Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I28. Animals under the ground, F127. .10.11.13.-.


Commercial animals or pets are located inside a mountain, in a cave or in the underworld, or have once come from there to our world; animals often take the form of human beings underground, have an owner. See motive H18.

SW Africa. Hottentots [the hunter found a hole, animals came out of there, he began to kill young people; another man was blind, began to grope and sniff animals, said that they were not animals, but cattle; saw the light, encircled the herd of kraal, smeared himself with fat, became hottentot; he advised another to throw lard into the fire first and then smear himself; the flame broke out, burned the hunter's face, he ran to the mountains, became a Bushman]: Bleeck in Korobchevsky 1874:28.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Herero [Herero's ancestors, along with cattle, came out of the Combretacee tree; it is still in Kaoko Weld; Bushmen and small cattle came out of the hole in earth]: Baumann 1936:225; Parrinder 1967:39; Werner 1933:22 (quoted in Kotlyar 2009, No. 130:111); scythe [humans and animals came out of umhlanga (probably a cave)]: Belcher 2005:244; suto, Chwana: Dornan 1925 [people and animals came out of a deep cave; in Sutho it is Ntsuanatsatsi located to the east, and Chwana has Ląąwe (according to some, in southern Bechuanaland)]: 288; Moffat 1842: 262 in Kotlyar 2009, No. 135 [people lived in a cave with lions; killed a lion's beloved son, who drove them out of the cave; the sun scorched the skin of certain groups of people to black, brown, red; others had skin peeled off, turned yellowish; people and animals dispersed, and their prints remained on the swampy soil before the crossing]: 112; nyanja [the first man came out of the hole in Capirimtiya (southwest of Lake. Niasa); his footprints and those of animals that came out with him were imprinted on the rock]: Werner 1933:22 (=Kotlyar 2009, No. 127:111); sakata [wild boars ruin the garden; the owner borrowed a spear from his wife's brother {sister's husband? - brother-in-law}, wounded a wild boar, he left with a spear; his wife's brother demanded a spear back, refused compensation; the man went down the hole, went underground to the village of the dead; the wounded boar turned out to be a brother man's mother; his wife hid the man in the house; the man stayed there for a month until his uncle's wound healed; the man saw his uncle's children go into the forest turning into monkeys; saw his uncle in in the form of a hare, other inhabitants of the village of the dead in the form of other animals; the uncle returned the man's spear, escorted him to the edge of his garden, returned underground himself; on the occasion of the man's return, they arranged a holiday; he no longer ate boar meat; var.: In the village of the dead, a man asks for a banana, but he is told that if he eats something he will not return to earth]: Colldén 1971:70-72; kamba [1) when people descended from heaven to earth, God gave them a cow, a goat, and a sheep; 2) God let pets out of a hole in the ground; 3) God told two people Ngolli and Ekulli to leave the entrance to their villages open; N. left, E. - no; at night N. heard bleating and mooing, left the village, saw goats and sheep coming out of the termite mound; cattle entered the village of N., and the village of E. was closed; aristocrats came from N. , from E. - commoners]: Lindblom in Tegnaeus 1950:147; kikuyu: Gagnolo 1952, No. 14 [the father has two twin sons; each gave a newborn twin kid; Waithanje about his good cared, he grew up quickly and got fat; his father sent V., at that time he stabbed his kid, had a feast; V. came back, saw the skin, stood on it, went underground; the sorcerer advised him to water the place with lamb fat; the land parted, V. went out, carrying many cattle and a live kid; forgave his father and became rich], 15 [the father has two sons with two wives, the mother of one died; the father sent them to inspect the traps, banned the release of animals; the one whose mother is alive decided to let go of the gazelle; the orphan agreed that from now on the other will give him half of the food, otherwise he will tell his father; the father and mother are surprised why does the boy lose weight, although his mother gives him a lot of food; one day he confesses to his father; he takes him to the forest, ties him to a tree, leaves him; if his brother reports, he will be even worse; the rescued gazelle frees him boy; tells him to stomp by the tree, people and cattle come out of the ground; the young man is getting rich; the father and mother are starving, they come to him; he feeds his mother, refuses his father; parents and brother are dead, the young man is happily married]: 130-131, 131-133; Makua: Adams 1902 [his ancestor and wife came out of the rocky Mima Mountain and the Zuli River with goats, sheep, and cattle; his name was Mima, like the rock; there were prints left their legs]: 47 in Kotlyar 2009, No. 134:112; Baumann 1936 [the first humans came out of God's dug holes in the ground]: 192 (quoted in Kotlyar 2009, no. 125:110).

Sudan - East Africa. Sandave: Baumann 1936 [Matunda opened a tree and came out of it a hyena, a sheep, a woman with two children, a Wangu man who married Matunda's sister, and he married Sister Wang]: 226; Kimmendade 1936 [( more with the original text in Millroth 1965:43-44); first Matunda came out of a crack in a large baobab; he widened the hole, a hyena came out, then a brebis, then a woman with children, followed by a man, then different animals, M. released many people]: 407; darasa [all people used to be kind; cattle came out of the ground; when they heard a mooing, people came to a hole in the ground, divided the cattle; then stopped be kind]: Jensen 1936, No. 26:515.

North Africa. Kabila [the first buffalo and heifer came out of the dark underworld; saw the light for the first time; the buffalo ran behind the heifer; seven days later he saw that the urine stream, when the heifer pees, was pointing backwards, and not forward like him; he got along with her, first trying her vagina with his finger and tongue, so people do it; she gave birth to a calf, he grew up; gave birth to a chick; a grown buffalo son wanted to get along with his mother, but the old buffalo drove him away; he came to people; they asked ants who they were, they told them, explained what a cow was; explained to buffalo the benefits of staying wild or becoming a pet; he returned to where his parents stayed, covered his mother and sister, drove his father away, who ran to the mountains, where anthropomorphic wild buffaloes are now revered, there are petroglyphs with their images; there are people near the cave make sacrifices; this Buffalo Ali was left without a wife, inserted his penis into a hole in a stone; 5 months later, under the influence of the sun, everyone (ungulates?) was born there wild animals (7 pairs of gazelles, etc.); Buffalo Ali fed them, taught them to eat grass and roots, taught them how to copulate, they multiplied; but the lion came from an ogre man, and the cat was a lion's child]: Frobenius 1921a, No. 3:64-69.

Southern Europe. Basques [the lower world is populated by animals and/or animal souls; it has no negative associations]: Jose Miguel de Barandiarán y Ayerbe at Roslyn Frank, personal report 2008.

Melanesia. Kukuku [a pig first came out of a hole in the ground, came to the village of first ancestors (Imatje); after receiving food, she went for others; those who fled into the forest became wild, and women took them to the village became domestic]: Fischer 1968, No. 2:370; sushi [Wanit, the sister of Siliwem's spirit, married Suburten, went to her husband; Siliwem went to see her, killed a rat on the way, started cooking; W. said it was a pig for which Her husband hunted unsuccessfully; Siliwem explained that it was a rat; set up a platform to wait for pigs to come out of a hole in the ground; black, red, white came out, but green did not dare; Suburten received a pig from her current]: Lehner 1975, No. 4:752-753; mekeo [Kaiava brings meat from wild animals and his brother Ikuava only wild fruits; Y.'s wife sees meat from his wife Kna K sees meat from his wife's animals, and his brother.. upset for her husband; spying on her brother, I. sees him open the door in the hill, pulls out wallabies and wild chickens; when he leaves, I. opens the hill with the same signal, takes animals, not closes the door, all the animals run through the woods; K. and I. almost killed each other; K. goes to visit their sister Verovero, both brothers reconcile, kill the ogre]: Natachee 1951:157-161; abelam [ the man shot at the boar, chased it, which disappeared into the trunk of a palm tree in which the door opened; the man followed him, entered the world of the dead; his {dead} sister said that the dead looked wild boars; the man's younger brother {came after}, saw a mask in the men's house, put it on, became a boar; the man reproaches his brother - he warned; he told his younger brother's wife about this, she brought him broth, but it all looks like a wild boar; other people caught it, brought it, a large tree grew out of it, and this tree was used to make a ridge beam for a man's house]: Huber-Greub 1988, No. 8. 1. 23:290-292.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Lepcha [an orphan kills an eagle who is about to grab a boy; a rescued person leads an orphan to his father, the master of the underworld; an orphan falls in love with the owner's daughter; she tells her father to ask her father for the reward is only dog skin; the orphan returns to earth, with wild animals and pets and birds (they weren't on the ground before); while working in the field, someone cooks in his house; he waits girl, throws dog skin into the fire; marries, gets rich; the king has a wife with an abscess around his neck; the king offers competitions, the winner will take the other's wife; the wife every time tells them to go to the place where they come out from under land, ask for what you need (rooster, ram); orphan wins; 1) roosters fight; 2) rams; 3) bulls; 4) warriors; underground father-in-law gives a box, the wife does not tell you to open it on the way; the orphan opens it slightly, thunder- a man jumps out (the origin of thunder); reopens at the sight of warriors, a thunderwoman kills them]: Siiger 1967, No. 5:223-224; panggy [Peddong-Dorum owned the Ramjo tree, it was for his son; Kare-Botte cut off tree branches starting from the top; some fell through the ground to Polo-Irgong-Lilong, into the lower world of Wiyus Spirits, turning into wild pigs; a big branch fell into the hills, became a deer, another a buffalo, another a porcupine, the fourth a squirrel; this is how animals appeared]: Elwin 1958b, No. 3:404-405.

South Asia. Toda [Ön brought buffaloes out of the ground; a man clung to the latter's tail, the first toda; Ön made the first woman out of a man's rib]: Rivers 1906:184; dhanwar: Sontheimer 1989: 107-108 [Revana Siddhešvar killed the goddess Māyī, freed 900 saints she had captured; sent half to beg for him, and turned the other into sheep, hid it in the field in a hole, covered it with a stone ; the field was owned by Padmanna and his brother; P. plowed, moved the stone, drove the sheep into the forest, saw a beauty kidnapped by the cannibal; Shiva came and married them; there was no cotton in the forest, so the wedding the bracelets are made of wool; P.'s descendants tie wool bracelets, and his brother's descendants are made of cotton], 108 [the leader kicks his loser son out of the house, warns not to dig up an anthill or cut down a certain tree; the one dug up the anthill on which the tree grew, 6 species of sheep came out of there; his marriage to the demoness comes from one of the two Kuruba groups], 108-109 [Masi and Reddi Nilamma have six sons; Shiva decided to help them, came disguised as a beggar, gave N. sacred ash, promised that she would give birth to a son Undala Padmanna; while farming, the family became rich; but UE did not go to work in the fields; brothers decided to get rid of it, told him to set fire to the grass at the anthill so that a snake would crawl out and bite it; but sheep appeared instead of a snake; S. explained what to do with them and how to milk them; sent the UE to the city for fire Rakshasa; they have a brahmana daughter in captivity; UE runs away with her, the girl hides him from her pursuers, turning him into a lizard; at home, UE also took a wife from his caste; she was tied to her feet during the marriage ceremony cotton bracelets and brahmana's daughters made of wool; the status of those with wool is lower], 110-111 [Pārvatī made the figure of a man by mixing milk from his right breast with the ground, a woman from her left breast; for them Ādigonda's son; Shiva and P. asked him for a plot of land, dug a hole there, hid sheep in it; the ring in P.'s nose remained there in the form of a muttala plant; Padmagonda is the youngest of A.'s six sons, he is idle; the brothers' wives told him to weed the field; he pulled out the muttala plant, the sheep came out; he got scared, drove them back, piled up firewood, set fire; the sheep jumped out again, burned, so they were of different colors; one day P. has no fire to boil milk; he came to Rakshasi's house to pick it up, found her daughter; killed Rakshasi, who managed to create wolves out of revenge; married Rakshasi's daughter and another girl; during a wedding The first ceremonies are woolen on their feet, the second has cotton bracelets], 111-112 [Ādireddi and Ādemmā have seven sons, the youngest Elenāgireddi; the brothers are jealous of him, were sent to a place where the termite mound, and the tree on it, is Rakshasi land; the brothers decided that E. would cut down the tree and Rakshasi would kill it; he cut down and killed six Rakshasi sons, who came to complain to Shiva, he replied that E. was his favorite ; Parvati asked Shiva to create the sheep, but they spoiled her garden; then he hid them in the lower world, closed the exit with a stone; E. plowed, pushed back the stove, the sheep came out; Shiva told them to lead without looking back; The golden sheep with the golden ram were to be the last to come out, but E. looked around, they remained underground].

Malaysia-Indonesia. Galela (Halmahera) [the man threw a spear at a wild pig that had destroyed the garden; followed a bloody trail, went down to a crevice, into a village; he found his spear at the door of a house; the owner replied that he had wounded his daughter; there were boar skins in the house; he cured the girl, married her; remembered the house on earth; he lived with wild boars in boar clothing for three months, went out with them to the ground ruin the gardens; then he was told to close his eyes, he opened them in front of his house as a man; wild boars told him not to kill them anymore, but to ask him to go to another plot]: Van Dijken 1895:398 in Dixon 1916: 213-214; boogie and/or makassars [wild boars ruin the garden; the owner asked a friend for a spear, threw it at the boar, it broke, the boar took the tip; the owner of the spear demanded it back; man found a bottomless hole in the forest, went down on a rope, found himself on the crown of a mango tree; the girl came for water; said that the prince's son had returned from the ground seriously ill, no one could cure it; man pretended to be a healer, ordered him to be left with the sick for three days; killed the prince, took not only a spear, but also an expensive necklace and sword with a golden handle; returned to earth; after learning about his adventures, the ruler gave him a daughter and a throne; the treasures he brought are still kept]: Bezemer 1904:369-371.

Baltoscandia. Sami (Sweden) [a girl approached the hunter; accidentally cut her left finger with a knife, bleeding appeared; an old woman appeared and shouted to the girl that she would now have to stay on the ground; hunter threw a knife at the old woman, but she was gone; the hunter brought the girl to his cave; she told him to wait three days, ignoring the noise and the roar; when they came out into the light, they saw a pen with deer and everything what is required for reindeer husbandry; all this gave underground spirits; the Swedes also got their cattle out of the ground; a man went down into a crevice, there were houses and farms; two women appeared, young and old; he threw a knife at a young woman, dripped blood, then the woman was supposed to stay on the ground; he threw the knife at the old woman, but she was gone]: Simonsen 2014:68-71.

Eastern Siberia. Evenks (no group specified) [the owner of the land has a husband, an unnamed shepherd with her animal herd; the hostess releases more or fewer animals out of the ground; they turn into fur that The shaman brings the shaman out of the ground in his tambourine, shaking them out to the taiga fishing grounds; the hostess keeps her fur in a shingken, a leather handbag under her arms]: Anisimov 1959:34, 37-38.

SV Asia. Chukchi: Bogoras 1928, No. 13 [brother and sister live alone; brother still sleeps, eats stones; sister brings him a wife; creates a huge bull deer, tells his brother to go with him to the lake; brother throws grass, it turns into humans; tells them to drive out deer living under water in the lake; a huge deer leads a herd, becomes normal in size; all domestic deer come from this herd], 1 [The sun gives a man of white and spotted deer as payment for his daughter; he gives back to his son-in-law blacks who have come out of the ground]: 317-318, 318; 1939 [the Sun gave white deer to people; brown and gray ones came out of the ground, where the earth is converges with the sky; there herds run out of a hole in the ground, chased by wolves; this is how the number of deer on earth increases (=Bogoras 1907:305)]: 22; reindeer Koryaks: Jochelson 1908, No. 9 [Supreme Deity uses his wife's vulva as a tambourine, his penis as a stick; while hitting a tambourine, it rains from her vulva; Big Raven (Kuikinniaku) and his son Ememkut wear crows clothes, fly to heaven, put the Deity and his wife to sleep, fry their genitals until they crunch; now blows to the vulva tambourine make the weather good; the Deity promises K. good luck in hunting; on the ground he pulls him out the earth is a pillar to which dogs are tied; deer come out of the hole], 21 [see motif A5; the Creator's son Ememkut marries the daughter of the Sun, brings her home; The Creator and his wife Mitya are happy; The creator pulls a dog mating pole out of the ground, a herd of deer comes out of the ground], 39 [An envious person sees feces with two wives; tells Ememkut that he will not be able to get these women; E. kills feces, takes women; pulls a pole out of the ground (as in (21)]: 142-143, 162-164, 187.

The Arctic. Caribou [man digs a hole in the ground; caribou go through it to earth; when he decides there are enough animals, he closes the hole again]: Rasmussen 1930b:83; netsilic [an evil spirit makes a hole in the ground, fishes for caribou meat and fat; so people know that caribou live underground]: Rasmussen 1931:212, 319; Labrador Eskimos [shaman comes to a huge dugout; sees a giant caribou at the entrance; others The caribou enter the dugout, passing under their master and not touching his belly; when all the caribou had passed, the owner lay down at the entrance]: Hawkes 1916:154; West Greenland: Millman 2004:72-73 (Rittenbeck) [ the shaman goes to look for a country where the caribou live when they leave the coast; makes himself invisible to the Dog Heads, so they don't bite him; comes to the ice house where the caribou live; when he returns, he is silent about what he sees, otherwise people would go there to kill the caribou, and the shaman's guardian spirit would turn him into a larva as punishment].

Subarctic. Ingalic [animals came out of the mountain from the ground; they come out from time to time and now, especially when people attract them with ceremonies]: Osgood 1959:103; Tanaina: Smelcer 1992 [in a hungry time son a rich man is scalded with boiling water by a mouse; ends up in an underground dwelling of Mice; they look human; promises the mother of a scalded mouse not to harm mice; ends up on the ground, kills a lot of Caribou]: 118-119; Tenenbaum 1984 [commercial animals disappear; Kingfisher blindfolds, sings, finds a door in the mountain; he and Pika (a small animal living in the rocks) open the door, drive them out animals; mountain dwellers slam the door, Pika cut in half]: 179-190; Vaudrin 1969 [as in Smelcer]: 8-12; tsetsot [young man catches baby marmot; groundhog mother turns into woman, asks to give her son; in return rewards the young man with hunting luck; marries him; he kills her groundhog brother; she tells the meat and marmot skins to turn back into animals, takes them away; he follows her into the crevice rocks; inside the house, marmot skins hang on the walls; he gets one, lives like a marmot; his brothers kill him, find a bracelet fresh; a man comes to life, tells his story]: Boas 1896-1897, No. 7:263-264 ; hea [animals come out of the cave to the ground every spring; a hunter who can kill game with his gaze comes there; sees the dancing dead; prisoners and unburied cannot cross the river, they eat frogs; the hunter returns home]: Petitot 1886, No. 11:130-132; Chipewayans [after the flood, the caribou disappear; The raven drives animal people away from his home; The fox enters there, makes a hole in the door, caribou run into the light]: Birket-Smith 1930:87; beaver [Raven drives animals underground, holds fat by doors; Night Hawk watches him; people break the door by releasing animals; Raven covers bodies animals with a bone shell, only the nose is vulnerable; but it suffers from hunger; makes ribs animals]: Goddard 1916:250-251.

NW Coast. The Tlingits [a hunter kills many mountain sheep; a white-bearded man invites him to enter the door; he finds himself inside the mountain: turned into a ram; released home when he promises to lay out the sheep skins as they lay when the carcasses were fresh; the skins become meat, turn back into rams, run away; the hunter becomes a shaman]: Swanton 1909, No. 26:58-60.

The coast is the Plateau. Thompson [animals, except horses and dogs, have their own underground worlds; their souls return to them; when people treat commercial animals badly, they go underground into their world; deer and others commercial animals were created for Indians; when there were few Indians, they also began to disappear, although whites don't hunt them]: Teit 1900:343-344; coutenay [Raven hides bison, humans they are starving; the Beaver pretends to be dead, the Raven goes down to peck at him, is caught, brought into the house; screams the Coyote, flies out the chimney; the Magpie notices which direction he flew; The Rabbit and the Hare come to two old women; turn into a puppy and a stone; one old woman wants to throw the puppy into the water, the other picks up; picks up a stone to use as an anvil; a bubble and a rattle hang in the aisle, making a sound when bison passes; young men hole a bubble, pick up a rattle, drive out bison; cling their teeth to the bull's testicles; standing on the sides, old women hit the bison, flattening its body; now bison available to hunters]: Boas 1918, No. 65:213-219, 303-304; chupa [deer owner keeps them in a cave; to make him less vigilant, the cultural hero pretends to eat venison too; opens the door to the cave, lures all the deer out]; ne perse [see motif K27; the younger sister marries an ugly young man, the eldest is the Raven; the young man becomes handsome, the older sister also goes to him; The raven hides the buffalo; the Beaver tells him to rip his belly, pretends to be dead, catches the Raven; people hang the Raven in the chimney, it turns white black; promises to tell him where the bison is flying away; Poloz, Pest, Laska come to the Raven; turn into a digger, pestle, puppy; Raven's daughter picks them up; puppy barks, driving buffalo back to the ground from the underground cave; digger and pestle sit on their backs Running buffalo]: Phinney 1934:170-172

The Midwest. Menominee [every day, the father demands that his sons kill more bears; the Bears Master lures his two older brothers into the mountain, where the souls of the killed bears return; for excessive killing turns the brothers' arms and legs into bear paws (the Master's sister persuades him not to turn the whole young man into bears); the Master sends bears to kill the parents of the boys; the younger brother kills bears in Woe with his magic arrow; the Master's sister helps restore his brothers to human form]: Hoffman 1896:175-181; ojibwa [after the animal is killed, his soul goes to the bitomegog underworld, where The souls of all animals and plants live there; several chiefs who are responsible for various territories rule there]: Jenness 1935:23 (quoted in Herweg 1981:68).

Northeast. Naskapi: Speck 1935a: 84-87 [In summer, caribou live inside one or two white domed mountains (partly) made of caribou wool; their host is a white man in black clothes; shamans visit caribou home, if you need to know why animals don't go out; the souls of killed caribou return to their mountain-dwelling], 89-90 [one in four brothers goes to live with a deer in a caribou herd, turns into theirs owner; rides a large male; deer give birth to deer; he tells hunters in a dream how many animals they can kill]; Turner 1894 [The deer invites the hunter to marry her; inside the mountain Caribou live like humans; people try to catch a hunter in vain]: 328-330; onondaga [see motive B1; evil brother Flint hides animals in a cave; kills only for himself and his grandmother; good brother releases them ]: Hewitt 1903 [some animals (monsters?) stays underground, harms people]: 194-197; 1928 [a person tells a good brother where animals are hidden; he makes animals wild]: 500-502.

Plains. Sarsi [people were starving, only one family owned bison; the old man became a puppy, the little daughter of the buffalo owner picked him up, and he advised the puppy to throw it away because he has human eyes; girl opened the door in the hill, under the ground of the bison; the puppy kicked them out, they scattered across the ground, he became Old Man again, closed the hill forever; this hill is still called Bison]: Dzana-gu 1921, No. 5:8; black-legged [1) The Gray Raven hides the buffalo; the chief asks Napi for help; N. turns himself into a dog, the chief's son into a stick; Raven's little son picks up a dog, the Raven's wife a stick; the Dog and the Stick they find an underground hole, drive out the bison from there; they go out themselves, clinging to the fur of an old bison; N. turns into a dead otter, catches the Raven, hangs it in the chimney; since then, the crows are black; 2) The raven hides buffalo; the hero turns into a dead beaver, catches the Raven, smokes in the chimney (since then the crows have been black); he breaks his promise to let the buffalo go free; the hero turns into a stick- a digger, his friend into a puppy; they are picked up by Raven's daughter; taking the guise of a dog and a human, they drive buffalo out of an underground hole]; arpaho [1) the white Raven hides the buffalo; first the Rabbit, then the Moose, the Bison pretend to be dead; the raven goes down to bite the bison, is caught, hanged in the chimney, turns black; people let him go, follow him, throw the puppy up; the puppy finds a door in the mountain, followed by the bison; drives them to the ground; 2) people are starving; three hunters enter the cave, see a steppe with bison; the owner of the bison gives a pot of meat, enough for many; sends buffalo to the ground]; sheyen [two men come to the door in the mountain; all animals are inside the mountain; the owner of the animals releases them into the world]; grovanter: Cooper 1975, No. 2 [man hides buffalo; White Man wants to help people, turns into a puppy; daughter the person picks him up; the puppy becomes a dog, drives the buffalo out of the cave; they trampled the owner; the dog becomes human, rapes the girl]: 434-435; Kroeber 1907b, No. 34 [bisons often hide from hunters in the cave; two hunters follow them until the cave expands and they can't find its walls in the dark; they hear the roar of buffalo, come back]: 112-113; Mandan: Beckwith 1938 [cf. K27 motif; Bisonic mother-in-law splits the ground, releases buffalo; the hero brings them to people]: 78; Bowers 1950:280 [as in Beckwith], 350-351 [Hoita (Speckled Eagle) hides ungulates inside the rock Dog Den Butte; agreeing to collaborate with Lonely Man in arranging the Okipa ceremony, frees animals]; teton: Dorsey 1894 [bisons live underground; some come to the surface, from them - our bison]: 476-477; Walker 1983 [bison first live underground]: 245-248; Omaha, ponka [sister of four brothers lures buffalo, moose, deer combing her hair and calling animals; brothers they build a platform for her, kill animals; Iktinica makes the girl call animals; misses when shooting; animals carry the girl away; brothers find her inside the hill; split the hill, release sister; animals are killed, leaving a couple of each species]: Dorsey 1890:82-83; from [a woman and her husband treat her little brother badly; he is taken away by an unknown woman; he is taken to an underground cave, where there are bison; she is the buffalo spirit; he grows up, marries her, they have two sons; she says that the Big Bison wants to take his place; says he will find her with her children where rose hips grow; she and her sons become bison, leave with others; the bird says that the traces of his wife and sons will be red; the young man finds his wife and sons; wins the Big Bison duel, returns his wife and children ]: Anderson 1940:121-126; skidy pawnee: Dorsey 1904b, No. 3 [trying to catch up with a lark, a young man falls into the ground; dungeon dwellers give him corn seeds, teach him agriculture and ritual songs; A young lark accompanies the hero home, followed by bisons to the ground], 35-36 [a poor young man turns into a grizzly, kills an evil leader; the spirit of the killed man turns into a white crow, hides buffalo; a young man turns into a dead deer; catches the Raven with a web provided by the Spider; the Raven tries to fly away, he burns it; the bison returns]: 20-23, 138-147; Kiowa [the white Raven hides the animals under the ground; Sendeh sends an Owl and a Dragonfly to explore (their eyes have been bulging out ever since); turns into a puppy, Raven's daughter picks him up; he opens the flint door, drives the buffalo to the ground; turns into burdock, sticks to the bison's hair, the Raven does not find it; turns into a dead moose; the raven goes down to peck at it, sandwiched between its ribs, thrown into the fire, turns black]: Parsons 1929a, No. 9:21-26; Comanche [The Hunchback keeps the buffalo locked; the Coyote turns into a killdeer bird with a broken wing; the Hunchback tells his son to throw it away; then the Coyote turns into a puppy, the Hunchback allows him to be taken; night; Coyote releases bison]: WEB ([email protected]); wichita: Dorsey 1904a, No. 27 [see H19 motif; the bisons are gone; the Coyote turns into a puppy, picked up by the Raven's children; he opens the stone door, the bison comes out of the hill], 60 [disabled boy asks to be made beautiful and strong; two women bring him inside the mountain; there are all kinds of animals and birds (apparently in the guise of humans or half-humans); tell him to return to the village at night, keep silent about where he was, take care chastity; he breaks all three prohibitions, is crippled again]: 191-194, 310-314; tonkawa [the owner keeps all the buffalo outside the door (in the hill?) ; The coyote turns into a puppy, the kids pick him up; at night he opens the door; the bison goes on the ground]: Hoijer 1972, No. 13:44-46.

Southeast USA. Yuchi [a man keeps animals in a cave; his two sons let them out]; chirokee: Kilpatrick, Kilpatrick 1966 [two brothers who did not yet know women see two girls dancing in beautiful black suede clothes; they go with them to the mountains; they open the door to the rock; there are a lot of people there; they are small people, but deer at the same time; the girls' father promises to give them away if the boys win the race ( it is further said about one young man); the girls' father is Thunder; he gives reindeer clothes; seven rivals run successively onto the path, the young man butts with them, six wins, the last biggest he loses, so he cannot get wives; Thunder helped him win and let him lose because it was too early for him to marry; at home, the young man participating in the competition is ill for a long time; then a woman comes to him with his son and daughter, they call him father; one day he tells his mother who his wife and children are; they immediately turn into deer and run away]: 84-91; 1966, No. 5 [deer live in a cave; father punishes sons, sending mosquitoes, flies, fleas, lice on them; then cleans them with rain]: 389-390; Mooney 1900, No. 3 [son of Kana 'ti ("lucky hunting") and his wife Selu ("corn") with someone plays by the river; says that a boy comes out of the water, saying that his cruel mother threw him into the water; S. realizes that he came from blood when she washed meat; parents ask their son to grab Wild, they run up; he can't get used to the house for a long time; the Wild turns into a feather, sits on K.'s shoulder, finds out where K. gets his arrow reeds, which kills deer by pulling them out of a hole in the mountain; brothers release deer and commercial other animals and birds, Wild hits the last deer, since then the deer tail has been lifted up; K. breaks vessels with mosquitoes, bugs, fleas, lice, they have bitten brothers; it has been difficult to hunt since then; brothers are watching the mother; she rubs her stomach, corn is pouring in, her armpits are pouring beans; brothers want to kill her mother; she tells her body to be dragged seven times in a circle; corn will grow ; they've cleared only seven small areas, so corn doesn't grow everywhere; K. sees his wife's head, goes to the Wolves, sends them to "play ball" against the brothers; they lure the Wolves inside the palisade they kill with arrows; after rolling their hoop at sunrise, the brothers find K.; he warns them of dangers; they are not touched by a cougar; cannibals try to cook them, they destroy them with lightning; the sky beats against the ground; they They slip to the other side, find K. and S.; they send them west; they are Little People, their voices are a distant thunder]: 242-248; biloxi [man finds deer skin; Deer women ask for it back; agree to marry him if he returns it to them; he descends with them to the lower world through a hole in the ground; he gets a deer skin himself, climbs to the ground in the form of a deer; is wounded by hunters; the Chief of the Deer sends him back to people, gives him amulets; he becomes a successful hunter]: Dorsey, Swanton 1912, No. 27:83-84; Natchez: Swanton 1929, No. 6 [the boy asks his father to make him more arrows; admits that plays with another; together with his father they catch Wild; father warns of dangers; brothers transport an old woman across the river; she attaches herself to their backs; they have difficulty taking her off by dousing her with boiling water; they do a pipe from her nose; they bathe where the leeches are, they crush them; watches the father let the deer out of the hole in the mountain, kill them; they release all the deer and other game; the father brings the people to kill the brothers; they put a row of Ducks, then a row of Geese, Cranes, and Quails for protection, fill empty reeds with bumblebees, hornets, wasps; they sting attackers to death; brothers turn their father into a crow]: 227-230; choctaw [deer they take the hunter to their abode inside the mountain; a huge male is their leader; deer horns, skins, hooves hang on the walls or stacked on the cave floor; a person is given a kit, he becomes a deer; hunters catch Deer man, trying to skin him off, he dies]: Bushnell 1909:32; alabama [like a choctaw; hunters kill a deer man; he returns to the mountain, gets a new set of reindeer decorations] : Swanton 1929, No. 11:126

California. Wailaki [every time people try to track down a white wolf, he disappears; finally, they find a way under a rock, enter a large house; an old man lies on the floor, women and girls sit around; people realize that they are in an animal's home; they can't move to the exit until they're fed; on the way back they hear a wolf howl; every time someone falls dead; only one gets home]: Curtis 1976 (14): 169; miwok [deer are gone; animal humans find them in a cave; try to kill a few but deer run away]: Gifford 1917, No. 8:314-318; tubatulabal [The wolf comes to the Master's Cave]: Gifford 1917, No. 8:314-318; tubatulabal [The Wolf comes to the Master's Cave Deer; asks him to climb a pine tree for nuts; raises animals]: Voegelin 1935, No. 1:193-195; kawaiisa [a person enters a cave, sees many deer there; deer killed by hunters come here; he is given some food, but it is impossible to eat it all; he returns a year later in a different way than the one he got inside the mountain]: Zigmond 1980, No. 53A [the man is sick; a friend lowers him, hanging a net in a deep well; Yavera gives him medicine; a man walks past a huge rattlesnake and a bear; receives ritual songs; people then hear them from him for the first time; the person recovers] 53B [the entrance to the cave is blocked by stones that close and then diverge; a person slips through an opening; he is greeted by two old deer; he receives a chant to treat the disease; tells his story before the end of three days; killed by a bear], 53C [as in A], 53D [few details; a man enters a cave, brings home good luck drugs]: 175-179.

Big Pool. A person enters the cave of the owner of deer, bison or mountain sheep. Northern Payutes; Western Shoshones; Utah.

The Great Southwest. A person enters the cave of the owner of deer, bison or mountain sheep. Yavapai; jicarilla; Western Apaches; Chiricahua; Lipan; Pima; Navajo [poor Nachinesani boy goes looking for a missing pet turkey; Piniltani tells his daughter to greet her son-in-law ; smokes a pipe four times, each time he loses consciousness, N. treats him; N. gives poisoned food, he eats from the other end or does not eat at all; the wind warns him of danger; his wife shows N. four underground caves (each like a separate world), where P. keeps deer and other ungulates; P. asks him to go with him to catch four runaway deer; tells him to be in ambush; N. climbs a rock, P. drives him out four bears at him, N. kills them, P. is upset, transforms into a snake, waiting for N., he recognizes him; P. leads N. against enemies, lets 12 bears at him, N. kills them; P. says that the place is called the Ridge of the Burnt Mocassins; both put mocassins under their heads; N. replaces them, P. burns his own; the next day his wife brings him new ones; P. tells N. not to go east; he goes he is greeted by a bird-man; he enters the house of Chief Pum, Blue Foxes, Yellow Foxes, Wolves and Lynx; he says that N. is P.'s first surviving son-in-law; P.'s wife is his daughter, he kills her suitors; N. antidote; the episode repeats itself with a trip to the south, west, north; N. tells P. that he knows everything about him; he agrees, but promises that he will not try to kill N., that he has gained new knowledge; N. makes the first feather ceremony; returning to people, Navajo teaches it]: Matthews 1994:175-194; Hopi [the winged dragon brings the young man and his sister to the underground bison dwelling; wearing skins, local people take on the form of animals]: Stephens 1929, No. 12:27.

NW Mexico. Yaki [a person who hits a snake ends up in a village where animals look like human]: Giddings 1959:28-29; Tarahumara [the deer owner lives inside the mountain]: Lumholtz 1902 (1): 309; tepecano: Bierhorst 1990:123- 124.

Mesoamerica Totonaki [the hunter hunted with his son, was lucky, but the son took the meat to his mistress; the Animal Master was insulted, the game was gone; he took the hunter's dog to look for it and come to him inside the mountain; there is a door in the mountain, inside the corral, the Master tells the hunter to treat the animals; after curing the wild pig, the hunter went out with the dog and met a lot of game]: Arenas 2000:196-197; popoka, Nahuatl Veracruz: Münch 1983b: 372-373; Sierra Popoluca [chaneko dwarfs about a meter tall, usually white or red, without clothes, hide deer in mountain caves for the night; deer are their cattle; punish the hunter, hiding his soul under the mountain if he kills too many or injures deer]: Foster 1945a: 181; Nahuatl: Bierhorst 1990:123-124; Nahua (Huasteca Province, Hidalgo) [A farmer grows beans, a deer eats it, he injures a deer; finds two women stealing beans in the field; they agree to pay in kind, lead him to a cave, where they turn into deer, force him to treat an injured male deer; through Lemon brings him a few months of squirrel; with its juice he heals deer's wounds; he is let go home; now he always leaves food to the animals]: Stiles 1984:89-90; mountain guards [dwarfs take care of deer, force the hunter to treat injured animals]: Foster 1945a, No. 8:181, 200-201; chontal [after going for firewood, the young man loses his way, goes down; birds and animals prepare for the holiday; the owners - old man and old woman; guest seat - battleship; boy returns home]: Vasquez Davila, Hipolito Hernández 1994:158-159; itza [hunter kills many deer; injures a large one, on a bloody trail comes to the cave; there the old man feeds him meat; shows the deer he wounded; tells him to close his eyes; when the hunter opens his eyes, he is at the foot of the mountain, the cave is not visible; his wife and children say that he was gone for three months]: Hofling 1991, No. 15:136-153; Tsotzil: Guiteras-Holmes 196:157; Chinantecs: Weitlaner, Castro Guevara 1954:110-113; juice: Paredes 1970, No. 2 [the hunter's dog disappears into the hole an battleship; a man approaches the hunter and asks him to close his eyes; when he opens it, he finds himself in a house full of deer and other animals; the man explains that they took his dog because it brought animals are harmed a lot; the hunter recognizes an acquaintance of the deceased, now he heals injured animals; elsewhere he sees locals frying and eating human buttocks; the hunter is reluctant to let go, but without a dog; he had been away from home for three days, he thought it took him a few minutes; he had to be baptized again, only then was he able to tell the story]: 5-7; Wonderly 1993, No. 12 (Copainalá, Chiapas) [people find a cave with traces of animals - deer, tepescuintle, etc.; their owner probably lived in the depths of the cave; when people left, the cave hole closed]: 20; mom [three brothers go hunting; the shaman warns them not to sleep with their wives for four days; the youngest, Juan, violates the ban; stalks and injures a deer, who turns into a ten-year-old boy; this is the Master of the Mountain; H. opens his eyes, it turns out inside the mountain; around deer, cougars, snakes; Master releases H., ordering him not to break the ban anymore]: Wagley 1954:57; 1957:186-188; chooh [the hunter enters the cave; there lies the Animal Master in the hammock; warns the hunter not to suffer injured animals]: Kunst 1915, No. 2:354-355; Jacaltecs [animals inside the hill (not anthropomorphic)]: La Farge, Byers 1931:131- 133; ishili [wild pigs ruin the garden; their owner offers compensation, the peasant does not want to; finds himself under the mountain, sees pigs returning; released home]: Colby, Colby 1981:175-176; tocholabal: Ruz 1983:434-435; kekchi, mopan: Thompson 1930:140-142; Lenka [the animal owner keeps his herds in a cave; heals the wounded; punishes hunters who kill too many animals; the hunter enters the cave, He sees fields with crops there; the owner feeds him, tells him not to talk about what he saw; sometimes helps hunters meet deer]: Chapman 1986 (2): 143-147.

Honduras-Panama. Hikake: Chapman 1982:62 [Our Master lives underground with his father-in-law, Master Bakers], 135-138 [Master Bakers releases bakers into the forest for the hot season from December to April; keeps the rest of the time in an underground cave]; bag [chasing a herd of wild pigs, the hunter enters the cave; animal owners let him go]: Conzemius 1932:165-167; Houwald, Rener 1987 (1) [he dies, after talking about what he saw]: 18-20; 1987 (4) [returns and becomes the owner of the animals himself]: 8; Boruca: Pittier de Fabrega 1903, No. 6 [the man came to the owner of the animals (apparently inside the mountain); he punished him because he did not hunt well, wounded many animals; forced the wounded to heal; after releasing him, allowing many animals to be shot; this man told others that animals should not be injured]: 7-8; Stone 1949 [ Sukia is an animal owner living on a mountain south of Boruca]: 25; bribri: Bozzoli 1977 [animal owners live inside mountains or large lakes; two hunters injure tapir; thunder leads them to the Master Animals; kills a huge snake with lightning, calls it quetzal; the Animal Master tells the hunters to treat the wounded tapir; returning home, one of the hunters talks about what happened to them; dies]: 88- 90; Bozzoli, Cubero Venegas 1983 [without an episode of healing the wounded]: 6; Pittier de Fabrega 1903, No. 5:6-7; Stone 1962 [the hunter injures the tapir, the animal owner brings the hunter to him (into the depths of the lake?) , makes a shaman, forbids injuring animals]: 64; kuna: Chapin 1989 [shaman visits underground feces; sees wild pigs in one, tapirs in the other, fish in the third; each has its own owner]: 140-143 , 156; Diaz Granados 1974 [God keeps animals and birds in an underground receptacle (kalu); if humans behave well, he releases animals into the world]: 212.

The Northern Andes. Guajiro: Wilbert, Simoneau 1986 (2), No. 12 [a successful deer hunter doesn't find game for many days; chasing a wounded deer, he falls into the ground; there are many girls - deer, foxes, rabbits; if the hunter eats something, becomes a male animal; their owner is Pulowi; the hunter chews tobacco, P. is afraid of the smell, the girls turn into animals; P. tells the hunter to remove arrows from the wounded the deer is her maternal uncle; she returns the hunter to the ground, forbiding him to talk about what she saw; sends him a deer every day; one day he returns to P. with his wife and children, sometimes taking the image deer], 13 [the hunter loses luck; chasing an injured deer, enters the lower world through a tree; the deer turns into a person; there are many people around; the hunter is fed; raped; he returns to earth, sees A dead deer, brings home]: 514-518, 519-521; Yupa: Villamañan 1982, No. 8 [spirits in underground caves take care of forest animals; the people they abduct then become shamans]: 15: Wilbert 1974, No. 29 [(for excessive hunting?) the hunter turned into a wild boar - the owner of a herd of wild pigs]: 116.

Southern Venezuela. Piaroa [animal dwellings in the underworld; animal owner not mentioned]: Boglar 1977, No. 2, 7:234, 249.

Guiana. Oyana [a giant battleship's burrow leads from our world to the lower world, where bakers live]: Magaña 1987:31.

Western Amazon. Kofan: Borman, Criollo 1990, No. 7 [no one shares meat with a loser hunter; he follows the bakers into the hole where they hide; enters the lower world; some creatures live there (translated as" tricksters"); the main penis is wrapped around his neck; he tells the man to bring pumpkins and sweet potatoes, he sees battleships and worms; after the "trickster" gives him a drink in which he dipped his fingernail, a person sees pumpkins and sweet potatoes; a "trickster" kills bakers; a person eats meat, and the owner only smells and throws it away; a person goes to relieve himself; "tricksters" smell, smear themselves with feces;" trickster" sends a person back, giving a tool to lure bakers; at first, a piece of it says so much that a person cannot crawl into the hole leading to the surface of the earth; some have to be cut off; bakers follow the person; people shoot them, the person is unhappy: why they kill the cubs; the other person also wanted this tool; both came down; the chief "trickster" asks others what they will become ( stone, flint, rock); tells people to move away; the first hunter leaves, the second does not, the house turns over, turns into stone; in the spring he turns back, but that man has long died; the first returns, reports this to his wife; the bakers stayed in the pen outside this man's house; after his death they went to the forest]: 75-105; Calífano, Gonzalo 1995, No. 75 [a loser hunter follows a herd of wild pigs, becomes one of them; through a hole he descends with them to the lower world; their owners live there Kuankua; a person spends a year there; k. has no anuses, they feed on the smell of cooked meat; man defecates, k. enjoy the aroma; k. wrap their penises around the waist; penises crawl them into women's vaginas; a person becomes a baby, women bathe him, put pain on the penis; k. and man they turn into colored stones with them, then regain their former appearance], 76 [starting as in (75); a person is frightened to see him smear his home with crap; returns to earth; wild pigs they give him a horn; he blows, they all come running, they destroy his house; he throws his horn away; now wild pigs live in our world], 77 [starting at (75); after a few days in the lower world, man comes back; first asks for a big horn, blows, many pigs get stuck in the aisle; blows into a small one, pigs take turns running out into our world; now they live on the ground]: 134-136, 136-137, 137-138; sekoya [animal owner brings the hunter to his cave, where animals look like people]: Cipolletti 1988, No. 11b: 95-96; Mayhuna [after falling from a tree, the hunter falls into the ground; wild pigs live there (including in human form); pigs come out to the ground from there]: Bellier 1991b, No. 26:266-271.

NW Amazon. See motive H19. An old woman keeps wild pigs in an underground tank in her garden; four brothers release them into the forest; the letuama [the community animal house is inside a stone mountain]: Palma 1984:189; yukuna [into the cold in May-June, forest animals descend to the lower world to their original ancestors, entities, participate in rituals there; the hero visits them; returns to earth, incarnating as the fruit of umari; the fetus falls from wood, turning into humans]: 95-120; letuama; ufaina; yukuna; maku [deer, tapirs live inside the hills under the supervision of an animal owner; fish in pools under the supervision of their owner]: Silverwood-Cope 1972:254-255; desana [like a poppy; animals in their monasteries take the form of humans; a shaman takes several to be the prey of hunters; the same number of people will die for this]: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1971:80- 81; 1975:84-85; 197:165-170; 1981:79; Okaina [Fahairama (big spider wasp) meets two Muiroñókaha sisters (from "muyro", a species of bird, beautiful); they compete in magical power; y F. is a tuh-helper (this is the tapaka spirit); the sisters hide all the animals in an underground tank; first F. returns from hunting without prey; next time, the assistant spirit tells him where the animals, F. releases them; sisters slam the door shut, F. can't go out; he leaves his sewage on the floor; a year later, the sisters fumble with a stick, find crap, think F. is dead and rotted; they open the door, F. jumps out, locks themselves; leaves, sees the fishermen, insists that he be allowed to catch the biggest fish, she swallows it, the fishermen take F. out of its womb; F. wants to eat this fish, they put another smaller one on him; he does not believes that she swallowed it, wants it to be given more, eats it (he has been starving for a year); wanders on, climbs the Ficus anthelmintica fruit tree, leaving a weapon and a handbag with shamanic accessories; the tree grows tall, it cannot get off; in the morning, Yomanahima, son of Ko:Ma:ndio, who lived at sunrise, came for fruit in the form of a monkey; F. asked for help to go down, J. went to his father, who gave him two peppers, ordered him to chew, saliva; F. had no saliva; then he chewed J., saliva went down to the ground, turned into a vine, both went down; F. gave J. cotton as a reward , told me to put it on the body, now these monkeys have beautiful gold-colored fur]: Blixen 1999, No. 4:63-85.

Eastern Amazon. Spiking [Kumãφári sent his young son to the people to ask for fruit; they replied that K. should come by himself; K. became angry and scattered the feathers of four mutum birds around the village; it blew at night, the village turned into a rock, and people into wild pigs; feathers around the village, people turn into wild pigs; in the morning he took his son to hunt; opened the rock, throwing three seeds, the pigs came out, he killed as much as needed; one day, in K.'s absence, his cousin (Vetter) came; K.'s son warned him to throw only three seeds, he threw down a whole bunch; many pigs cut down a palm tree, where K.'s relative and son hid, both killed, ran away; K. revived both of the drops of blood, told the relative to be the owner of wild pigs now, turned them into a wild boar; now he is a little man who rides a boar, rules the herd]: Nimuendaju 1920:1013-1014.

The Central Andes. Ocongate (prov. Kispicanchis, dep. Cusco) [when the first ancestors died, the animals disappeared underground; after a new sunrise, all animals came out of their springs]: Gow, Gow 1975:142-143.

Montagna - Jurua. Chayahuita [through the battleship's hole, a person enters the underworld; there he sees wild pigs in the pen; some run away, enter our world where people hunt them]: García Tomas 1994 (3): 126-127; kashibo [the owner of wild pigs lives inside the mountain and the tapir owner is at its foot; wild pigs come out of a hole on the mountainside]: Estrella Odicio 1977, No. 2:48; kulina [the souls of the dead descend into the underworld, bakers are eaten there, they turn into bakers themselves; these baker spirits come out into our world, they are killed by hunters, people eat them]: Lorrain 2000:296; pyro [(written by the author); lower world - "Small The river"; the man was chased by a herd of bakers, they disappeared into the hole, he followed them, the hole closed, he came to the lower world; there were bakers in the woman's pen; she scolded the man for causing bakers suffering, not killing them, but only injuring them; took arrows out of their wounds; a month later, the Grand Battleship said that he was about to go to the ground; the man begged him to take him with him; at home he talked about what he saw]: Opas 2008:148-149 (Spanish text at p. 338-339), 158 [only bakers have a mother because they are social and live in herds]; characterbet [people make a sleeping platform, go hunting; sick woman sees enemies trying on the platform to find out how many to kill; tells returning hunters that only her brother believes her; at night, people repel the attack, enemies turn out to be wild pigs; hunters go a bloody trail to a cave where all animals live like humans]: Helberg Chávez 1996:83-87.

Bolivia - Guaporé. Takana: Hissink, Hahn 1961 [the master of the underworld and its animals is a battleship], No. 40 [each animal species has its own home in the underworld; shamans enter it], 68 [in case of excessive hunting the anthropomorphic owner of animals takes them to the underworld], 220 [see motive I14; the battleship drags a person to the lower world; dwarfs live there without anuses; either the Battleship itself or these Idsetti Deha are the hosts wild pigs whose herds live there], 222 [in the lower world, dwarfs eat the smell of food; two people entered the battleship's hole; there are many wild pigs, bakers, tapirs; wasps the size of a hummingbird, People and animals die from their bites; animals come to our land on salt marshes; and come back]: 87, 188-189, 351, 354-355; Ottaviano 1980 [there are many wild pigs in the lower world; once disappeared in the woods, shamans lured them back with coca, tobacco, and chicha]: 25-29.

Araguaia. Karazha [carazha hunted pigs and caught them to holes, holes; began to dig, taking out pigs; found tapir, then deer, then white deer, then human legs; schaman pulled Anatiué (Baldus: Ehrenreich is called Naxivé); he has a long body and a thick stomach; he began to demand tobacco for smoking, got high to the point of insensitivity, began singing again in the village; people fled; A. turned into a huge piranha, carried calebasses with water, smashed one by one, water flooded the ground; people hid on two mountains; A. ordered the fish to overturn the mountain, only a few carages escaped]: Ehrenreich 1891, No. 5:40-41 (=Baldus 1937:202-203).

Eastern Brazil. Wild pigs, bakers live underground; go to the ground through a hole; digging up the battleship's holes, people fall into the lower world; they return. Crash: Wilbert 1978, No. 24 [Schultz 1950:160-162; a hunter and his wife's brother climb into the battleship's hole, fall into the lower world when they fall on a buriti palm tree; tell her to bend down; bakers live in a herd, they become themselves bakers have grown their hair; bakers take them to the ground their usual way; relatives meet them in the village (apparently both hunters are returning to human form); people have found out where the bakers come from, and were no longer short of meat], 25 [Chiara 1962:350-351; the hunter fell into the battleship's hole; fell on a palm tree; the monkey called the bakers, who told the palm tree to bend down; in February, when the bakers appear, they brought the man to the ground; people did not see bakers before, they hunted them; when a man told the baker chief that he was going to kill him, he fell ill and died]: 96-98, 99-101; apinaye [ Nimuendaju 1939:175; there is another beautiful world below our world, from where wild pigs come to earth; once a hunter climbed into a hole for a battleship, fell into the lower world; his companion spoke about this in village; four days later, a shaman took the man back along the wild pig road]: Wilbert 1978, No. 27:104.

SE Brazil. Botokudo [man died; wild pigs brought him out of the underworld then left]: Nimuendaju 1946b: 107.

Chaco. Matako [the hunter's dog disappears in the cave; he comes for it; the Animal Master gives it away but promises that all his dogs will die; this is how he punishes the young man for his excessive hunting]: Calífano 1974:45.