Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I35A1a. An insult to deity. .

The character considers himself equal to a deity, imitating him, mocking him, or trying to kill him.

Latins, (Kannada), Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Slovaks, Belarusians, (Eastern Ukrainians), Abkhazians, Abazins, Ossetians, Ingush, Chechens, Georgians, Swedes, Finns, Lithuanians, (Estonians).

Southern Europe. Latins [Roman Antiquities by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1st century BC): "Following Agrippa, power was held for nineteen years by Allodius {king of Alba Longa, also known as Arramulius Sylvius}, who was tyrannical and hated even by the gods. Despising everything divine, he ordered to make some imitations of lightning and mechanisms that made noises like thunders. They were used at his request to frighten people as if they were sent by a deity. When real rain and lightning hit his home, and the lake on the shore of which his house turned out to be standing magically overflowed its banks, Allodius drowned and died along with everyone else household members. And now, when a certain part of the lake shines through and the water subsides and the ripples settle, you can see fragments of colonnades and other ruins at the bottom" (trans. I.L. Mayak)]: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. I. 71.3; [The Historical Library by Diodorus of Sicily (1st century BC): About Silvia's Arramulia "it is said that he was arrogant throughout his life and also behaved arrogant and hostile against the powers of Zeus. Thus, during the (autumn) harvest, when frequent and severe thunders rattled, he ordered troops to hit shields (all together) on orders with swords and claimed that the roar produced in this way was stronger thunder itself. However, he was punished for his contempt for the gods, as he was struck by lightning and his house was completely immersed in Lake Alban. The Romans living by the lake still show, as evidence of this event, columns visible under water, standing in the depths at the very place where the royal palace was located" (trans. O.P. Tsybenko)]: Diod. Sic. VII. Fr. 5; Anon. De orig. gent. Rom. XVIII [the anonymous Origins of the Roman People, previously attributed to Sextus Aurelius Victor and compiled between 360 and 580: "After Tiberius Sylvia}, Aremulus Sylvius ruled after him {after Tiberius}, who is said to have been so arrogant not only towards humans but also towards gods that he claimed superiority over Jupiter himself and, when it rattled in the sky, ordered his soldiers to knock spears against shields and said he was making a louder noise. But he was immediately punished: he was struck by lightning and, picked up by a whirlwind, was thrown into Lake Alban, as described in Annals VI and Epitus of Pisa in Book II. Aufidius (a people's tribune of 114 BC, wrote history in Greek} in Epitomes and Domitius in book I claim that it is true that he was not struck by lightning, but fell into Lake Alban with his palace during an earthquake. After him, Aventine Sylvius ruled" (trans. V.S. Sokolova)].

Western Asia. Saudia [where the sands of Rub al-Khali are now, was the rich city of Ubar, known as Jennat ("paradise") 'Ad; it was ruled by a king who decided to go up to heaven and kill God; taking a supply of meat, he sat on an eagle and flew, holding a piece of meat in front of the eagle's beak, and thus provoking it to fly further; two months later it reached the sky; the angels said that God was lower; the king sent an eagle there, but it rushed so sharply that the king fell and fell for 20 years; only the skull reached the ground; it was covered with sand; many years later, a wolf settled in one eye socket and a gazelle in the other, and they did not know about each other; one day he drove up on a camel the man from Badawi and began to knock on the skull with a stick, trying whether it was a bone or a stone; the skull: do not hesitate; don't laugh; the man hurried to Solomon and talked about the talking skull; he promised to reward the man if what was said is true, and put him in prison if it is a lie; when Solomon knocked on his skull with a stick, he was silent; the man was thrown into prison; heard the voice of the skull: Didn't I warn you and not told you not to doubt or laugh at me; but Solomon felt sorry for the man; he called the birds and asked if they knew about the city of Umar; the last was an old eagle with feathers ; S. promised to rejuvenate him if he led him to the city; fulfilled his promise and the eagle led him to a sand-covered city; S. called for four winds and they freed the city from sand; seeing gold and gems, S. decided that treasures like this could seduce people and told the winds to fill the city again]: Taibah, MacDonald 2016:27-28.

South Asia. Kannada [the rich man demanded that people honor him, not Shiva; Shiva took the form of a hermit and began to walk around the city glorifying Shiva; he was beaten; then he became a double of a rich man, entered it the house in his absence and warned that a double deceiver had appeared in the city; if he showed up, he must be beaten; the real rich man was beaten and driven; at the trial of the elders, he could only say roughly how much money he had, and Shiva gave the exact amount; a little alive, the rich man came to Shiva's temple; that hermit came; the rich man was guilty of everything and was forgiven]: Ramanujan 1997, No. 59:163-166.

China - Korea. Ancient China [King Wu Yi (traditionally ruled 1198-1195 BC), one of the last evil rulers of the Shang Dynasty, makes a human figure, calling it the Spirit of Heaven (Tien Shen ), plays a game of checkers with him and wins. To show his contempt for him, he hangs a leather bag filled with blood, shoots arrows at him, saying that he is shooting Heaven. Shortly thereafter, the king was killed by lightning while hunting. Song Jun, the last king of the Song State, ruled by the descendants of the ruling Shang house under the Zhou Dynasty, also hangs a leather bag full of blood, shoots at him, saying he shoots him Sky. Shortly thereafter, in 282 BC, he was attacked by a coalition of other states, killed, and his state destroyed]: Bodde 1977:282.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece ["Catalog of Women" (6th century BC), attributed in ancient times to Hesiod and preserved as a series of passages on papyri: "... starry sky/... fast-footed horses/... copper tripods are also/... with a chariot of fast horse/... copper tripods also/... father of immortals and mortals/... under the yoke a chariot of fiery reflection/... on the land of tribes people/... But the father of immortals and mortals was filled with anger, /He thundered terribly from the star-filled sky, /Powerfully and for a long time, shaking the entire wide earth. /He rushed furiously Olympus and soon came /To the land of Salmoney the Mad, where people were already thinking/By the will of the contemptuous lord, to believe their deeds. /God struck them with thunder and burning lightning, /Kara brought down on an entire people for Vladyka's crime. /He betrayed his children, his wife, and his household members to death, /The hail and halls, having flooded with water, made them invisible. /Taking him himself, he threw a wide one into Tartar, -/Mortal in the future, so as not to dare Zeus the Lord. /The daughter, however, remained kind to the blessed immortal, /The Virgin Tyro is buxom, the appearance of a golden Aphrodite, /For she constantly resisted Salmoney,/ Being mortal, so as not to try to be equal to the gods. /That is why her father of immortals and mortals saved her" (trans. O. Tsybenko)]: Hes. Cat. Fr. 30 (MW) = 16 (Gasparov). 3-28; ["Salmoney {son of Aeola, brother of Sisyphus and Athamant} first lived in the region of Thessaly, and later, when he arrived in Elis, founded a city there. Being a daring man and wanting to catch up with Zeus himself, he was punished for his godless deeds: Salmoney said he was Zeus; he took the sacrifices made to Zeus for himself. Dragging dried skins along with copper jugs behind the chariot, he claimed to be producing thunder, and throwing lit torches into the sky he said he was throwing lightning. Zeus struck him with perun and destroyed the city he founded along with all its inhabitants" (trans. V.G. Borukhovich)]: Apollod. Bibl. I. 9. 7 (Apollodorus 1972:15); ["Historical Library" by Diodorus of Sicily (1st century BC): "Salmoney, being wicked and proud, mocked the deity and claimed that his own actions they are superior to Zeus. Making an extraordinary noise with the help of a device, he rumbled, imitating thunders, and did not honor the gods with sacrifices or holidays" (trans. O.P. Tsybenko)]: Diod. Sic. VI. Fr. 6; ["This Salmoney, being wicked and proud, mocked the deity and claimed that his own actions were superior to Zeus. Making extraordinary noise with the help of a device and imitating thunders, he said that he was rattling louder than Zeus himself. Totally disregarding the gods, he did not honor the gods with sacrifices or holidays, as was the custom of other rulers. He had an only begotten daughter, Tiro, who received this name because of her white and soft body. Poseidon fell in love with [Tiro] because of her beauty, combined with her, and she gave birth to sons Pelia and Neley. Salmoney, not believing that [Tiro] had deprived Poseidon of his virginity, mistreated Tyro, and eventually received retribution from a deity because of wickedness and died, struck by the lightning of Zeus." (per. O.P. Tsybenko)]: Diod. Sic. VI. Fr. 7; [Virgil's Aeneid (1st century BC); Tiziphon Aeneas about those in Tartare: "I saw Salmoney bear severe punishment - /The one who imitated Jupiter with burning lightning. /He traveled solemnly to four horses, shocking/With a bright torch, in front of everyone's eyes around the capital of Elis, /Demanded that the people worship him like a god. /What cannot be repeated is thunderstorm and thunder peals, -/With the roar of copper, he wanted and He forged an arrow at the madman with a knock of hooves, /But the almighty Father threw an arrow at the madman - a pine torch that did not smoke, - /And threw him down from the chariot and burned him in a fiery whirlwind" (trans. S.A. Osherova)]: Verg. Aen. VI. 585-594; [Myths attributed to Guy Julius Gigin, who lived at the turn of the eras, but most likely date back to the 1st and 2nd centuries: "Salmoney, son of Aeol, brother of Sisyphus, imitated the thunder and lightning of Jupiter. While sitting on his chariot, he threw burning torches at the people and terrified citizens. For this, Jupiter struck him with lightning" (trans. D.O. Torshilova)]: Hyg. Fab. 61; [Salmoney was among the chariots killed by their own teams; he depicted lightning while sitting on a chariot and was struck by lightning along with his chariot]: Hyg. Fab. 250; [Astronomy by Mark Manilius (1st century): "Under this constellation {Auriga constellation}, I think Salmoney was born, representing the sky on earth, placing a quadriga on a bronze bridge and reproducing heavenly thunder, bringing Jupiter to earth. But throwing artificial lightning, he was struck by the real one and fell after his lights, proving the existence of Jupiter by his death" (trans. E.M. Steerman)]: Manil. Astr. V. 91-96; [comments by Moor Servius Honorath (late 4th century) to Virgil: Salmoney was the son of Aeolus, not the king of the winds, but some in the area of Elis, where he began to reign; having built a copper {or bronze} bridge he drove chariots over it to imitate the thunder of the sky; whoever he threw a torch at was ordered to be killed; then he experienced what real lightning is (Salmoneus Aeoli filius fuit, non regis ventorum, sed cuiusdam apud Elidem, ubi regnovit. qui fabricato ponte aereo super eum agitabat currus ad imitanda superna tonitrua, and in quem fuisset iaculatus facem, eum iubebat occidi. hic postea verum expertus est fulmen)]: Serv. Aen. VI. 585; ["The First Vatican Mythograph" (compiled at the turn of the I-II millennium by an unknown medieval compiler): "Salmoney was the king of Elis. Excessively happy, he told his citizens to be called priests, and to pay tribute to Jupiter and perform appropriate rituals. While riding in a bronze chariot, he imitated thunder and <швырял> torches like lightning. But Jupiter, hitting him with real lightning, overthrew him to Tartar" (trans. V.N. Yarkho)]: I Myth. Vat. I. 81; (comm. Elena Duvakina: The good thing about the testimonies of Mark Manilius and Servius is that they contain an additional detail that brings the ancient versions closer to the Vainakh versions - the use of bronze or copper bridge; copper canopies are being built near the Ingush in similar texts); Polyakova, Felenkovskaya 1986; Ancient Greece ["Argonautics" by Valery Flakk (1st century): "{Jason} Eson's bowl takes. Her Salmoney in thank/He gave her shelter, paying gold by weight for the quivers; /He was happy with the gift. After all, he went crazy after that, /Depicting Jupiter's arrows with a split log/And, imitating his raid on Athos and Rhodope, /Incinerating Elis Fields and the Groves of Pisa" (translated under general editorship. A.V. Podosinova)]: Val. Fl. Arg. I. 660-665; [satirical dialogue "Patriot or Learner" by an unknown author (Byzantium, circa 10th century): "{Critius:} What do you mean, Triefon? Can't Zeus plunge into Tartar? Or did you forget how he threw all the gods away from his doorstep, killed Salmoney, who was recently trying to throw lightning with a perun, and punishes wicked people like this today?" (per. S.V. Polyakova and I.V. Felenkovskaya)]: 8.

Central Europe. Belarusians (Grodno, Voronovsky district, d. Lelyushi, 1975, Dominik Rakutis, 80 years old, told in Belarusian) [about the times of serfdom, two hundred or three hundred years ago, in the neighboring village of Palashki, a pan named Narkun (Norkunas) drives women to the corps in field. A cloud is coming, lightning flashes. Pan shouts to God: "You're Perun, and I'm Narkun," and shoots a gun into the cloud. Thunder thunders, lightning flashes, Perun kills Narkun's horse. Pan lets women go home, stops whipping serfs, establishes the Perun Festival]: Sudnik 1979:230; Slovaks [the boy worked in the king's kitchen, became friends with the princess; when they have grown up, the princess refuses all the suitors, she only needs her friend; the court advises sending the young man to the sun to find out why it rises in the sky in the morning and descends in the afternoon; on the way, the blind king asks the sun to know why he has gone blind; in the sea, a huge fish asks why it cannot dive, but only swims on the surface; for a promise to know this, he transports a young man; for the sea is the desert and the end of the world; the sun replies that his mother gives birth to him again every morning and buries him old in the evening; so first he rises like a growing man and then descends; king he went blind because he wanted to be like God and built a star-decorated sky out of glass; if he destroys it, he will see the light; the fish will sink into the water if they eat human beings; the young man answered the fish, only when he was on the other side; the fish became furious, the water poured in after the young man, but he managed to escape; the king broke the glass sky, saw the light, gave the young man half of his kingdom; the young man returned home when the princess is married; he went to church and wore a dress given to him by the sun; the princess rushed to him; wedding]: Wenzig 1857:36-41; (cf. Eastern Ukrainians (Voronezhskaya, Zemlyansky University, pp. Eater, Latanoe, Shumeiki) [The bear was a king and wished to be God, and his wife was the Mother of God, for which the Lord punished him and turned him into a beast, defined bread and grass for him]: Fedorov 1903:261).

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Abkhazians: Zukhba 1995 [the demon seduced the maiden, Abrskil was born; imagined himself a god; on his horse he rushed in the sky, cut clouds with a sword, carving lightning; filling dry cow skins with stones, tied them to the saddle, the stones collided, sounding like thunder; God told the angels to grab him; they greased their skins, put them on the shore, the horse slipped, A. fell; he was chained to an iron pole in a cave ; or the woodpecker pierced A.'s staff with its beak, with which he jumped from mountain to shore; he fell; every year A. almost pulls out a pole; a wagtail sits on him, A. tries to hit it with a hammer, a pole enters the ground]: 242-250; Inal-ipa 1977 [Atsan dwarfs were smarter than God; urinated towards the sky; let gases into sour milk, wiped themselves with cheese; imitating thunder, beat dried cow skin; to to find out their weak point, he lowered the child from the sky in a golden cradle; the Atsans raised him; told him that they would die if the cotton snow caught fire; the old man noticed that the goat's beard shook; fell out cotton snow, caught fire from lightning, the Atsans died; those who threw themselves into the water turned into lizards and frogs; those who hid in caves and hollows of trees turned into devils and snakes; (var.: the Atsans died from frost, from floods) ; once in the underworld, the Atsans drill the ground to get back, but what they drill in a day collapses again; (paraphrase in Stahl 1989:206)]: 164-169; Abazins [Prince Sarym ordered to sew the sky above the village with boards, roll barrels of water on them; one day he went swimming, dived, found himself in an old man's house; he says that pregnant cook S. will give birth to a son who will marry daughter S.; S. tells take the cook to the forest and rip her stomach open; the hunter picked up and raised the fallen baby; when he learned that the young man had grown up, S. came to the hunter, pretended to forget the money - let the owner's son take the letter from asking for money; in a letter he ordered the applicant to be killed; near the target, the young man fell asleep, the paper fell out; S.'s daughter replaced her with an order to marry her; since then Prince S. has stopped mocking over people]: Tugov 1985, No. 42:108-110; Ossetians ["Tutyr, as can be seen from the stories, was God's favorite angel; but later, with his pride, he attracted God's anger and drowned in the sea in punishment. That is why people call him "Tutyr the drowned". According to some stories, he drew God's anger by making a vault of heaven out of leaky tin and making artificial rain, and calling himself a god. According to other legends, according to the devil's machinations, he made the way to God"]: Kanukov 1987:68; Ingush: Dalgat 1972 [Piraa was at odds with God over the throne. He built a kind of sky out of brass and rolled barrels over it (imitation of thunder), poured water on top (imitation of rain) and said: "Am I not god, don't I make thunder rattle, don't I send rain?" But God tolerated him, because he had three virtues: he respected old people, loved children, appreciated bread, and even picked up crumbs. But Satan played an insidious joke on him, and Piraa gave up these three virtues (it is not said how it happened). Then God punished him at the 500th year of his life]: 423; Malsagov 1983, No. 176 [=Dakhkilgov 2006:409; Piryon argued with God. At the edge of the universe, he made bronze awnings like the sky. He noisily rolled barrels on them, poured water out of them (i.e. simulated thunder and rain), and boasted that he was a thunder. P. lived for 500 years. Although he quarreled with God, he forgave him everything, because Piryon had three virtues: he considered his elders, caressed children, and took care of bread. Piryona has decided to kill din. She came to him and said: Do you know that people laugh at you? - Why? - Because you respect unfit old people who belong in the cemetery. - I won't respect them anymore. - People also laugh at you because you caress dirty, snotty children. I'll caress them more." They still laugh because of your greed, you take too much care of bread, even collect crumbs. "I won't do that anymore," said P., and immediately gave up his breath]: 307-308; (cf. Dakhkilgov 2003 [The owl boasted to the birds that it was because of her radiant eyes that the world was bright; the Sun began to argue, disappeared; the owl could not illuminate the world, flew away and hid, since then it has been showing up only at night]: 35); Chechens: Malsagov 1983, No. 174 [Piryon ("Pharaoh") created the brass vaults of heaven. He forced women to climb the makeshift vaults of heaven and pour water from there; claimed that he was one god in heaven and on earth, made everyone work for themselves; once a woman was forced to climb the vaults of heaven and from there pour water; she cursed P. (May God punish you!) , God immediately killed P.]: 307; Tsaroeva 2015 (western 1999) ["There was one tough but just ruler named Piryo in a faraway eastern country. He imagined that no one in the world was stronger than him and even tried to compete with the great Dela. Piryo built a copper (Ciest) cover (thou) over the Shahyar city where he lived and forced people to roll barrels filled with water on it. Paying off the noise from rolling barrels as thunder and the water flowing from them as rain, he said to his subjects: "I am Business, doing thunder and sending rain!" One day, Piryo climbed onto this surface with his army and shouted up Dele: "So hyokhul stigala hyuna duhyal weacha, sheh lata ahya vossa: hyowsar do wai Chogiogi mila wu! (I made it to heaven and appeared before you. Come down to the fight: we'll see which one of us is stronger!)" Dela became very angry and sent a small mosquito against him and his large army to show that even a midge sent by him could destroy a powerful ruler. The mosquito penetrated Pirão's head through his nose and devoured his brain for days. Finally, when he came out of his head through the hero's crown, he was larger than a sparrow but smaller than a dove. This is how the life of the impudent ruler ended ingloriously"]: 42; Georgians [Herod said that there is no God, but he himself is God and built a tower to heaven that did not reach the arshin; took guns, water, climbed upstairs ; began to shoot and pour water, saying that it was thunder and it was raining; he took a crowbar and wanted to break through the sky to enter God; he told a bug to tickle Herod's nose; I. sneezed and sneezed three times, died; God destroyed the tower with thunder, and scattered stones all over the countries]: Mashurko 1894:377-378.

Baltoscandia. Swedes [during a thunderstorm, a nobleman (a squire) shoots a cannon, mockingly saying: if you're rattling there, I'm here; lightning strikes him]: Klintberg 2010, No. B125:48; Finns: Jauhiainen 1998, No. F301 [when mocking thunder, a person makes indecent noises and says, "I can rattle too!" ; lightning strikes him], F303 [during a thunderstorm, a person urinates and says: "You're rattling, and I'm raining here!" He is struck by lightning]: 222; Lithuanians [The shepherd, when the thunder rattles, says that it was his father who drove the cart. My father says he has a big pipe, because he smokes it, everything gets dark, and it rattles because the wagon knocks on its wheels. The shepherd is not afraid of thunder, he mocks him, defames Perkunas. Thunder hits a shepherd, kills to death]: Velus 1989:66; (cf. Estonians (Põlva) [during a drought, three men climb a spruce tree in a sacred grove; one hits a pot with a hammer, the other hits two burning smut against each other to make sparks fly, the third sprinkles water from the bucket with a broom]: Hurt 1863:7 in Mannhardt 1905:342).