Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I37. Mushrooms.

Mushrooms are mentioned in a mythological context.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Bulu [a young man chases a monkey, ends up in a forest village of thin people; they do not know fire and eat only mushrooms; two dare to go with a young man, come to his village, they have been fed with normal food, they got fat; but the rest refused to go to people, they were afraid they would be eaten themselves]: Schwab 1914, No. 5:268-269.

West Africa. Mano [when God sent the Devil (that is, the guardian spirit of secret societies) to earth, he left him under the supervision of women; the little boy said that there are many mushrooms in the forest, the women rushed to collect them; God saw that there was only one man left by the Devil; decided to give it to the men; while collecting mushrooms, the women caught the turtle, ate it, and when they returned, began to dance, hitting the turtle shell; the man said that this is the "devil" of women]: Schwab 1937:449; Bambara [Dioumé and Bala have been friendly since childhood; B. asks Father D. to marry her, is refused; but D. refuses the grooms, loyal to B.; takes younger sister B. to live; when someone tries to kidnap D., sister warns B., who defeats an opponent, his sister helps him in a fight; one day D. agrees to the kidnapper's proposal; B. catches up with them, is defeated, D. insists to burn him alive; his sister hides in a vessel of water with a snake, crawls out, bites the kidnapper to death, saves B. from the fire; D. refuses to return disgraced to her native village, turns into a mushroom; if you touch it now, saying, "Hello, D. ", he returns a greeting]: Jablow 196:172-178.

Western Europe. Germans (south, Silesia) [general definition of the motive: a woman gives St. Peter eats bread (cake) in secret; Christ asks what Peter eats, he chokes, the bread turns into mushrooms]: Uther 2004 (1), No. 774I: 432; Germans (Austria) [at the time of the solstice of St. Peter and the Lord were hungry, the peasant gave Peter three golden donuts; they both ate one at a time, and Peter hid the third; he began to bite on the way, but every time he wanted to swallow him, the Lord said something asked, he spit out a piece; the pieces turned into chanterelle mushrooms that appeared on the summer solstice]: Steblova 1999:137.

Australia. Adnjamatana [children are born by two huge maudla Ami (ami - mother) women in the sky in the Wikurutana area; they have been sitting motionless for so long that have become like gray rocks, their hair almost completely covers their bodies; their huge breasts have lots of baby-sucking spirits (muri); one produces Araru fratria's children, the other Mathuri; when m gets too much a lot, some go down to the ground, eventually penetrate the bosom of women; in late winter and early spring, yellow mushrooms appear on rotten trunks; they are considered vomiting m, a sign that women are soon will get pregnant]: Mountford, Harvey 1941:157; Karageri (NW Australia) [two Bagajimbir brothers came out of the ground in the guise of a dingo; then became giants to heaven; after death, their bodies turned into water snakes, and souls in the Magellanic Clouds; found two mushrooms - elongated white and flattened; blew on a leaf, shaped the first fungus into a penis, the second - vaginas; immediately in all men and women genitals appeared (which neither they nor the brothers themselves had before)]: Roheim 1945:56; arunta [mushrooms don't eat because they're fallen stars endowed with Arungquiltha (something that brings evil, misfortune)]: Spencer, Gillen 1938:566.

Melanesia. Manus [a Nimei man and a Niwong woman swim in the sea; decide to create land; they grab a floating tree trunk, it turns into earth; they create vegetation on the ground; they create two mushrooms, they throw them into the sky; abandoned by a man became a Month, thrown by a woman by the Sun]: Meier 1907, No. 2:646; Simbang (Cape King William; this is Papua trans-New Guinean philia) [Month and Sun sometimes they think of mushrooms, sometimes living creatures; at first they walked together, it was very hot; then the Sun threw spears into the sea, asked the Month to get it, ran away by himself]: Hagen 1899:287; keva [husband was killed ; he comes to his wife bloody, leaves; she realizes that she has seen the dead, goes looking for him; he goes down a rope into the abyss; finds a husband, returns with him to the world of the living; he must eat only mushrooms growing on rotten trunks; her child, conceived by a dead man, cries continuously; she tells him that his father in the world of the dead ate crap, and his son is now crying; husband hears this, leaves; var.: wife she eats the mushrooms grown on the trunk herself; replies to her husband that he ate crap in the world of the dead; the offended husband leaves; if the wife did not offend her husband, the dead would return]: LeRoy 1985, No. 45:146-150; cotton wool [ when the young month arrives, a small child sits on the ground, covers his face with his hands, lists the names of edible mushrooms; mother and sisters help; then many mushrooms will grow]: Fischer 1963:98; Fiji [dalinga ni kalou (ear of spirit/ghost) 'ghost ear']: Blust 2000b: 694.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Lakher [the spirits of the dead in Athikhi call themselves Hrangzong, and people call themselves fly-by-night flowers (Pawdva); when we're midnight, they have a day when noon is night; bamboo leaves for the dead are fish, the hairy caterpillars are bears, their fishing net is the big athipaso mushroom; the best ones call this mushroom phungsahmim ("perfume bag"]: Parry 1932:395; mizo (lushy) [two sisters went pick wild cucumbers; the eldest did not find it, asked the youngest to share, she refused; the eldest began to fall into the ground in grief, only the top of her head was visible; the parents told the youngest to rescue the eldest; the youngest promises the eldest to give her cucumbers; the eldest begins to rise; when only her legs were left in the ground, the alarm arose that bounty hunters were coming; the sister was pulled, her legs remained in the ground, she turned into a mushroom]: McCall 1949:76-77; Kachin [Janun is dead, his breath turned to wind, his hair and beard to silk, his eyes, nose, teeth to precious stones, his brain to silver mines in China and Kalas, skull - Shan and Chinese drums, ears - mushrooms, chest - bananas and other fruits, heart and entrails - rubies, skin and stomach - thickets where Chinese and Kalas live, hands are their guns and cannons, Kalas's spine is a huge gun; etc.]: Gilhodes 1908:886-887.

Burma - Indochina. Khmers [above Mount Sumeru is the heavenly world of beautiful long-lived creatures - tevoda; they decided to punish the people living on earth for their sins; first, the earth was burned by seven suns, then everything was flooded by the flood; when the waters began to fall, eight creatures were sent from the sky - próm; they began to eat sea foam, then earth, then plants (when they appeared); according to another version, they ate mushrooms first, then the fruits of the vine , then rice; rice filled their bellies with excrement, they made two holes, P. split into men and women, gave birth to new people]: Chesnov 1982a: 340.

South Asia. Koya [while frying rice, the woman sat with her legs spread; the man sent his long penis into her; she cut it off; placed the leaked seed in an anthill, and a mushroom grew out of it, which is why always slimy]: Elwin 1949, No. 37:259; baiga: Elwin 1944, No. 6 [six sons are married, youngest seventh is single, daughter is single; younger brother brings mushroom, whoever eats it will be his wife; girl accidentally eats; runs into the forest, plants a seed, tells it to grow to the sky; talks with all family members about what to call them (mother or mother-in-law, etc.); returns home, only a younger brother opens to her, they lie down together, then he kills her and himself with an ax], 2 [an elderly woman gets pregnant, asks her husband for mushrooms; Cobra gave mushrooms for promising to give him a child if girls are born; when the girl grew up, she went with her father to the forest, climbed into the water to get a lotus (it was Cobra), disappeared under water; a flower grew out of her placenta, a boy in it; her mother died; he found his sister, killed Cobra when she tried to eat it; brother and sister began to live hunting]: 385-386, 446-448; agaria [about like baiga, but more difficult and with a good ending (everyone comes to life)]: Elwin 1944, No. 5:382-385; pardhan [ six brothers are married, the youngest is single, brings a mushroom, promises to marry whoever eats it; the younger sister eats it; the wedding is being prepared, the girl runs away; asks a tree to pick it up, but the brother threatens to cut it down wood, it picks it up too; the sister runs on, asks the agaria (ironsmelters) to put it in the furnace, the brother asks the same thing; the brother burns, the sister comes out of the furnace even more beautifully]: Elwin 1944, No. 8:389-391; (cf. . santals [six brothers are married, the seventh youngest cannot find a wife; he plants a flower, whoever takes it marries; despite the mother's warning, the younger sister takes the flower; they want to pass her off as brother, she runs away; washes off the dirt from her body, a palm tree grows out of the lump, she climbs it, the parrot brings her food; she throws the bracelet to the poor girl, tells her not to show it; the bracelet is recognized; everyone recognizes her relatives come, ask her to go down, she refuses; during the storm, she freezes, tells the palm tree to bend; comes to the village; her parents tell no one to let her in, she sleeps in the barn where her brother is; stabbed her with a knife; her brother saw her dead, he also stabbed him; they were burned at the same fire, the smoke did not mix]: Bodding 1929, No. 92:369-386); gondas [Kurmi planted different plants, but they all dried up; Sumringarh advised to contact Baiga Dewar; he ordered a sacrifice to mother earth; Ahir milked the cows; K. sprinkled it with slurry, threw it into the river; a thunderstorm began, it rained, mushrooms grew; the DB gave wife eat alone, the mushroom eaten became the placenta, the woman gave birth to a son; this is how mushrooms and placenta appeared]: Elwin 1949, No. 92:294; sora (Hill Saora) [after the creation of the world, the white mushroom Akangpang grew, from Gadejangboi was born; her long hair got into her mouth, she cut it off, trees and herbs arose from it; her lice turned into all kinds of animals and birds, she gave them names]: Elwin 1954, No. 9:341-342 ; bongo [The sun was wandering in the guise of a black bull; people caught him and tied him; for the night, the young men went to the girls; they were tired, but dawn was not coming; the girl gave the young man a mushroom; on the way home, the young men saw a bull; the mushroom fell out of it like an egg, the rooster cut out, sang; the bull cut off the rope, it dawned; birds hatched from mushrooms like eggs, sang; now the Sun rises in front of the rooster's voice]: Elwin 1950:140.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Senoi (Semai) [Enku (Thunder) wished his younger brother's wife, turned his penis into a mushroom (a type of fungus similar to an erected phallus); the woman accidentally sat on it; after learning about the prank, the younger brother made a fire around the mushroom; this is how Thunder got his voice (the informant laughs)]: Dentan 1968:23; little [people ate mushrooms, fell into a stupor, spoke different languages]: King 1975:152; southern Palawan [Married Sovka for a month; promised to return from fishing in a day; if he is away for two days, then he was bitten by a poisonous fish; A month returns in two days, his wife lies in bed, does not listen to him, repeats that the Month is dead, bitten by a poisonous fish; The month cooks and eats caught fish, shoots into the sky with a sarbakan, making a chain of darts, climbs it; seeing her husband in sky and cooked fish, the wife believes it was the Month, cries; animals and birds are consistently called to deliver it by the Month, putting it on her back; the hornet rises into the air, but sees a bush Solanum inequilaterale, goes down to him, says that this is the sky; the monitor lizard leaves the woman at the top of a dry tree; the dung beetle in the Raja's latrine; the Osprey raises for the Month; going swimming, he warns his wife that if she looks and sees (below) kuhung bulan mushrooms, she should not go down, they're mushrooms, not him; she looks, sees mushrooms, thinks it's the Month, jumps down, crashes, turns into a scoop, has been screaming into a full moon ever since]: Macdonald 2005:77-78.

Taiwan - Philippines. Tsoo [the original meaning of koyu 'ear'. By association with the ear, the same word is called "mushroom", for example, in the word konopoepe (i.e. koyu-no-poepe) 'wind ear', meaning one type of mushroom, namely cortinellus shiitake]: Nevsky 1935:75-76; ifugao [Bugan, the daughter of the supreme deity, consistently refuses to marry the inhabitants of various tiers of the sky, including Lightning; descends to earth, husbands a poor young man, gives birth to a son; people are jealous of her, she decides to return to heaven, but her husband cannot follow her; she cuts their son, takes half with her, revives them in the guise of a new boy; what is left on earth begins decompose because the husband is unable to revive it; it turns the rotting head into an owl, the ears into a tree mushroom, the nose into the shell of a snail living on trees, some of the excrement into the beak of an ido bird, the tongue into pipun in people's tongue, heart into the rainbow, chest bones into a poisonous snake, fingers into long shells, hair - worms, larvae, skin - red bird, blood - small bats, liver - disease breasts, intestines are animals like hares or rats, hand bones are rotten branches falling on passing ones]: Beyer 1913:107 in Eugenio 1994, No. 10:33-37 ("mushroom ears" episode on p.36).

China - Korea. Ting Nai-Tung 1978, No. 297B. Mushroom war. 5 records.

The Balkans. Hungarians [like Ukrainians]: Uther 2004 (1), № 774I: 432.

Central Europe. Slovaks [a woman gives St. Peter eats bread (cake) in secret; Christ asks what Peter eats, he chokes, bread turns into mushrooms]: Uther 2004 (1), No. 774I: 432; Russians (Perm and Siberia only?) Ukrainians [Mushroom War: boletus calls mushrooms to war; everyone refuses except mushrooms]: SUS 297B=AA *297:101; Ukrainians, Belarusians [Mushrooms: St. Peter eats bread secretly; when asked by Christ what he is doing, P. chokes on a piece of bread and spits out crumbs that turn into mushrooms]: SUS 1979, № 774L=K2636:194-195.

Iran - Central Asia. Yagnobtsy [white mushrooms that grow in the spring after the rain, are called "hórchak", are considered to come from drops of milk falling from the sky from the breasts of Fatima and Zuhro (two twin sisters) in spring rain time; the rainiest is cloud milk, "ábre hshifch"]: Andreev 1970:171; Tajiks, Yagnobs [thunder in the upper reaches of Pyanj, in the upper reaches of Zeravshan and elsewhere produced by shaking out trousers; in Matcha and Yagnob, Grandma knocks out the trousers to the ground, which cause a lot of mushrooms to grow after spring thunderstorms; a similar belief about the origin of mushrooms Tekins exist from old fur being knocked out]: Tolstov 1931:339.

Baltoscandia. Lithuanians [St. Peter ate bran bread and spit on the ground - mushrooms grew]: Kerbelite 2001:64.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Altaians [mushroom - atyn sidegi ("horse urine")]: Potanin 1883:153.

Western Siberia. The Nenets [the sorcerer eats 2.5 fly agarics; he sees spirits running away by the number of fly agarics eaten; the latter is half, runs slowly, looking around, as if waiting for the other half; the sorcerer keeps up with him]: Lekhtisalo 1998:129; Kets: Anuchin 1914 [before only women lived, there were no men at all. Phalluses grew in great abundance in the forest, where women went as needed. One woman was tired of going to the forest; she pulled out the phallus and brought it to her plague... It so happened that the phallus was stuck; neither the woman herself nor her neighbors could pull it out, and everyone began to cry. Then Yes sent a man (who did not have a phallus at the time), and he easily pulled out his phallus. Overjoyed women began to treat the man. One gave him wine - he took it; the other was serving something, and both his hands were full; then he put his phallus between his legs and began to treat himself. After eating and about to leave, the man picked up the phallus, but it turned out that he had grown up. The women were even more happy and kept the man at home. And the phalluses in the forest have died, become mushrooms; Russians eat them]: 9; Dulzon 1972, No. 247 [Heung and Sausage are swimming; while H. is diving, K. takes her son, leaves her daughter to her; son hunts, K. does not tell him to go south; he becomes an ermine, hears what his real mother and daughter K. say; tells K. that his kleinitsa is on fire; K. rushes to take it out of the fire, he shoves it with a horn into the fire, she burns; returns to her mother; goes with little K. into the forest, pours soup into one pim K. in the evening; she chases him in one pima, pulls the mushroom out of the ground, throws it into it, does not fall; follows him across the river to poles from the plague, water (?) they drag it into the water, eat it]: 200-201.

Eastern Siberia. Northwestern Yakuts (Deer) [Charchahaan wants to pick wood fungus from larch (it serves as a medicine); his arm, second arm, legs, forehead stick; Angaa Mogus takes him away, C. cuts through bag, runs away, puts bark under his fur coat; AM finds it, kicks it, thinks that his bones are cracking, brings it to the children, leaves himself; C. promises to make them a spoon, tells them to give them a sharp sword, cuts off their heads, puts them on bed , cooks the meat, digs a way out; AM felt that it was the meat of his blood relatives, wanted to catch C., could not put his head in the move; C. offers to climb backwards, pierces with a hot foot; he tells make oars from your two hands, make a boat out of your back bones, make your ankle bone with a pole in the booth, a cauldron from the skull, cups from the eye sockets] Ergis 1964, No. 39:118-120; Western Yakuts (Vilyui) [y Lyybara is a silver boat, golden oars; someone calls him, he comes up, it's a mushroom, he kicks him, hits him, sticks, Angaa Mongus brings him to him; L. asks him to fatten him first; sends him for a knife; the owner of the knife is to the owner of the sharpener, the sharpener must be taken away by a stallion, a rope is needed, a rope across the river, AM falls into the water, sinks; orders his pelvic bones to become a pestle, his tibia to become a stupa]: Illarionov et al. 2008, No. 15:173-177; Yakuts: Ergis 1967, No. 83 (summary summary of several texts, including references to archival materials) [fisherman Lyybyrda (var.: Aigyn-Taigyn or old woman Tebenekeen, old Yuchei) hears a man's voice in the forest; goes and sticks to a mushroom (horse skull); Mongus picks up a fisherman and fattens him to eat him; slaughter a fisherman it is impossible, because the knife is stupid; the fisherman sends M. to Bolona for a large knife, that to Haranay for a grindstone, and the last for Alanay's horse to transport the stone; A. sends M. across the river by bridle, M. drowns], 84 (no place of recording, link to the archive) [clever and strong Chaarchahaan stuck to a mushroom in the forest; he was caught by Angaa Mongus, put him in his bag and went home; on the way, Chaarchahaan put a corje under his dress; when he got home, M. beat C., ordered his children to cook lunch with it, went hunting himself; C. made a large knife, put the children side by side and He cut off everyone's heads, cooked them in a large cauldron, dug a hole for himself; M. came and tasted the meat; feeling that it was the meat of his blood relatives, he wanted to catch C., but he killed him on hot foot ( icebreaker); by the dying will of M. himself, C. made oars from his hands, a boat from his body, pillars from his hips, a bowler hat from his skull]: 177; Sym Evenks (Narym): Shatilov 1927:11 ["Mushrooms they do not eat at all, considering them filthy, since they allegedly caused a "phallus". "It was a long time ago," says Sholeul, "there was no good man for a long time, the women cried, cried for a long time, and since the man found a mushroom, from him and... 'phallus'". Sholeul could not tell me anything more about this"]; 12 ["Sholeul, as I found out later, came here from Tym, and on Tym from Sym, a tributary of the Yenisei. You can also see here that Samoyeds in the area I observe also avoid eating mushrooms, especially old people, considering them filthy, but not knowing why mushrooms are considered filthy"]; Evenks of the Baikal region [ the old man goes hunting, the Mushroom mimics everything he says; the old man hits him with his staff, he sticks, kicks him, his leg sticks; the giant takes out the prey, brings him home; the old woman goes to look for her husband, falls into the same trap; both she and the old man died]: Voskoboynikov 1967, No. 35:102-103; Evens [Debricken-Kobrikan goes for firewood, sees a rotating mushroom; sticks to it with one leg, the other, hands, forehead; The giant brings the prey home; the DC says he should be cut with a large knife; the Knife tells him to follow the Sharpener, Tochilo to take him away; the old man tells the Giant to grab the Deer by the leg; he kills him with his with iron horns; DK sends the Giant's wife to wash the cauldron; promises his children to make onions while they sleep; digs a dig, runs home]: Novikova 1987:38-39.

Amur - Sakhalin. Nivhi [nivhi did not eat pork before, because pigs eat mushrooms; nivhi mushrooms did not eat either; a mushroom is a penis trait that he stuck out of the ground; a mushroom is also a kinsh nose, i.e. "damn ears"]: Bereznitsky 2003, No. 34:132.

SV Asia. The Chukchi [a tribe of intoxicating fly agarics janra-varat; are very strong; when they grow, crush stones with their heads, cut through tree roots; are in a strange humanoid form (one-armed, one-legged, stumps and etc.); an intoxicated person sees as many fly agaric people as he ate; show a person a different world, their ways are tortuous; visit the land of the dead]: Bogoraz 1939:5; reindeer Koryaks (Chavchuvensk dial.) [Dabro sees a mushroom singing; kicks it, hits it with his hands, bites it; all its dicks stick to the mushroom one by one; the giant takes D. home, fattens it to eat; D. digs a dig, runs away; the giant gets stuck in a dig, D. cuts off his head; returns home; the mushroom is marked with a word containing a suffix that means disapproval]: Zhukova 1988, No. 8:27-28; itelmen: Jochelson 1961, No. 1 [Chelkut marries Sinanevt; stays in the woods with the Fly Agaric Girls; |Sister C. reveals the truth to S.; she sends her young son to her father; C. tells the Mukhomors to beat and burn their son; C.'s family migrates, taking her away all animals; S. is starving; returns to S., and the fly agaric girls are dry], 20 [Kutha's wife Miti gives birth to a louse that sparkles like the sun; they hide it in the closet; their son Ememkut opens the closet, falls dead; K. and M. go to the mountains to the Amanita; the Sun and the Month descend to E.'s body left in the house, hit the tambourine while walking around; the Month is unable, the Sun revives E.; all birds and animals, except bears, come to sing to them; The Sun marries Voshi, Month to Sinanevt (daughters K. and M.), E. to the Mukhomor Girl]: 20-21, 148-150; Menovshchikov 1974, No. 189 [per. Jochelson, No. 1]: 558-560.

The Arctic. Eskimos Fr. Wrangel (relocated from Providence and Cape Whelen): Vlasova 1935 [when the Eskimos came to the trading post, they liked our food, except for mushrooms (dry), which they called "damn ears"]: 62; Ushakov 2001 [mushrooms - "damn ears"]: 174.

Subarctic. Inhalic [if you touch the fungus, you will have ulcers on your arm]: Osgood 1959:138; koyukon [koyukon never eat mushrooms; they are called mouse food; earth ears; shaggy mane: crow spear, smoke: crow tobacco, crow sack; the wood mushroom on the birch tree consisted of fat; the raven first placed it on all trees for human food, but then decided that this way people would stop working; sprayed his urine on him, he became stiff]: Nelson 1983:56.

NW Coast. Bellacula [only the person responsible for performing the Mushroom song and dance performs his ritual at any eclipse of the moon or sun]: MCIWraith 1948 (2): 166-167.

The coast is the Plateau. Quinolt: Farrand 1902, No. 14 [the girl dreams of the mighty Sepaka; she comes to his house; mushrooms hang from the rafters; when S. speaks, the mushrooms echo; they are his wives; now he has a real wife and he throws them away; a wife gives birth to a two-headed boy, then a normal girl; her five brothers come to her one by one, S. kills them; a woman throws flint into the fire; a shrapnel falls into her little daughter, she immediately gives birth to a boy; the woman pretends that she gave birth herself; Flint finds the corpses cut in half by her uncle; kills S. and a double-headed boy; he, his little mother and grandmother return to people]: 124-125; Lévi-Strauss 1976b:234 [white wood mushrooms have the same word as echo], 235 [mushrooms are Puma excrement]; sechelt [mushrooms are Puma excrement] Thunder excrement]: Lévi-Strauss 1976b:235; squamish [wood mushrooms echo; if such a mushroom is hung in the house, it protects against slander]: Kuipers 1969:59 (quoted in Lévi-Strauss 1976b:234); Puget Sound: Ballard 1927:69 [When the chief's daughter realizes that her husband is Laska, she throws him and their son at sea; father and son visit flounder people, cloud people, seabird people; Laska marries Oleniha; she goes to pick mushrooms; Laska and her son kill her and her daughter, eat them], 75 [Coyote loses his eyes, makes new ones from pieces of red mushroom or rose hips; persuades Towhee to switch eyes]; tillamook [Wild Woman's raccoon grandson eats all the roots in her basket, leaves her excrement; for this she burns his tail (stripes so far); he leaves; she feels sorry for him, she follows him; people think she wants to kill him, hide that they saw him; on the bank of the river. A woman dives behind his reflection, then notices her grandson in a tree; he throws berries at her, asks her to close her eyes; kills by throwing off female; carries a corpse; every time he passes under a fallen tree, his burden becomes lighter until it disappears altogether; all of the Wild Woman's flesh stays on the trunks in the form of mushrooms]: Jacobs, Jacobs 1959, No. 19:70-72.

The Midwest. Menominee [mushrooms growing on pine trees scream Hohohoho at the end of February! ; used for magical purposes]: Skinner, Satterlee 1915:498; Steppe Cree [Badger and his wife Skunk give their daughter for a Grizzly; he takes all their meat; Skunk cooks a bunch of bison blood, he turns into a boy; he grows up, hits Grizzly and his sons to death; flies his arrow to Chief Bear's village; tells the buffalo to come out of the ground; becomes an ugly mess; eldest daughter The bear rejects him, the youngest takes him as her husband; now he is handsome again; the older sister asks his mother to disgrace him; the old woman asks him to carry her across the stream, refuses to get down; he turns into blood, she releases it; he turns it into a pig-vermilion plant; throws her older daughter against a tree, she becomes an inedible tree fungus; turns the Bear and his people into bears, wolves, foxes, and others animals; returns with his wife to their parents; turns them into a badger and a skunk, his wife into a wild cat, turns them into blood himself]: Bloomfield 1930, No. 17:110-120.

Northeast. Seneca: Curtin, Hewitt 1918, No. 22 [uncle and nephew live in the forest; they collect and cook wood mushrooms in need of food], 36 [uncle does not feed his nephew, he has to eat mushrooms], 58 [Horned Serpent forbids anyone to use his lake; a person lies first to the Serpent's servant to the Turtle, then to the Snake himself that he does not fish, but only collects wood mushrooms and washes them from the sand; the Serpent eats it], 118 [evil an uncle seeks an excuse to kill his nephew; demands to bring him the liver of two bears; another uncle's skull advises the young man to turn tree mushrooms into liver; the nephew gives his uncle a false liver]: 139, 187, 297, 594 ; tuscarora? [the hunter met a bad woman in the forest, began to carry meat to her; he brings woody wood mushrooms to the children; says that it is venison or bear meat, that blood has flowed out, shows a bloody arrow; the hunter's wife followed him, exposed him]: Beauchamp 1922:220; penobscot [see motif L72; a shaman pursues a man; he throws a whetstone, soap, tree mushroom, awl; these items turn into stone wall, quagmire, burning path; thicket]: Speck 1935b, No. 46:87.

Plains. Blacklegs: Wissler, Duvall 1908, No. 1 [the spirit explains what images should be painted on the outside of the tipi; a series of Dusty Stars (haze mushrooms used to produce fire) goes down perimeter], 3 [wishing her husband the Morning Star, the girl finds herself in the sky; after digging a large tuber, she makes a hole in the sky; the husband sends her home with the child; the son must stay in bed for 14 days, not stepping on bare ground; breaking the ban, turns into a smoke mushroom, rises to the sky and plugs a hole (=North Star)]: 42, 58-60; arpahoe: Dorsey, Kroeber 1903, No. 6 [see motif B3A; during At the flood, man tells the Raven, Magpie, Jay and other animal people to make a raft of dried mushrooms; the mushrooms get wet, the raft begins to sink; the man tells the White-Nosed Duck to reach the ground; she does not dive to the bottom; a man turns one of his moccasins into a Turtle; a turtle brings clay from the bottom, a man creates land]: 16; Voth 1912, No. 8 [a young man and a leader quarrel over a killed bison; a young man beats the leader, hides; bisons leave with him; people eat mushrooms; a young man makes amulet arrows, chiefs gather and sing, bison comes back]: 46; sheyens [like arapaho in Voth; a young man kills a chief; turns bison manure into buffalo]: Grinnell 1908:274-277.

Southeast USA. Tutelo (saponi) [an old woman with glowing eyes and rattlesnakes on her head sits on a monstrous mushroom; judges the souls of those who do not deserve to enter the world of eternal youth after death; then they are carried away by vultures ]: Byrd 1729 in Dorsey 1894:519; catawba [dwarfs in the forest eat acorns, tree roots, mushrooms growing around trees, smelly turtles, tadpoles; kidnap children]: Speck 1934, No. 32:27; tunic [to the young man was able to climb up the trunk, the woodpecker makes a ladder out of tree mushrooms; the cannibal climbs after; the woodpecker softens the mushrooms, the cannibal falls]: Haas 1950, No. 4:37, 53; Swanton 1911:320; biloxi [see motif K1; the woodpecker lowers Tuhe's tongue like a rope to climb a tree when the cannibal approaches; The owl makes a ladder out of tree mushrooms, attaches one mushroom weakly; the cannibal climbs the mushrooms, falls, her dogs rush at her thinking it's T.; letting her go in the morning; T. comes to her, marries her daughters]: Dorsey, Swanton 1912:99-107; alabama: Martin 1977 [man cuts cannibal to pieces; her heart throws against a tree trunk; it turns into a tree fungus, intestines into vines]: 45; Swanton 1929, No. 13 [while five brothers are hunting, the sixth searches for a tuber that has fallen into the water, finds it tied to a board a baby girl; she becomes the brothers' sister; a sharp ass comes to her in their absence, with his finger in her and holding her over the fire, to lie on her stomach, her back serves as a plate for him; from this she dies; comes to life; twice; the third time, the brothers stay, plant fish on the sharp ass of the spirit, fry, eat fish on his back, he dies, they drop the corpse down the river in a boat; the boat is spinning in one place, five brothers one by one they go to find out why, they disappear; the sixth climbs the persimmon, the ogre who comes up tells her to go down, fight her; he kills her with a baton, cuts off her head; she grows, but on the fourth once the cannibal dies; he throws her heart, it turns into a tree mushroom; her intestines into vines; he cuts off her nose; comes to her daughters, says it's not a nose, but a smoking pipe; told her to lie down, promising tickle, kill with a club; throwing an arrow up, revived those killed from bones; they looked around, turned into a lynx, a crow, a hawk, etc.]: 129-131; koasati [five brothers disappear one by one; the sixth climbs on a tree; an ogre with a basket tells him to get down and fight against it; he killed her with a club, cut off her head, but each time her dicks grew together; pulled out his heart, threw it against a tree, it became a tree mushroom; then she died; the young man brought his sister who was left at home, who put the club in the basket, they came to the cannibal's house; began to assure her daughter that the basket and club were not her mother; asked where the remains of the dead were; young man He threw an arrow up, the dead came to life from their bones; when they left, despite his prohibition, they looked around, turned into a lynx, a cougar, an owl, a crow; sat on an arrow, told his sister to hold his leg, but she grabbed him every time for testicles; he turned it into a partridge, flew an arrow into the sky; in similar stories it turns into thunder]: Swanton 1929, No. 10:169-170.

California. Yurok [the old woman eats only mushrooms; her daughter brings them to her; the old woman always lies down asking her daughter to turn her over; when the girl leans over to her, the mother tries to match her with her penis, which she has she grew up; girl runs away]: Kroeber 1976, No. E4:269; miwok [there are two exogamous fratries; in one, children are named after land animals or everything these animals feed on; members of the other bear names type Frog, Foam on water, Green Mushroom]: Barrett 1908:237.

Big Pool. Monach: Gifford 1923, No. 18 [The mushroom meets the Hawk, informs him of the death of his older brother Falcon], 29 [The seagull returns from hunting, finds no one in the village; turns into an old man, who carries mushrooms; girls ask for mushrooms; he follows them, comes to people dancing with his wife's head in his hands; he grabs his head, runs away, revives his wife]: 351, 364; northern payutes ( Seprize Valley) [if a person dreams of a spirit, he will fall ill; to avert the disease, you have to sprinkle dust collected from the middle of the mushroom cap on his head]: Kelly 1932:199-200.

The Great Southwest. Hopi [mushrooms - maskiisi, "corpse-shade", "corpse shadow"; hopi don't eat mushrooms]: Malotki, Gary 2001:xxxvii.

NW Mexico. Furst 1974 (mine grave culture in Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit, 1st century BC - 4th century AD [ceramic figures in the form of people next to a huge mushroom or with mushrooms protruding from their bodies], figs. 2-4 (other probable specimens in Kan, Meighan, Nicholson 1970, figs. 36, 39-41); Huichol [the cosmological painting depicts foods that Indians ate before agricultural developments: iguana, edible worm, wild fruits; a mushroom is placed in the very center]: Negrin 1979, first colored insert pattern.

Mesoamerica Kekchi, mopan [see motive F34; brothers Keen and Shulab (Morning Star, animal owner) kill the old woman Shkitsa, who lived with; K. says that S., as the eldest, should marry, finds him wife; taking care of animals, Shulab gets up early, comes back in the dark; his wife lights a fire and sees his face; laughs because her husband is ugly and has a beard; he runs away, frightening animals that are since then the pores were wild; S.'s hands were covered in blood because he tried to keep the animals, their tails were cut off; he wiped his hands on the plant (it became edible) and on the old trunk (edible mushrooms grew on it); this is to make up for people's loss of pets]: Thompson 1930:124-125; huastec [xikinte7: 'tree-ear'], itza [xikinche7: 'mushroom (variety) '], mopan [xikin che7:' mushroom '], celtal [chikin=te7:' mushroom '], tusantec [chikin=te:7 'mushroom']: Kaufman, Justeson 2003 [chikin=te7 - "tree ear"]: 1167 (Davletshin 2004, personal message [MOP xikin che7: an edible mushroom is meant]; the motive is also for tocholabal, mocho]; otomi [mushroom, like wood, metaphors for the penis]: Galinier 1990:637; mihe: Barabas, Bartolomé 1984 [narcotic mushrooms are little sons of the earth, messengers of a chthonic deity, our gentlemen]: 43-44; Hoogshagen 1966 [narcotic mushrooms are earthen mushrooms, the voice of the earth, little earthly creatures; ordinary mushrooms do not associate with the earth as a special mythical character]: 313; Lipp 1991 [edible and narcotic mushrooms originated from Christ's blood; narcotic mushrooms - from ancestral bones]: 187; quiche, celtal [some mushrooms (Muscarella?) eat thunder mushrooms: Wasson 1980:229; Tsotsil: Gómez 1996, No. 14 (Chamula) [you can't smell mushrooms, they have dark spots, your nose will be covered with the same spots and warts]: 54; Guiteras-Holmes 1961 (Chenalho) [in the field of a man who responded to God in an unworthy way, mushrooms (a disease that affects corn) grew instead of corn]: 263; southern lacandons [the owner of the underworld and his people eat tree mushrooms instead of tortillas, fly larvae instead of beans, they drink cadaveric liquid]: Boremanse 1986:27, 86, 98, 297; 1989:77; Veracruz, Tabasco, Chiapas, Guatemala (mountains and lowlands) [images of mushrooms in the form of human figures]: Borhegyi 1961; 1963; Wasson 1980, chap. 9, figs. 1-6, 10-13, 17-25.

The Northern Andes. Sinu culture (Darien District; the language of the creators probably belonged to the Choco family) [golden figures of mythological characters topped with a pair of mushroom-shaped protrusions]: Emmerich 1965:76-78; Furst 1974, fig.43.

Llanos. Cuiva [mushrooms are underground people wearing blue-green hats = evil spirits raping women]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1991b, No. 125:187 (note); sikuani [see motive I1; people ate only wild fruits and tree mushrooms ; Kinkaju found a tree on which all cultivated plants grew; people cut it down and received plants; mushrooms are mentioned on p.211)]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1992, No. 46:211-215.

Southern Venezuela. Yanomami: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 19 [a month kills his wife, ascends to heaven; arrows are fired at him, people arise from drops of his blood; former people turn into scorpions, tree mushrooms and vultures], 133 [Smelly Mushroom is the mother of a possum man; gives daughters-in-law its flesh instead of tapir meat]: 57, 247-248.

Guiana. Warrau [because of the invisible mushroom growing in the hunter's arms, his arrows are flying past the target]: Roth 1915, No. 144:214; pemon [for Piaimá forest people, wood mushrooms are cassava]: Armellada 1988, No. 33:94; loco: Roth 1915, No. 123 [forest spirit calls cassava tough mushrooms growing on fallen trees], 145 [like warrau, but mushrooms grow on hunter's arrows]: 193, 215; kalinha [like at the curl, No. 145; the tree frog cleans the arrows]: Goeje 1943, No. d 38:127; wapishana [there was no fire; the girl sleeps in the forest; the Maam bird (Tinamotis elegans) owns the fire, warms it; she brings her home as her husband; her father quarrels with her son-in-law, not understanding why her daughter is collecting firewood; he returns to the forest, taking his fire with him; phosphorescent mushrooms are called maami fire ]: Farabee 1918:113-114; trio: Koelewijn, Riviere 1987, No. 17 [the shaman crosses the river twice on mushroom skis], 28 [the younger brother climbed the tree for the eagle's chick; the elder threw the stairs away, walked away (for no apparent reason); there is a female chick in the nest; the Eagle offers her to a young man as a wife; a year later, the chick grows up, turns into a girl, the young man marries her; the Eagles wanted to teach him how to hunt monkeys; he opened his eyes too early, became visible to the monkeys, they killed him; (The Eagles revived him); now he hunts normally; asked the birds to let him down from the tree; the woodpecker made him a ladder out of mushrooms, he afraid to go down; the parrot lowered it, putting it on a mat like a boat; for this he allowed parrots to eat corn from his field; the young man came to his mother; his brother then told her that the young man had crashed; the younger made a battleship, the elder grabbed it by the tail, the battleship dragged it deep into a hole; came to the surface in an unfamiliar village; local people killed the battleship; the man was bald, thirsty; his descendants among us, this is water people]: 81, 114-117.

Western Amazon. Sekoya: Cipolletti 1988, No. 2b [hero (next month) throws mushrooms into the river, they turn into various types of fish], 62 [husband sees a tree mushroom growing on the forehead of his wife, who has returned from the world of the dead, when she gets angry]: 34, 248; mayhuna [like sekoya, No. 2b; wood mushrooms]: Bellier 1991b, No. 21:252; napo [tree mushrooms have character ears]: Foletti Castegnaro 1985, No. 1e [the twins have risen to heaven, play with bows, producing lightning; younger Cuillur shoots further; Rayu Runa (Thunders) are angry. The main Thunder in anger shot K., who fell to the ground, disappeared; his brother Duciru had been looking for him for a long time, began to tear mushrooms from the roots of trees, K. screamed, ah-ah; this mushroom was Oreja-de-Cuillur ("ear Cuillyur"); D. pulled him out of the tree; the brothers took to heaven and became the Morning and Evening Stars]: 71; Mercier 1979 [a jaguar mother caught under a pile of firewood]: 32; Canelo: Ortíz de Villalba 1989, No. 41 (napo or canelo) [a shaman sees a demon woman with a baby; she tells him to drop fruit from the tree, collects it immediately; he deliberately throws a heavy fruit at her baby, killing him; she sends muraiev, the man knocks them down with a branch; she calls Tican-Uchu, who cannot cut down a tree because his axe is made of wood fungus; calls Mullu; he knocks down a tree, but the person moves to another, runs away ; meets a Deer in kushma; he tells a person to close his eyes, takes him to demons, hiding it in kushma; demons shout that a doctor has come; a woman senses a man, they do not believe her; she calls her lovers to revive baby, it fails; she scolds them; they bury her alive with the baby]: 76-79; Whitten 1976:53 [two brothers find themselves on a cliff in the middle of the river; a caiman carries them; the youngest opens his eyes, falls into the water; one day the elder picks the mushroom, which turns into his missing brother], 177 [the tree mushroom is among the mythological characters depicted on ritual vessels]; 1985 [drowned during the flood, people turned into mushrooms; Canelo men call each other ala (mushroom) = reborn creature]: 92; shuar [husband was crushed by a fallen tree; the widow has a little daughter, gave birth to a baby; she hears the voice of an Owl, says, If you are my husband's spirit, bring firewood; in the evening a skeleton came, brought a pile of bones, invited his wife to lie down with him; she told the girl to pretend that she had diarrhea; her husband's spirit began to wonder what taboo he had broken (did he eat the wrong mushrooms, the wrong fruits, the meat of the wrong birds?) , since the daughter had a stomachache (all diseases from breaking the taboo); took the baby, scratched it; the woman left the burning smut responsible for her, ran away with her daughter to her parents; they hid them in a basket under the roof , they put ash and pepper in their hands; the husband's spirit was tired of waiting, put the baby's head in boiling water, chased his wife; on the way he dressed up and joined the dancers (at this time, the manufacturing festival sloth tans; from this spirit people learned songs); poked into his wife, who threw ash at him, he ran out, died; shuar now makes their own on the model of his jewelry; in the morning they found a dead owl at this place; her the head is covered with moss, and wood mushrooms, "tree ears", stick out of the ears; since then it has been known that owls (buhos) are the souls of deceased relatives]: Pelizzaro 1993:233-234; Aguaruna: Akutz Nugkai et al. 1977 (2) [ the first jaguars hunt mushrooms, not game]: 184; Chumap Lucía, García-Rendueles 1979, No. 39 [returning from hunting, Tsuna (a tree with malodorous leaves) brings edible mushrooms instead of game], 46 [the Jaguar eats mushrooms first; the fox teaches him how to hunt; climbs into the ass of a sleeping tapir, eats the liver, the tapir dies, the fox goes over his side; the Jaguar kills the tapir as they have done since then jaguars]: 457, 485-487.

NW Amazon. Baniwa [a white tree mushroom thrown into the air turns into a toucan that first meets the sun's rays]: Saake 1968:271; desana: Kumu, Kenhiri 1980 [all food from the Balí bó creature; his wife - howler monkey; eldest son Doé (Evening Star), youngest - Abé (Month); A month began to sleep with his wife D.; D. killed him, buried him, did not tell his father and wife; BB became a japu bird, began to fly over four women, asking for food; heard from them how the Month was killed; BB found him, revived him, but his penis was cut off; made a new "moon penis" out of wood fungus; The month entered the house, his brother sang, the Month ran into the forest; all animals and birds came to cry with BB; all cultivated plants disappeared; BB went south to look for a new wife, left the old one with D.; rejected agouti, tapir (skinny legs, yellow eyes), stayed with the father of two daughters; he was given a tasteless cake made from wild fruits; he gave them manioc, drew a circle, created a cassava field; the sisters violated the ban on watching DD create everything, cassava had a peel; urine The eldest grew a weed; the eldest gave birth to the Evening Star, the youngest to the Morning Star; BB told Morning to go after D.; he brought him, D. brought cassava to people]: 141-147; Reichel-Dolmatoff [the youngest son of the Sun sleeps with the elder's wife; he kills his brother; cuts off his penis, throws him into the river, he turns into a uniu fish (penis); the sun will revive his son; masturbates in the forest; the witness is an abe-yeru mushroom ; The sun makes him a new penis for his son; the son soon dies again; the new penis is also thrown into the river, turning into a different kind of fish] 1968, No. 12:204; 1971:261-262; barasana [Manioc-stick Anaconda (a man, not a snake) sets fire to the area around him, burns itself; coals grow cassava on the ground, green and red laconos (Phytolacca sp.) from the liver and lungs; on charred logs (=bones) character) - three types of edible mushrooms; another edible mushroom grows from its skin, another from fat and another (edible?) from the intestines and stomach; bile produces a poisonous fungus and three types of vines bred to produce poison for fish; two fungi (edible and inedible) grow from unspecified special parts of the body; spirit the character turns human again]: S.Hugh-Jones 1979, No. 6B: 293-294; ufaina [four brothers flee the flood on a mushroom encircling a tree trunk]: Hildebrand 1975, No. XXIV: 356; tatuyo [ adyawara is a group of characters acting as one, or older and younger brothers; went to search for land; the owner gave a vessel; before reaching home, the brothers opened, the earth spread, and ulcers appeared on the brothers' bodies; followed the night to the owner of the night; opened the vessel, it became dark; it began to rain; the younger brother flattens the gum of coca leaves, puts it on the tree trunk; the gum turns into a tree mushroom, a shelter from the rain; it began to dawn; the brothers threw Cannes flour after the anteater, now he has a long tail]: Bidou 1972:99; uitoto: Rodríguez de Montes 1981:153 [hiding from the fruit falling on his head, the hero hides under a mushroom encircling a tree trunk], 159 [heroes cook the hearts of their mother's brothers who killed their father by telling her they were cooking mushrooms], 205 [there was no cassava, people ate ants and mushrooms]; chikuna: Nimuendaju 1952:128-129 [in an effort to prevent an opponent from descending from the tree, the hero makes a huge mushroom (Polyporus sp.) grow in a ring around the trunk], 136 [the turtle man feeds only on trees mushrooms, his fiancée doesn't want them], 148 [the cannibal is going to cook a person's liver, saying they're wood mushrooms]; yagua [two warriors come home; find boiled sweet potatoes cooked Vachatare; one does not tell the other to bite off the big one (this is V.'s heart); he bites off; at night V. cuts off his leg; in the morning, one-legged cannot attach it back, throws it into the water; it turns into caimana; one-legged climbs a tree for night monkeys; it's just mushrooms; it turns into a toucan]: Payne 1992:193-195; Powlison 1959:13; 1972a: 81]: Payne 1992:194; Powlison 1959:13; 1972a: 81

Central Amazon. Munduruku [before farming and hunting, humans ate wild tubers and tree mushrooms]: Kruse 1944-1946, No. 12:619; Murphy 1958, No. 2 [Karusakaibo's son killed by wild pigs; father hears him voice, sees two trees; carves a doll, but from a person she has only ears - orehla de pau wood mushrooms; K. makes a new doll, she turns into a handsome boy; see motif F34]: 73-74.

Montagna - Jurua. Machigenga: Baer 1984:367 [(note 1754); at the beginning of time, when the sun was not yet there, the spirits of the dead lived with people, and earthquakes often occurred, tree mushrooms flew through the air and stuck to people], 490 [(No. 22); a man and his children eat a special pineapple; they feel sick, the disease comes out of them in the form of a mushroom]; a shipibo [a young hunter finds rain in the forest, he hides in a hollow; this is a forest dwelling Simsy's spirit; he comes and asks where the guest has beautiful hair; the young man sends him several times to bring a sharp tooth; scalps; tells him to sit on the water for an hour; runs away; first trees, then The Aguchi woman hides it; Aguchi sends wasps to S.; he rubs his penis against pubic hair, gets fire, drives the wasps away with smoke; later comes to a tree where the young man ambushed the birds; climbs on the tree with his feet forward; a young man kills him with an arrow; two weeks later people come to this place; the corpse has not rotted, but is overgrown with mushrooms; when people cut off S.'s lips, he comes to life, thanks those who woke him up, disappears ]: Gebhaert-Sayer 1987:354-356; cachinahua: Ans 1975:72 [turtles fight over the meat of the tapir they killed, which the jaguar hunted; they say they fight over mushrooms, but the jaguar doesn't believe it], 214-232 [cf. . motif F18D; Naimbo builds a staircase, the end reaches the sky; the storm breaks it, takes him far from the village; returning home, he meets various creatures; at night he hears someone afraid that it will rain and they will die; these are mushrooms, they spell and prevent rain; they explain that they know where N.'s mother lives, but they hide here because otherwise she will collect and fry them]; capanahua [girl conceives a son from a worm; he grows up]: Hall Loos, Loos 1980 (2): 77 [his uncle can't catch fish; the boy throws a bundle of all kinds of mushrooms into the river, the river is filled with fish], 95-97 [goes with his grandmother for cassava; picks mushrooms on the way; the grandmother prepares food from tubers, wants to put mushrooms in it, but fish in the bundle instead].

Southern Amazon. Kayabi: Pereira 1995, No. 71 [the louse went for tree mushrooms, got lost, came back thin; another louse quickly brought a lot of mushrooms; the first one wanted to throw them away; they could hardly be separated], approx. 273 [this one the story is told by women removing lice to children; small holes in tree mushrooms are lice nostrils], 115, 156; Rickbacza [the first people eat tapir excrement, tree mushrooms (Polyporus sanguineus)]: Pereira 1994, No. 1 [they do not know onions and arrows; they also eat cassava], 19 [do not know cultivated tubers and peanuts], 23 [The turtle and his wife go for fruit; the wife climbs a tree, sheds her husband only unripe fruit; he creates a tree mushroom around the trunk, leaves; at night, the Night Monkey lowers a vine for her because she allowed her to meet with her; but the Turtle is afraid to go down; same with two other species of monkeys; the woodpecker met her, smashed a mushroom; the woman returns home, leaves her husband, marries a Stork; the former and new husband go fishing, the Turtle caught nothing; did the fish is wooden, the Stork's beak was stuck, the Woodpecker saved him; the turtle woman invited her ex-husband to go for honey; he got up, she cut off the vine; he fell, crashed (traces on the shell)]: 17, 152-155, 168-170, 295 [orehla-de-pau: Polyporus sanguineus]; bororo [a young man magically makes a pregnant beauty; hoping to humiliate him, other men offer to get hawk and eagle feathers for jewelry, cougar teeth and jaguar teeth for necklaces; it turns the leaves into feathers, the log with the red mushroom growing on it into a puma, the log with the black mushroom into a jaguar]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1983, No. 48:103-104.

Chaco. Matako: Barabas, Bartolomé 1979a (= 1978b: 80) [the trickster covers his head with a red tree fungus disguised as a woodpecker (=hero)]: 129; Lévi-Strauss 1976b [mushrooms are Fox excrement]: 235 ; toba [bulb-like black, pink, yellow, green mushrooms are rainbow excrement; used as amulets to protect family members of the deceased from misfortune]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1982b: 353, note 1.

The Southern Cone. Yagans: Wilbert 1977, No. 27 [the baby turns into a man, climbs a tree, throws wood mushrooms (Cyttaria Darwinii) into the mother's vagina; when he comes down, copulates with her], 33 [stone man He pulls all the trees, brings them home; his wives pick mushrooms from the trunks]: 76-77, 93-94.