-323; Nenets [Numgymboy is a "star" god, one of the sons of the god Num, the lord of one of the sacred lands that form the sky; perhaps interpretation of the name as "Star Door" (numgi-py); on Nizhnyaya Ob, his double spirit lives in a hut without a roof; birds flying over the hut scream and fall dead, causing them to pile up around mountains of bird bones]: Golovnev 2004:312-313; dolgans [shamans turned into geese, flew through a hole in the sky; an old woman, mistress of the universe, sat near the hole, waiting for flying geese ; one of the shamans dies because he thought badly of her; tells shamans not to fly in this direction again]: Popov 1937:55 (retelling Anisimov 1959:21).

Eastern Siberia. Northern Yakuts (p. Bulun of the 1st Botulinsky Nasleg of the Zhigansky Ulus, recorded in 1924) [in Horo, where birds spend the winter, there is an old woman who hunts birds with an iron spear; she seems to be grabbing a goose she loves with her spear; degie is an iron rod with a hook, serves to capture fish; this old woman has a stone hat; she lives where heaven and earth come together]: Xenophontov 1977, No. 184:161.

Amur-Sakhalin. Nanais [little Chaha Naini (chaha means "elbow") live far beyond the sea; the Chinese emperor sent a flock of geese to exterminate them, but this failed, because ChN, having bows and arrows in the form of needles, repel the geese attack, and the war continues to this day; geese return to the Chinese emperor for summer; China has a large wall, with a gate that opens for the passage of animals and birds several times a year; herds crowd against the wall, depending on the season, waiting for admission; the imperial goose Elali (Anser Cinereus) is the first to fly through the gate when a pass is allowed ; once the gate keeper did not obey the order to open them in a timely manner, which killed a huge number of animals and birds; the keeper was beheaded]: Shimkevich 1897:137; nivhi [man reaches places where the sky rises evenly above the ground and falls; wind breaks into the hole, swans fly there in autumn; some are crushed, an old woman living nearby feeds on them; man left home young, returned as an old man]: Kreinovich 1929:79-80 (German retelling in Toivonen 1937:109).

SV Asia. Chukchi: Bogoras 1902:1 [the passage in the form of interpreting rocks is called the "limit of the sky", or "the limit of birds"]: 608; Bogoraz 1939 [(=Bogoras 1907:332); at the four corners of the world the rocks of the sky close with the rocks of the earth, hitting them and then rising; on the way to their world, migratory birds fly through an opening gap; those flying behind are crushed; the movement of the rocks creates the wind; the corner of the sky is the place where all fur-bearing animals and wild deer came from]: 42; Belikov 1982 [wife disappears, Rorath takes a boat to the crashing rocks between which birds fly; then the country kele; R. catches a stone ball, injures an opponent with it; jumps from a height, pulls out a stone thrown into the sea, wins the run; gets his wife back]: 46-51; Koryaks [(probably by Jochelson 1905 or 1908); for winter, geese fly to another world through a small hole in the sky or through a gap between rocks; they must fly by silently; as soon as the goose gives a voice, the gap slams shut and the crushed goose falls dead; in another world, the Goose (or Bird) Mother is waiting for geese; seagulls far in the sky also have the Old Mother; if she flew to earth, she would cover the sun and sky; she asks seagulls flying in for the winter how they lived on earth and why their beaks turned black; seagulls say they lived badly, they only pecked coals; if the seagulls tell the truth, the Old Mother will fly to the ground and eat all the berries; old seagulls are afraid that the younger ones will spill out, so they stay the first years to spend the winter with them]: Toivonen 1937:110-111.

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos (Sirenics) [girls and boys play wives and husbands, one does not have a husband, she took an old whale skull; her skull dragged her into the water; her eight brothers follow her birds; birds overtake them twice; on the third, brothers build a kayak that overtakes the fastest birds - stonemasons; birds fly into the passage between the crushing rocks, the rocks bite them with tips, become covered with the blood of birds; only the bars at the stern of the kayak are damaged; in the whale dwelling, the old man offers to compete; after turning off the lights, he throws a whale shovel, but the sister hid the brothers in the pit in advance; the sister creates seagulls from pieces of one of the brothers's tea-skinned kitchen; while the seagulls attack the old man, the brothers take his sister away; the whale chases their boat; the woman consistently takes off her garments, throws a whale; every time he plays with them, falls behind, stops chasing; a woman gives birth to a kitten; he regularly brings whales to people; people from another village kill him]: Menovshchikov 1985, No. 99:238-241; central Yupik [migratory birds, geese in particular, fly south between two crushing mountains; weak birds die]: Gillham 1943:1-16.

Plains. Crowe [on the back of a crane, a man went to the land of birds; where the sky joins the ground, seven birds stood in a row at the opening into another world; the crane chief sang and raised his pipe the sky; the birds passed, the sky closed behind them; they flew above the water, then the land of birds appeared; it was always summer there, lots of berries; announced that it was time a month ago]: Ehrlich 1937:360-361.

California. Yurok [the land is surrounded by the ocean; the sky beats against the sea, causing it to stir; geese have a special round hole through which their flocks fly into another world]: Waterman 1920:190-191; southern mountain mivok [a stone giant kills people, two brothers remain orphans; wonder what to become; the younger one tells us to collect feathers, they put them on their bodies, turn into birds; the elder refuses to become a waterfowl; then they turn into Thunder; for the summer they fly through a hole in the sky to the north to the other side of the sky (obviously, they fly through the same hole and common migratory birds); return in winter, produce rain and thunderstorm]: Merriam 1993:173-178.

(Wed. Guiana. Vapishana [two brothers climb the rock for arrow feathers; one (apparently the eldest) is outraged that the other takes only the chick's feathers; gets down and removes the stairs; the bird that has arrived asks why he treats her son badly; a man spends a year with birds; then he grows feathers, he flies with birds to the lake shore; marries a bird's daughter; by the lake, his father-in-law offers to put his hand in his mouth a snake, a snake turns into a net, a man catches fish with it; put it in place, a snake again; the father-in-law asks for cassava cakes from the country where a person comes from; bird cakes are tobacco; a man comes to her mother, brings tobacco to her father-in-law, gets a fishing hook; returns to her mother and wife; she calls her daughter-in-law a bird, she returns to her father, her husband comes to pick her up, her father-in-law sends him back; a man gives his brother a fishing hook received from birds, he tries it, he gets stuck in his lip]: Wirth 1950:198-199).

NW Amazon. Barasana: S.Hugh-Jones 1979, № 4f-g [Kame eagle kills people; Varimi flies with ibises to Romy Kum (Shaman Woman) to obtain curare poison; overcomes obstacles interpreting mountains; pubic hair RK. - timbo vines (fish poison); V. flies into the vagina with a green bee, runs out of the head of the Republic of Kazakhstan. A poisonous lizard; a bee drinks nectar from flowers covering pubic hair (= timbo vines) RM. ; RM. requires V. to have repeated copulation; leaves V. in his father Anaconda's stone house; V. enters his body with a flea, extracts poison from the bladder; flies out of his nostrils; makes a hole in stone roof, flies away with a green parrot, then an oriole (Icterus chrysocephalus); cooks poison, loses consciousness; at this time, snakes have time to get drunk, becoming poisonous]: 278-282; Torres Laborde 1969 [see motif J16; Varimi asked Watsóa Wehéro to throw him the Wansoko fruit; he made a ladder, offered to go up, threw away the stairs, V. could not go down; Herons flew in in winter and gave him feathers, taught to fly; on the way, the trap was like scissors; V. put a log into it, everyone flew safely; on the site, the fire, V. caused rain, everyone flew by; ducks and other birds flew with them; flew to Romy- Kumu; she fed everyone; suspects that someone is with the birds because she has eaten more than usual; arranges a dabukuri festival; the birds came back, but V. stayed with the Republic of Korea; she took him to her father's house Rimáhinó (Serpent Venom); RK woke him up by touching a hot shard; V. became a flea, R. took it off his back, put it in his mouth; V. jumped out over his nose when R. sneezed, took the poison away; flew as a bird to his grandmother, Menya's wife; began to cook poison, tried it, lost consciousness; at this time the snakes stole it, became poisonous; V. killed the ogre eagle Ramé with a wind gun; his blood turned into various types of reeds; his feathers were taken for dance costumes, he taught many songs]: 31-45.