Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I35. Thunder is the skin of an animal.


Thunder produces the skin of an animal or (rarely) a person being dragged, or clothes that are dragged or shaken out.

Kamba, Loma, Sanye, (Kanikkar), Baiga, Juang, Ancient Greece, Abkhazians, Nogais, Armenians, Turkmens, Tajiks, Yagnobs, Ishkashim, Vakhans, Turkmens (Tekins, Yomuds), Kazakhs (Cheese- Daria), Uighurs (Yarkand), Chukchi, Asian Eskimos, Nuniwak, Kodiak, Northern Alaska Inupiate (Noatak, Point Parrow), Caribou, Netsilic, (Polar), Baffin Land, West Greenland, Labrador Eskimos, pomo, mountain mivok, botokudo.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Kamba [when thunder rattles in the distance, it is said that "the name's father knocks out a goatskin" (to make clothes for his wife)]: Lindblom 1920:334.

West Africa. Scrap [thunder - heavenly inhabitants drag their dried animal skin]: Schwab 1947:410.

Sudan - East Africa. Sanye [God produces thunder by running across the clouds and shaking the dried skin of a large animal; lightning is the glitter of jewelry in the arms of God's wife]: Barrett 1911:36.

South Asia. Baiga [Pandava wanted to know what was under the ground; asked Bhimsen to go down; they pulled him down the rope for 8 nights and 9 days; they cut off the rope out of mischief, Bhimsen fell; the old cobra gave he has a lightning horse, he has returned on it, he still jumps; when Bhagavan wants to send rain, he sends Bhimsen; he drags a bag of rat skin filled with water; his skin scratches against the air, producing thunder]: Elwin 1939:336-337; juang [thunder: The Pandawa brothers play with a piece of dried cowhide]: Elwin 1954, no. V. 5:68; (cf. kanikkar [a demon sews stones into a bag and hits the bag against a tree]: Iyer, 55 in Elwin 1949:89).

The Balkans. Ancient Greece ["Salmonei {son of Eolus, brother of Sisiphus and Athamant} first lived in the region of Thessaly, and later, when he arrived in Elis, he founded a city there. Being a daring man and wanting to catch up with Zeus himself, he was punished for his godless deeds: Salmoney said he was Zeus; he took the sacrifices made to Zeus for himself. Dragging dried skins along with copper jugs behind the chariot, he claimed to be producing thunder, and throwing lit torches into the sky he said he was throwing lightning. Zeus struck him with perun and destroyed the city he founded along with all its inhabitants" (trans. V.G. Borukhovich)]: Apollod. Bibl. I. 9. 7 (Apollodorus 1972:15).

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Abkhazians: Zukhba 1995 [the demon seduced the maiden, Abrskil was born; imagined himself a god; on his horse he rushed in the sky, cut clouds with a sword, carving lightning; filling dry cow skins with stones, tied them to the saddle, the stones collided, sounding like thunder; God told the angels to grab him; they greased their skins, put them on the shore, the horse slipped, A. fell; he was chained to an iron pole in a cave ; or the woodpecker pierced A.'s staff with its beak, with which he jumped from mountain to shore; he fell; every year A. almost pulls out a pole; a wagtail sits on him, A. tries to hit it with a hammer, a pole enters the ground]: 242-250; Inal-ipa 1977 [Atsan dwarfs were smarter than God; urinated towards the sky; let gases into sour milk, wiped themselves with cheese; imitating thunder, beat dried cow skin; to to find out their weak point, he lowered the child from the sky in a golden cradle; the Atsans raised him; told him that they would die if the cotton snow caught fire; the old man noticed that the goat's beard shook; fell out cotton snow, caught fire from lightning, the Atsans died; those who threw themselves into the water turned into lizards and frogs; those who hid in caves and hollows of trees turned into devils and snakes; (var.: the Atsans died from frost, from floods) ; once in the underworld, the Atsans drill the ground to get back, but what they drill in a day collapses again; (paraphrase in Stahl 1989:206)]: 164-169; Nogais [thunder - old woman turns filled leather bags]: Kapayev 2012:14; Armenians: Bagriy 1930 (3) (Shamakhi and Goychay Counties) [thunder is produced by an old woman who fills several buffalo skins with stones and runs with them over the wavy mountains of the sky; when it climbs the mountain, the stones fly out of these skins, and when they descend, they fall back into them]: 127; Lisitsyan 1992 (Nagorno-Karabakh, records of the 1920s) [thunder comes from an old woman filling a bag with stones and rolling it across the sky, and lightning is a sword (staff) in the hands of angels (God) with which they chase and smash the evil spirits of kowls; from blows This sword, demons try to hide underground or hide under high rocks and trees]: 170.

Iran - Central Asia. Turkmens: Atdayev 2020 [during the drought, people asked the ruler Tuis-Khatyn for help; a special water cloud lives at the heart of the cloud cluster; if a particle of this cloud is placed in the pumpkin vessel, all the other clouds will follow him; riding the wind horse, TX rushed into the sky; the lady of the clouds, old Mamaka, resisted and began to shake her thunder bag forcefully, causing lightning; TX asked the clouds for rain and, having given people water, could not return (Mary Velayat, recorded in 2017); when there is calm silence before the rain, they say:" It is Tuis-Khatyn who freezes, homesick"; if a humid wind starts to blow out, they say: "Tuis-Khatyn rides a wind horse and carries rain clouds"; TH is also known as Tyuytatyn: "They flow from the sky Burkut's showers, /Old Mamak shakes her bag./Tyutatyn brings us a cloud, /She is followed by a thousand clouds"; Mamak's grandmother is the patron saint of the clouds; she hits a huge leather bag of sanach and Rain shakes it out; at the first drops of rain, adults frightened children: "Hide at home, or Mamaka will put you in a bag and take you to heaven"]: 90-91, 93; Tolstov 1931 [beliefs about origin Tekin Turkmens have mushrooms from being slaughtered out]: 339; Turkmens (yomuds) [the thunder comes from the fact that an old woman tears her fur coat]: Tolstov 1931:339; Tajiks: Antonova, Chvyr 1983 (Namangan region) [Osman-Bobo (Father Sky) sometimes washes his fur coat on the shore of a heavenly lake; washing his fur makes a terrible rumble (thunder), splashes (rain) fly around; lightning is the light he "turns on" to find naughty children]: 31; Tolstov 1931 (Matcha) [when thunder strikes, they say that Forefather Adam "shook his fur coat"]: 339; Ishkashim, Wakhans [thunder is attributed to an old woman living in heaven who shakes out her underwear pants]: Andreev, Polovtsov 1911:35; Yagnobs [in Yagnob and some other places, when thunder strikes, say that "the power of God shook his fur coat"]: Tolstov 1931:339; mountain Tajiks, Yagnobs [in the upper reaches of Pyanj, in the upper reaches of Zeravshan and elsewhere, thunder is made by shaking out trousers; in Match and Yagnob, Grandma knocking out trousers on lice fly the ground, which cause a lot of mushrooms to grow after spring thunderstorms]: Tolstov 1931:339.

Turkestan. Kazakhs (?) [among the Turkic tribes, there are traces of the idea of thunder in the form of an old woman shaking out a leather bag; in the Turkestan region, you can see children running away from the thunder they hear and screaming m āmā sanách īny k and k you, "grandmother shook out her leather bag"]: Andreev, Polovtsov 1911:35; Uighurs (Yarkand) [Jalmouz-Kempir shakes his naked fur coat, making a loud noise (thunder); genies who are tired of this start throwing hot coals (lightning) at her, causing the fur coat to smolder; wanting to put it out, DK pours water (rain)]: Tolstov 1931:339.

SV Asia. Chukchi [lightning is a half man who drags his half sister intoxicated by a fly agaric by the leg; thunder is a gnashing from a dragging body, rain is his sister's urine]: Bogoras 1902, No. 19:628 (=Bogoras 1907:323).

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos [the idea that thunder is produced by two girls playing with a spread seal skin, and that rain is one of them's urine, is well known to the Chukchi, but I think it is borrowed from Asian Eskimos, who have a similar story]: Bogoras 1902, No. 19:628; (cf. Kodiak [two poor girls were walking and begging, everyone was tired; they flew away, became thunder and lightning]: Lantis 1938:135); Nunivak Island [two girls had their periods; lightning lifted them to the sky, gave a hard skin, told them to produce thunder; they ran, dragging their skin and thunder with them; shook it, causing a lot of lightning; then they began to write, it began to rain on the ground; so when it starts to rain, the thunderstorm stops]: Lantis 1946, No. 3:269; Northern Alaska Inupiate: Hall 1975, No. PM158 (Noatak) [boy and girl play and fight noisily; father scolds them, tells them to play outside; they climb into dry seal skin, take fat with them; the skin lifts them into the air; when they touch the skin, thunder thunders; lightning - falling drops of burning seal fat; oil outlets at Cape Barrow where the drops fell to the ground]: 390-391; Simpson 1875 (Point Barrow) [Thunder and his family live far north; he almost always sleeps, and when he wakes up, he is in a bad mood and tells his own children produce thunder and lightning by shaking their puffed seal skins and waving torches; they do so until their father falls asleep again]: 274; caribou: Boas 1901b (West Coast of Hudson Bay) [The thunderstorm is produced by three sisters: Kadlu (produces thunder), Ignirtoq (lightning), and a third, whose name is forgotten (rain); during a thunderstorm, women take each piece of white sealskin stuck in it with a needle and a piece of walrus bone; these items are placed far from the village; sisters take them and use them to produce thunder]: 146; Rasmussen 1930b [brother and sister steal caribou skin and flint; fear punishments; reject turning into caribou, wolves, foxes and other animals, because people can kill them; turn into thunder and lightning - one rattles with dry skin, the other carves sparks with flint]: 80; netsilic [brother and sister are poor orphans; they find flint and a piece of caribou skin on a heap of garbage; sister offers options to become, brother rejects them; caribou: we are cared for; seals: us they will tear; this is how they reject all animals, decide to become Thunder and Lightning; sister produces lightning with flint, brother thunder, drumming their skin; killing those who were cruel to them]: Rasmussen 1935 [abridged variant]: 181; Rasmussen 1931:210, 277-379; Baffin's Land [three sisters with black faces, naked, cause lightning, thunder and rain; Ingnirtung hits flints against each other, carving sparks; Kadlu causes thunder when she shakes seal skin and sings; third sister pees, causing rain; dried seal skins for K. are made by Kaki'joq women who live on the mainland and have tattooed circles around the eyes]: Boas 1964:192; (cf. polar Eskimos [two var.: a girl and her younger brother are playing noisily; stepfather sends them away to play; they find flint and a piece of caribou skin; the boy wants to come back, the girl reminds him stepfather's words; the boy offers to become a seal, walrus, white whale, bear, caribou, musk ox, hare, fox, lahtak; cannot do it; offers to become thunder; the girl turns into lightning boy in the thunder; they pee as they go up to the sky, it causes a downpour; their mother calls her son to suck milk, but it's too late]: Holtved 1951, No. 5:40-50); West Greenland [when two old women are in the house on the sky is quarreling over the thick and stiff seal skin, blows to it with thunder; everything in the house falls and flies, the sparks from broken fat are lightning]: Egede 1818:211; (cf. Labrador Eskimos: Hawkes 1916 [when the spirit in the north blows, a blizzard breaks out; spirits from the east and west bring summer; female spirits live in the south, send flowers and summer rain, which they keep in bags; when you run across the sky, you can hear thunder, and splashing water is rain]: 153; Turner 1894 [clouds are wineskins with water; two old women run with them across the sky, water oozes from the seams, falls in rain; thunder is theirs voices, lightning - torches in their hands]: 267).

California. Pomo (coastal central pomo) [there was no sea; Coyote wanted to drink, uprooted one of the marsh plants, the water poured, the sea filled up, stopping where the Coyote was; Coyote: sometimes there will be low tide so that people can collect what they need on the littoral; when I went to the place where I was going to set up a steam room, I found ready-made poles there and only told them to stand; he stuck them in the ground around the steam room black feathers, they have turned into people; because of the color of the feathers, the Indians are now dark; the Coyote had a party, but they hadn't shared food with him for a whole month; so he decided to burn the world; smeared tar everywhere and set fire, rose to heaven himself with fog; then, to extinguish the fire, he flooded the ground with a flood; it rained for four days, four days later the water came down; the Coyote made new people also from black feathers, but in the middle open area; Coyote taught people to collect shellfish and people laughed at him; then he created waves at sea that did not exist before, but did not allow them to fill the land; put four people on each side telling them to blow light are four-way winds; Coyote told the thunder to rattle in the rain; people still did not believe the Coyote, so he turned them into rabbits, gophers, birds; he told the birds put the sun in the sky; to do this, he organized a competition; the vulture was the fastest and raised the sun; for this, people gave the vulture a basket of beads; then the Coyote created stars and then the moon that grows acorns; there are four pillars near the ground; at the southern pillar, the Coyote put Kuks and his wife to the Kuks woman; shamans will address them; at the northern pillar, Coyote put the Wind Man, gave him a crosshair like blades mills; at first he blew so much that everything was demolished, hills formed on the previously flat ground; at the eastern pillar, Coyote placed the Fire Man responsible for daylight and heat; with him Man Day and Woman day; Coyote put Water Man at the western pillar; in the middle of the world, Coyote put Thunder Man; he produces thunder when he drags deer skin; then Coyote created villages and He put a black feather on everyone; after that, the villages were filled with people; Coyote gave names to all edible plants; when there is plenty of food, let people dance; after that, no one else saw the Coyote]: Loeb 1926c, No. 1:475-484; mountain mivok [The bear invites her sister Olenikha to collect clover; offers to look in her head, gnaws through her neck, eats it, brings the liver to the bottom of the basket; the youngest of the two The reindeer sisters find the liver under the clover; the sisters leave the basket and awls to answer for them, run away; their grandfather is Long-legged (crane?) stretches out his leg; the Bear falls into the river, but continues to pursue; another grandfather, Olenyat, the Lizard, invites the Bear to climb onto the roof of his house, open her mouth and close her eyes, throws two in her mouth hot stones; she falls, dies; the lizard took off her skin, cut it in half, gave most of it to her older sister, the deer, the younger; the girls began to run, dragging these pieces that produced thunder; a lizard sent them to heaven, they're Thunder]: Gifford 1917: No. 2:286-292.

(Wed. Bolivia - Guaporé. Siriono [one of three explanations for thunder: A month pulls bamboo across the sky]: Holmberg 1969:119).

SE Brazil. Botokudo [Tarú (Sky), he has a daughter and son-in-law; T. had otter skin; if you hang it on a tree, it is good to pick Lecythis ollaria nuts; the son-in-law asked for permission to take it with you to the forest; T. ordered to clear the area around him well; his son-in-law cleared badly; began to throw nuts from the tree, the skin began to beat against the tree, causing thunder; it began to rain, flood; Maret (this is the common name spirits) sheltered his son-in-law in the sky; otter skin is also in the sky, if it moves, a thunderstorm occurs; after that, the sky has moved away from the ground]: Nimuendaju 1946b: 110-111.