Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I51A. The four-legged is the support of the earth.

.11.-.14.17.21.-.27.29.-.30.32.-.34.48. (.49.) .50.

A large mammal

supports the Earth or has a large mammal in the center of the earth. See I8B motif.

Swahili, Fulbe, Temne, Mandingo, Hausa, Masai (Eloikob), Arabs and Berbers of Morocco, Kabila, Arabs of Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Thousand and One Nights, Palestinians, Syrian Arabs, (Bori), Apatani, Dafla, Gallong, Miri, Minyong Abor, Tagin, Shan, Sindhi, Himachali Pahari, Rajastans, Marathi, Punjabi, Uttar Pradesh, Bengalis, Kondas, Canicarans, Kuruba, Malays, Bataks, Minangkabau, Ibanas, Toraja, Timor, Atayal, Saisha, Bunun, Tsou, Chinese (Gansu), Bulgarians, Macedonians, Serbs, Bosnians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Romanians, Gagauz, Crimean Tatars, Karachays, Abkhazians, Ossetians, Ingush, Chechens, Nogais, Avars, Kurins, Lezgins, Dargins (Muregins), Khvarshins, Aguls, Kumyks, Armenians, Talysh, Kurds, Turks, Azerbaijanis, Zoroastrianism, Persians, Uzbeks, Pashtuns, Kalashi, Komi, Udmurts, Mari, Kazan Tatars, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Uighurs, Siberian Tatars, Teleuts, Oirats (merchants), kato, yuki, (northern payut), kiliva.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Swahili: Knappertt 1997 [the earth and its surrounding ocean rest on four horns of a bull (or cow) standing on the back of a fish that swims in another ocean]: 310; Struck 1909a (Mswahili) [in Chewa fish swims on the world's oceans, a stone on it, an ox of God on a rock, and a disk of the earth rests on one of its horns; when an ox shifts it to another horn, an earthquake occurs]: 88; Wieschhoff 1939 ( Zanzibar) [the earth rests on the horn of an ox; when he moves it to the other horn, earthquakes occur]: 41.

West Africa. Fulbe [the Koran says that the earth rests on a huge bull standing on a huge toad; when these animals breathe in, the sea overflows its banks, the tide sets; when the exhalation is low tide]: Moreira 1948:236-237; dark [with Mandingos who preached Islam, the idea of a huge being (apparently a bull) on whose head rests the earth; the creature turns but imperceptibly, and only when it turns east does the earth shudder]: Struck 1909a: 88-89; hausa [the land is female, rests on one of the World Ox's horns; when the bull throws the earth to the other horn, an earthquake occurs]: Scheub 2000:224.

Sudan - East Africa. Masai (eloikob) [earthquakes attribute to the movements of a cow holding the earth]: Latham 1859a (2) :171.

North Africa. Arabs of Morocco: Thay Thay 2001, No. 15 (Tafrut - southern Morocco) [the earth carried over the waves; God told the bull to hold it on its horns; its nostrils are on the water surface, so when he exhales, There is a tide, and when the breath is low tide]: 18; Westermark 1926 (1): 114 in Wieschhoff 1939 [the ground stands on the bull's horn, the bull is on the fish, the fish is on the water, the water is in the wind, the wind is in the void, and what is emptiness on, knows only God; when a bull moves a burden from one horn to another, earthquakes occur]: 42; Berbers (?) Morocco (Agadir: Tarrast, Aït Melloul, Inezgane) [land on bull horns; when he throws it from one horn to another, an earthquake occurs]: Thay Thay 2001, No. 16:19; kabila [land rests on the bull's horns, if it moves, the world will die; there are 7 layers of earth and 7 heavens; our layer is the fifth from below, there are two more above; on the lower layer there are tiny creatures hatching from ant larvae; they are angrier and smarter than even ants; there is a tree growing there, if it falls, these creatures will crawl to the ground and everyone will die; they gnaw on a tree and by evening they almost gnaw through the trunk, but go to rest, and the trunk in the night becomes whole again]: Frobenius 1921a, No. 13:83-84; Algerian Arabs (Tiaret Plateau) [a bull holds the ground; when a peacock bites, the bull moos, twitches, the ground shudders; var.: if the bull gets tired, he shifts the earth from one horn to another, an earthquake occurs]: Aceval 2005, No. 98:110; Tunisian Arabs [first the earth swayed on the waves; God placed an angel to support her; under his feet put a red hyacinth rock with thousands of holes, from which water gushes; supported the rock by Keyoutha, which has 40,000 eyes and the same number of ears, noses, tongues and legs; overcome the distance between two legs, you have to move for 500 years; support the bull created al-noun fish, which cannot be seen because of its gigantic size and the sparkling of its eyes; the fish is in the water, keeps the water air, water below, and abysses below it]: Ayadi 2008, No. 79:181-182; the Arabs of Egypt [during an earthquake, a cow holding the land throws it from one horn to another]: Andrew 1878:102 .

Western Asia. A thousand and one nights [an angel explains to the hero the structure of the world; seven lands are one above the other, supported by an angel, an angel on a rock, a bull under a rock, a fish under a bull, a sea under the fish]: Salle 2010 (2), night 496:61; Palestinians [first Allah created the Tables of Destiny recording everything that was and will be; created a giant Pen, told him to write; when the tables were full, A. placed them and the pen in an unknown place; then A. created water and a huge pearl the size of heaven and earth; A.'s voice spread to the first waters, they bubbled, then everything subsided; then A. created his throne, putting it on water; created a winged Wind, telling him to support the waters; a snake lying in a ring around the Throne; his head was a white pearl, his body was gold, his eyes were sapphires; then A. told the Wind to stir up the sea; made of foam land has formed on the surface of the waters, splashes and steam have become clouds; frozen waves have formed mountains; mountains prevent the earth from floating on the waters, their roots go to Mount Kaf, which encircles and holds the world contents; A. turned surface waters into seven concentric seas, separated by the same number of continents, but connected by straits and bays; at first the earth swayed, A. ordered the angel hold it; he wrapped one hand around the world from the east, the other from the west, and so holds it; with the support of angel A. made an emerald rock, placing it on the horns (var.: on the back) of a bull named Behemoth; when the bull shifts the rock from one horn to another, the ground shakes; a bull looking into its ferocious red eyes will immediately go blind; a bull stands on a whale swimming in the ocean created for it; below the ocean and around the world - air resting in darkness, through which the sun, moon, and stars created to illuminate the world move]: Hanauer 197:3-5; Arabs in Syria and Palestine [starting roughly like Hanauer; The purpose of the mountains is to prevent everything on land from sliding into the abyss; Allah divided the waters, creating seven seas separated by land; first the earth swayed on the waters; A. commanded the angel to support it, placing an emerald rock under his feet; A. told the River Horse with sparkling eyes to hold the rock on one of the horns; when this Beast gets tired, he throws the rock to the other horn, the earth shudders; this the creature was generated by Leviathan floating in the waters; A. created the sun, moon and stars to illuminate the land and sea]: Meyouhas 1928:7-11; (apparently, according to the same sources, Gryaznevich, Basilov 1982 (Muslim mythology) [1) the earth rests on the shoulders of an angel leaning on a rock supported by a bull standing on a swimming fish; 2) the earth rests on the horn of a bull, a bull on a fish, a fish on water, water in the air, air on humidity; earthquakes from a bull throwing land from one horn to another]: Gryaznevich, Basilov 1982:184); Yemeni Jews [seven more layers under our land; the informant heard that the earth he rests on the horns of a bull and shudders at his movements, but he doesn't believe it himself]: Nov 1965:267.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Apatani [the buffalo (mithun) Chango-Subbo lies underground, supporting it; moving its ears causes small earthquakes and the body causing large earthquakes]: Elwin 1958a, No. 1:86 (=1958b:94); dafla [Chigo Ngirgo is like a huge stone elephant, but without a trunk or ears; it lies with its head to Tibet, back to Assam, holds the ground; when it turns, the earth shudders]: Elwin 1958a, No. 3:87 (=1958b: 94); gallong [There is a Sichi-Nide-Hargogi creature between the human world and the Wiyus world, which looks like a buffalo (mithun); it turns three times a year, changing seasons - hot, humid, cold; when it shakes, earthquakes happen]: Elwin 1958a, #5:87-88 (=1958b: 95); Miri [the world holds a Nide-Hargogi that looks like a buffalo and an elephant but has four legs, two arms, two heads, two pairs horns, two tongues, four eyes but one nose; he sleeps, and when he sighs, a landslide occurs; every two to three years he turns, causing large earthquakes]: Elwin 1958a, No. 6:88 (=1958b: 95-96; = Pandey 1999:105); aka (chrusso) [the world rests on the back of the Phum-Badra creature; his head faces east, his back to the west; from time to time the Chunchi-Raba-Rubbu insect tells him that all humans and the animals on earth are dead, he is crying with grief, the earth shudders; then people and animals are screaming, We are here, PB calms down]: Elwin 1958a, No. 7:88 (=1958b: 96); miniong [first water, earth below it; Kayum-Sedi-Nane-Wiyu ordered Kayum-Polung-Sabbo-Wiyu, who looked like a huge buffalo (mithun), to dig the runoff with horns; the earth appeared; Wiyu Sedi-Irping-Puing-Idum-Botte lived on the surface of the waters; When the earth was dry, he died, his bones became trees, his wool became grass; when cutting the forest, he must make sacrifices or other Wiyus would shake the ground]: Elwin 1958b, No. 8:96-97; tagin [creature Modi-mobe-ane, with eyes and ears but without legs, horns or tail, holds the ground; when the famous shaman dies, he walks past MM, who tries to block his way, the shaman hits him with a sword, MM shudders in anger , the whole world is trembling]: Elwin 1958a, No. 13:90-91 (=1958b: 98-99); (cf. bori [first one water, buffalo (younger) and elephant (elder) live in it without knowing each other; they meet, quarrel, kill each other; the buffalo flesh has formed earth, trees from the bones, from grass wool; rocks formed from the elephant's bones, mountains from its flesh; after that, Sedi-Melo was born, determined where mountains, rivers, plains should be]: Elwin 1958a, No. 2:8-9, =1958b: 94).

Burma - Indochina. Shan [Mount Meru rests on an elephant's back, an elephant on a curled snake, a snake on a crab, a crab on the sea, a sea in the air]: Cochrane 1915:113.

South Asia. Ancient India: Elwin 1939 [a huge Varaha boar keeps the world; earthquakes occur when it moves from one fang to another]: 330 (note 1); 1949 [the land is supported by the Varaha boar ( incarnation of Vishnu), bull or elephant]: 13; (cf. Rigveda [Father-Sky is Mother Earth's husband; rain is the seed from which all living things are born; sometimes Heaven is depicted as a fertiliser bull or stallion]: Elezarenkova 1972:177, 338); Sindhi [ rooster, bull, ram, camel argued which of them was higher, went to the cadia; rooster: Adam was woken up in paradise by an angel, Adam asked God to wake up in exile, the rooster wakes up properly; bull: God asked whom to approve the land, only the bull agreed, now the land is on the horns of a bull; a ram: when Ibrahim was going to sacrifice Ismail in the Kaaba, God sent a ram from paradise to replace the human sacrifice; a camel: Mohammed has healed a sick camel in the desert and will ride it on Doomsday; nothing will be fulfilled until the camel climbs Mount Arafat; cadi: you are all tall and worthy]: Schimmel 1995, No. 36:222-224; Rajastans [an earthquake occurs when a cow with the earth on its horn begins to shift the earth to another horn; this happens when the earth is heavier from people's sins, and it becomes difficult for a cow to keep it]: Evgenia Renkovskaya, field materials, February-March 2017; himachali plowmen [the brahmana's wife died leaving her young son; the brahmana took another one, her daughter; stepmother harasses stepson, gives ash cakes; black cow hits her hoof, good food occurs; stepmother is surprised that stepson is not hungry, her daughter has to tell everything, stepmother demands her husband to sell a cow; she puts the boy on her back, runs away; they live in the forest, there is a big snake hole that maintains peace with the bull; the cow pours milk there every day; the snake crawls out, performs The cow wants the boy to wear gold clothes, all gilded; one day his golden hair falls into the water, he is swallowed by a fish, a fisherman catches her, brings it to the king, the princess wants to marry only a young man, who has similar hair; he is found, he becomes the princess's husband; remembers the cow, comes to the forest, sees bones, wants to commit suicide; a cow appears: she only wanted to test his loyalty; everything good]: Dracott 1906:83-87; Marathi (Bombay) [Shiva's favorite bull keeps the ground on one of its horns; when shifting to another, the ground shudders]: Enthoven 1924:80; Punjabi [land lies on a cow's horn; if it moves, an earthquake occurs]: Ullah 1959:165; Uttar Pradesh and all of northern India [it is generally believed that when Vishnu, in the form of a boar, shifts the earth from one fang on another, earthquakes occur; according to other options, a bull or an elephant supporting the earth is considered responsible]: Crooke 1894:19; Hindu Bengalis (Sylhet County) [supports the land an elephant standing on a snake and a snake on a turtle; if one of them moves, the earth shudders]: Bhattacharya 1930:122; Muslim Bengalis (Sylhet County) [the earth rests on the horns of a bull, a bull on fish, fish in water, water in chaos; when a bull shakes its head, earthquakes occur; but the bull is immediately bitten by a mosquito and the bull freezes]: Bhattacharya 1930:122-123; canicaran [the ground rests on its horns ox; when he shifts weight (from horn to horn), earthquakes occur]: Elwin 1949:13; kuruba [the earth is disc-shaped; two sisters had an ox; the ground trembled; they decided to secure the ground; fixed, but the ground turned upside down; the older sister fell and died; the younger sister and the ox began to hold the ground on one shoulder and on one horn; when they are tired and put on the other shoulder or horn, the ground shudders; this girl is called Būma-Tāyu - Mother of Earth]: Kapp 1982:235; (cf. cond (Kuttia) [when Nirantali and half of the people came out of the hole in the ground, the cannibal wolf appeared from there; N. smashed his head with a stick, he fell back into that hole, jamming the door; N. cut him off turned her head into an anthill; her eyes turned into stars, her tongue into the sun, her legs four mountains, the tail a vine, the ears were banana plants, the intestines were river snakes, the blood was the Kambell River, the liver was a rice field; people who remained underground were never able to get out]: Elwin 1954, No. 12:432).

Malaysia-Indonesia. Malays [the ground rests on buffalo horns; when one horn gets tired, the buffalo throws its burden less than in the western and eastern United States and the other, an earthquake occurs; the buffalo itself stands on an island in the middle of the sea, on a turtle or on a Nun fish]: Skeat, Blagden 1900:5-6; bataks (Madailing) [the earth rests on one of the horns of the half-snake monster]: Van der Tuuk, t.4:54 in Pleyte 1894: 96; Minangkabau: Loeb 1935 [a flat Earth's disk rests on a bull's horns; a bull stands on an egg, an egg on a fish that swims in the sea; if an insect sits on a bull's ear, it tugs its head, causing earthquakes]: 129; Niemann 1970 (1): 292 in Pleyte 1894 [like bataks; when a bull is bitten by a mosquito, it drives it away, the earth swings]: 96; ibanas [Radja Gantallah (=Petara) rested on lumbu (probably bull or buffalo); created two birds that turned lumbu into earth; lumbu also supports the earth, and it's definitely not a serpent]: Horsburgh 1858 in Stöhr, Zoetmulder 1965:36; Eastern Toraja [1) the buffalo supports the ground; when a fly bites his ear, the buffalo moves, the ground shakes; 2) the goddess Ndara holds the ground on her head]: Adriani, Kruyt 1950, No. 1:370; atoni (mollo) [foti creature in The ground holds the form of a buffalo; when it moves, it shudders, at which time diseases spread]: Kruyt 1923 in Maaβ 1933:276.

Taiwan - Philippines. Atayal: Yamada 2002:64 [there is a huge deer under the sea; when it sticks its ears out of the water, an earthquake occurs], 65 [earthquakes cause an underground bear], 71 [the ground shudders, when a wasp bites an underground carp]; saisha [the ground is supported by a bull; its movements cause earthquakes]: Yamada 2002:65; pauseh [the ground rests on the pig, trembles with its movements]: Yamada 2002:65; bunun [1) like a saisha; 2) the earth rests on a pole, and he stands on a bull that causes earthquakes]: Yamada 2002:65; tsou [there is an animal resembling a horse underground; his movements cause earthquakes]: Yamada 2002:65; ami [1) the ground is swayed by the buffalo underneath; 2) the earth is convex and rests on a pole; the pole rests on a pig; when it itches, the ground shudders]: Yamada 2002:65.

China - Korea. Chinese (Gansu, Wu. Gaolan) [When Pangu separated the sky from the earth, they were still closely connected. He told the heavenly spirits to lift the canopy upstairs, and the earth was too heavy. He mixed his saliva with yellowsoil and sculpted a divine bull, breathed life into it, and sent it underground to lay it on his back. However, Pangu was afraid that the bull would become stubborn or fall asleep, and then the earth would collapse. So he made a rooster to look after the bull. After several tens of thousands of years, the bull was really tired and wanted to sleep, but the rooster, following Pangu's instructions, did not allow him to do so. Then the bull cried and blamed the rooster, but he did not give in. The bull closed loudly out of anger, waved his head three times and shook three times, and the ground on his back began to shake with a crash. The mountains and rivers moved and changed their appearance, and people living on earth said that the earth was an earthquake. In fact, Pangu's bull and rooster were arguing]: Zhou Yang et al. 2001, No. 1:3.

The Balkans. Bulgarians: Gura 1997 [the ground rests on the horns of an ox or buffalo, it stands on fish]: 758; Marinov 2003 [major earthquakes are God's punishment; small and weak ones cause a buffalo that holds on the horns, shifting it from one horn to another]: 63; Plotnikova 1995 (Plovdiv, Rhodope) [a bull, buffalo or deer, which is the support of the ground, shakes its head or horns when in his ear a fly lands; the result is an earthquake]: 313; Macedonians: Tsenev 2004:19 [flat earth floats in water, either rests on a pole or rests on the horns of an ox or several oxen], 23- 24 [1) the earth rests on a pole behind which an ox or buffalo is tied; when it itches, earthquakes occur; the ox licks the pole, it becomes thinner, but Spyriden is hit by blacksmiths and the pillar again recovers; 2) the earth rests on a pole; sometimes an ox comes to it to scratch, the earth shudders; 3) the earth is on a pole, the devil is attached to him, breaks, the earth shudders; 4) the earth rests on three pillars, three oxen are tied to them, they tear, the earth shudders; 5) the earth is on three pillars, the devil is attached to the middle, he breaks, the earth shudders], 24 [1) the ground on the buffalo's horn; when he shifts her on the other horn, the ground shudders; 2) three oxen hold the ground; when one moves her ear, she shudders; when all three jerk, the world will end; 3) the earth on four bulls, when one itches, an earthquake happens]; Ortenzio 2008, No. 10 [land on two beams and those on two bulls; if a bull moves its ear, the earth shudders; bulls grow new hair and they will never die]: 23; Serbs [the earth is quadrangular and rests on four oxen: black in the west, blue in the south, white in the north, and red in the east; they stand in muddy water, drink it and eat it; every year one of the oxen shudders and the ground shudders; as oxen age, they weaken and one day fall to their knees, people will drown; during an earthquake, people try to understand which side they are shaking from; if, for example, from the west, shout: stay black as long as we live (same appeal to oxen supporting the land on the other sides)]: Eschker 1992, No. 73:252 (=Jankovi1951:9-10); Serbs [say peace is worth it on water, water on fire, fire on a bull, and when a bull moves his ear, earthquakes occur]: Karadžić 1852:212 in Kropej 2012:21; Bosnians [land stands on ox, ox on fish]: Janković 1951 : 9; Slovenians [say the world is on a bull {no details}]: Kropej 2012:21; Hungarians [animals keep the ground: bull, buffalo, bear and whale; when they move, the ground shudders]: Sebő k: 107; Romanians [in Oltenia believe that the land rests on fork-shaped pillars and in other Romanian lands that the land stands on a bear]: Ciauşanu 2001:21; Bosniaks - Muslims [land stands on ox, ox on fish]: Jankovich 1951:9; Gagauz people [the earth stands on the horn of a yellow (sara) bull; when he throws it from fatigue to another horn, it happens earthquake; others say that the ground is on fish, and fish turn their tails during an earthquake]: Moshkov 1901:58 (=2004:259).

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Crimean Tatars: Mirer 1940:113 [an earthquake occurs when a huge farmer bull moves], 226-236 [coming to the deva, Akhmet-Achay Ozenbashsky says that he is the hero Ayu, son of Buke- buggy that keeps the earth on its copper horn]; Potanin 1883 (south coast) [1) wind (if) holds water, water holds fish, fish holds a bull, land (Capsychor) is approved on his horn; 2) the earth rests on a buffalo, buffalo on fish, fish on water, water in the wind, wind in the dark; tired, buffalo moves the earth from one horn to another, causing earthquakes (Alushta)]: 799; Karachays [the land rests on three bulls; when they get tired of standing still and start to change, earthquakes occur]: Dzhurtubayev 1991:68; Abkhazians: Bartsyts 2005 [the earth rests between the horns of a bull or a deer; when it moves, Earthquakes occur]; Chursin 1956 [the earth rests on the horns of a bull, twice a year it itches with horns, earthquakes occur (villages. Kaldahvar); at times, a fly flies up to a bull holding the ground on its horns and bothers him; the bull shudders, the ground shakes (sat down. Atara, Kodori County)]: 157; Ossetians: Denisova 2003 [the land is supported by a bull carrying it on its horns]: 22; Chursin 1925a [the earth rests on the bull's horns; when earth is stuffed into the bull's neck or head, he shakes his head why the earthquake occurs]: 82; Ingush: Dalgat 1972 [=Dakhkilgov 2003:22; when God created heaven and earth, the earth was three times larger than the sky; God squeezed it, formed mountains; the earth was wobbling, God created more mountains; the land on the horns of a bull, the bull was tied to a pole; God asked who would keep the land; bulls appeared, agreed that they would not be harnessed on Tuesdays to work, and while driving they will be allowed to urinate while standing; under such conditions they hold the ground]: 64; Dakhkilgov 2003:21-22 [earth has gradually formed from the thickened sea foam; to keep the land, they sent a bull; it has 70 horns, 50 of them stick up; the ground is fortified between two horns; a bull stands on a fish, a fish swims in the sea, the sea is supported by the wind, and it moves according to God's will], 24 [God created the earth, but it hesitated; then God hammered nails into the center of the earth, their hats were mountains; the bull with the earth on its horns is to blame for the fact that it sometimes shakes; he is worried about a fly, then he shakes his head]; Potanin 1883 [ the earth stands on a bull, when it moves, there are earthquakes]: 799; Semenov 1963 [the land on the bull's horns, earthquakes occur when it moves]: 124; Chechens: Dalgat 2004 [God created the earth Three times as large as the sky, then he squeezed it, mountains of earth appeared; to strengthen it, God created stone mountains; the bulls agreed to keep the land on their horns unless they worked on Tuesdays (on Tuesdays It is forbidden to work), and while driving they will be able to urinate standing]: 177; Potanin 1919a [Orion-Duk-Dukartsis ("yoke and thorn"); the world lies on the yoke of two oxen; when oxen shake their heads, it happens earthquake]: 85; Nogais [the ground is between the horns of the Kok-Bug ("sky bull"); if it turns its horns, an earthquake occurs; if the horn breaks, the world may end]: Kapayev 2012:330; Avars [a bull lives in the depths of the sea, goes to land in the summer, the universe rests on its horns; when a horsefly sits on it, a bull waves its head, an earthquake occurs]: Khalidova 2012, № 7:33; Kyurins (Akhta residents) [land approved on the horn of a red bull]: Potanin 1883:799; Tabasarans [flat land is located on the back of the Red Bull; Umchar built mountains, rivers, forests on it, everything is alive; when people are at odds, the Red Bull moves its legs, moves its ears, earthquakes occur]: Khalidova 2012, No. 6:33; Lezgins [the great spirit The four-color Voice first created Heaven and Earth merged together; then created the Red Bull, put Heaven and Earth on its horns so that they would not fall into a dark abyss; the Ox's legs fluctuated in the water, but his head was motionless; CHG fertilized Big Water, she gave birth to the Sun, it rose in a golden chariot drawn by four horses; dirty waters rose behind the chariot, occupied part of the sky; to clear the sky, the Great Father created the god Alpan, gave him a sword- lightning; seeing it, the demons ran away; at the direction of the Great Father, A. waved his sword, separating Heaven from Earth at a distance of a lightning sword]: Khalidova 2012, No. 2:30; Dargins (Muregins) [earth on their back (or on the horn) of a red bull; frightened by a big ant (mosquito), the bull froze; when the ant moves, the bull bounces, the earth shudders]: Khanagov 1892:152-153; hwarshins [Earth is an egg on the Ox's horn; earthquakes occur when the bull turns; in spring, earthquakes occur on the wedding night of winter and spring; in autumn, when grass roots are pulled on Mount Kian-Meer]: Musayeva 1995; aguly [1) land rests on a bull, if the bull's hair moves, an earthquake occurs; 2) the earth rests on three bulls]: Borinskaya 2007, personal message; Rutultsy [the earth stands on the bull's horns when it blinks eye, an earthquake occurs]: Borinskaya 2007, personal report; Kumyks [the earth consists of seven layers; under the lower one there is a bull, holding it on its horns; shifting from one to another, produces earthquakes ]: Hajiyeva 196:329; Armenians: Bagriy 1930 (3) [the ground rests on the horns of a red bull standing in the water; he is bitten by gadflies, scratches his back, and an earthquake occurs]: 128; Melik-Shakhnazarov 1904 [ the ground on the bull's horns, when flies bother him, it moves, the ground shakes]: 91; Talyshi: Asatryan 2005 [the ground stands on the bull's horns, and the bull stands on the fish. When the fish turns its head, an earthquake occurs, and if the fish suddenly moves, the Earth will finally collapse]: 20; Bagriy 1930 (3) [the world is established on the bull's back, one horn in the west, the other on east; there is a wolf in front of a bull, so it cannot step; when a fly bites a bull, it moves its ears, earthquakes occur]: 23; Kurds [the earth rests on the back of a red bull; when he tugs his ears , waves its tail, earthquakes occur; others say that a fly flies near a bull when it flies to the eye, a bull blinks, an earthquake occurs; if a fly sits on the bull's back, it will shake its back , the world will perish]: Chursin 1925b:16; Turks: Gordlevsky 1909 [the earth rests on the horns of the Yellow Bull (Sarah Okuz); under the bull is fish, even lower is the sea; when people's sins fill God's patience, he tells the midge to tickle the bull's nose; the bull waves its head, shaking the ground; if the midge in the bull's nose lingered, it would throw the earth off its horns; out of compassion for people, God does not allow this]: 97 (=1968:74); Serebryakova 1992 [land on one of the red bull's horns; when one horn gets tired, the bull throws the ground to the other horn, an earthquake occurs; the bull on the rock, the one on the back of the fish, the fish in the water]: 71-72; Furati 1889 [Theological treatise Kyrk Sual by Furati (16th century): After the creation of the seven heavens and lands, God created an angel and ordered him to wear all seven heavens; this angel must support them on his neck until on the very day of resurrection; since his feet remained hanging in the air, God ordered the angels to bring a red ruby from upper paradise and place it under the feet of an angel holding heaven; for this stone remained in the air without support, a bull with four legs was brought out of paradise; a ruby was placed between the bull's shoulder blades; since the bull was hanging in the air, God produced one ship, 550 years in size and ordered the bull to board it; the ship remained in the air, so God created the Labonador fish and ordered the angels to put the ship on the back of the fish; this is the fish mentioned in the Koran; it supports with his back the ship, and with it everything that is held on it, i.e. seven lands, seven heavens, the arch of heaven, the throne of God and his dwelling; since the fish was left without a foothold, God created the sea and put it in it]: 7-8; Azerbaijanis (Elisavetpol Gubernia) [an angel holds the earth, stands on a rock, a rock on a bull with 4000 eyes and the same number of ears, snouts, tongues and legs; a bull on a fish; at the end of the world, God will take the earth to his left hand, heaven will overturn to his right hand, earth will be different, heaven and hell will be abolished]: Shirakuni 1904:211-212.

Iran - Central Asia. Zoroastrianism [basic information in the Bundakhishna" (written record approx. 9th century AD), Avesta (Yasna 42.4) mentions the "righteous donkey" standing in the middle of the sea Vouru Kasha; the donkey "stands in the middle of the sea Frehvkard", has three legs, "six eyes, nine mouths, two ears, one horn, the head is blue, the body is white, the food is spiritual and it is righteous (?)" {quoted from Chunakov 2004}; he is the size of Mount Hunvand, he can "cover Mazendaran" with his ears; when he screams, all female water creatures, Ormazd's creations, become pregnant, and all females of harmful water creatures they throw it away; when he urinates in the sea, the water is purified, his bowel movements are amber, he cleans the polluted water with his gaze]: Kryukova 2005:127; Chunakova 2004:219-221; Persians [when Ali fought, God sent two powerful angels to hold his hand with a sword in it; otherwise he would not only chop his enemies to pieces, but also destroy his horse, the land, the bull holding it on its horns, the fish on which he stands bull, and that's it]: Donaldson 1938:82; Uzbeks [Abdullah ibn Masgud, Muhammad's associate, asked him about the structure of the world, received answers; the land on the horn of a bull, which has 500 head to tail years of travel, 250 years of travel between horns; Satan invited the bull to relieve the burden; the bull shook his head; the Lord told the fly to crawl into the bull's nose and sting it; the bull roared, since then his name howler is bakar; the fly will be sting a bull until resurrection; a bull wants to throw it off, the earth shudders; a bull stands on a fish that has 500 years from head to tail; fish on water, water in the wind, wind over hell, hell on a platter, dish in hand angel Daryail, angel on a worm under the seventh tier of hell]: Ostroumov 1890:161-162 (=1906:154-155; retelling without reference to a source in Gornensky 2000:157-159); Pashtuns [people in the Khost area believed that the ground lies on the head of a huge bull, and a mosquito lives in its nose; when the mosquito moves, the bull starts to shake its head; this is what causes earthquakes; some believe that the earth lies on its horns bull; when one horn gets tired, the bull throws the ground to another]: Lebedev 2003:356; kalashi [the world lies on the bull's horns; when flies tickle it behind his ear, it moves, an earthquake occurs]: Ali Shah 1974:73.

Volga - Perm. Komi-Permyaks [three horses each take turns holding the land; when black - hunger and pestilence, white - war and death, red - prosperity]: Konakov 1999, No. 6:433; Udmurts: Vereshchagin 1996 [ the bull walks in the ground and oscillates it]: 128; Yemelyanov 1921 [a black bull lives underground (music ukys osh, mu-osh), which stands on the back of a fish swimming in the underground sea; the bull holds on its own horns, earthquakes occur due to the movement of horns]: 136 in Vladykin 1994:81 (same in Perevozchikova 1988:18; 1993:252); Marie: Potanin 1883 [land approved on bull horns; one already broke when another one breaks down, the world will end]: 799; Holmberg 1927 (Ufa Cheremis) [there is a huge crab in the ocean, a bull stands on it, keeps the ground on its horns; earthquakes occur when it moves]: 312; Tatars [the earth rests on the bull's horn, the bull stands on the fish's mustache; water encircles the earth, rests in eternal darkness]: Vorobyov, Khisamutdinov 1967:314; Bashkirs: Aminev 2005 [the author heard from grandmothers: peace on a brown bull, when it gets tired and moves, the earth shakes]: 59; Barag 1987, No. 12 [=Nadrshina 2001, No. 14:185; the earth stands on a bull, a bull on a fish (or three fish); while the Ox and the Fish were arguing, which of them will be the first to see the Year coming to them, the Mouse climbed the bull's horn, the first to see the rising sun, the year; therefore, the musal (12-year cycle) begins with the year of the mouse]: 37; Nadrshina 1986 [the earth rests on bull or pike (or just fish); bull movements cause earthquakes (material exp. 1984)]: 19; 2001, No. 2 [there is a huge fish in the water, three bulls on the fish, and six of these bulls have land]: 180.

Turkestan. Kazakhs: Potanin 1881, No. 8g [fog (bu) lies on the surface of the ocean (or large lake), a jain stone on the surface of the fog, a kog-oguz (blue bull) stands on a stone on four legs and horns support the land where our cattle and I walk]: 153-154; Potanin 1972, No. 7 [the world stands on a whale mustache and on the horn of a gray or blue bull]: 61, 303 (note; belief goes back to the Quranic legends; =1916, No. 23:114); Chuloshnikov 1924 [the earth rests on a huge fish that swims on water supported by steam and wind; the earth is girded by a dragon (aidagar); on its edge stands a blue bull, holding the whole sky on one horn; people in the sky wear a belt under their throats, like the people of the earth wear it on their lower back, and underground people on their feet; among the people of the sky there is an old woman of great stature; eats 40 rams at once , 40 cakes, drinks 40 months (leather vessels) of koumiss; she milks her colorful sheep after the rain; then the sheep are seen in the form of a rainbow, a kempir kosak; a killer is two rows of sheep tied together, to milk, with their heads closely along a rope stretched across the ground]: 242; Kyrgyz [the earth rests on the golden horns of a black bull; when he throws the earth from horn to horn, earthquakes occur; when a bull breathes, steam comes out of its nostrils, comes out in the form of earthly fumes]: Poyarkov 1900:33 (=Brudny, Eshmambetov 1989:108-115); Uighurs [a bull keeps it underground on one horn; when sins accumulate, he gets tired, shifts the earth to another horn, earthquakes occur]: Katanov 1897b:44.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Siberian Tatars: Urazaleev 2007 (Tarsky - middle Irtyshye) [the earth is like a cloak draped over a water surface; located on the horns of a Sur-Poga bull; it is attached to the fish-like mustache Ashtah monsters swimming in the ocean]: 4; Yarzutkina 2012:91-92 (Tarsky and Kurdak-Sargat) [the earth rests on the bull's horns; when he turns towards the sun, the day comes when aside moons - night], 92 [Bashirova 1984:87-88; land on the horns of a bull standing on a fish that swims in the underground ocean; there is Donya Bashlygy ("the old woman's universe"); she is supported on one horn by a bull standing on one leg; based on his actions, they explain various natural phenomena]; Teleuts [round earth under an iron cover (temir kapkak) -the sky rests on four blue bulls (kök puga); therefore, that tired bulls start to move their legs, earthquakes occur]: Funk 1997:54 (=2005:117); Oirats (merchants) [the earth rests on a gray bull (kök-buhu); when it moves, there are earthquakes; the wind is its breath; it is impossible to approach the edge of the earth, where it meets the sky, due to the heat]: Ivanovsky 1890a: 263; (cf. Mongols {same traders?} [the earth rests on the horns of a bull]: Moshkov 1901:70, note 33).

California. Kato [the sky has fallen, the first world is dead; from the north comes the horned animal-Earth; where deep, water reaches his shoulders; the Earth lies in a shallow place; Nagaytecho puts clay between his eyes and on horns, this is how he creates the earth]: Goddard 1909, No. 1:183; yuki: Foster 1944 [the land is supported by an elk (milatehen), uk-milatehen ("water elk") and a mole; when one of them moves, it happens earthquake; clouds are their breath]: 233; Kroeber 1932b [Taikomol makes the ground on the sea surface, weaving it like a basket; puts pillars; puts something like moose below to hold the ground]: 914, 916.

Big Pool. Northern Payutes (?" western numas") [big bison holds the sky (no details)]: Powell 1971:243.

The Great Southwest. Kiliva: Meigs 1939 [it was night; Metipá took water in his mouth, spat south, north; took more, spat west (sea arose), east (Gulf of California); smoked, sea grew; created four mountains, each with a mountain ram (on NE, SE, NW, SW); sheep horns, respectively (the informant does not remember who is in which direction) are dark brown and blue, yellow and the color of oak bark (tan), silver and gray, red and white; took off his skin, pulled it over his horns, but it sagged; told the Mole to dig a passage around the world; a ridge formed, over which M. pulled his skin, and the Mole with his paws and he lifted his skin with his head around the perimeter of the world]: 64-65; Olmos Aguilera 2005 [Coyote People Moon appeared in the dark; he gave light; took water into his mouth, sprayed it on four sides of the world; the south turned yellow, the north - red, west black (the sea became there), east white; defined the zenith and nadir, the sky blue, the earth the colors of paper (amate); lit a cigarette, fell asleep, the smoke of his pipe formed all the roads of the earth and sky; He made two pairs of mountain rams out of calves; put them on four mountains to support the sky with horns; The mole dug around the world, fixed the cover; created four ancestors of the kiliv from clay; from their union with Other animals were born as Deer, Fish, Pheasant, Cat; CLL created the Sun, fell ill himself, died, became a bird; offended that no one came to chant memorial chants; told the Deer to hide the darkness in the bag, thus taking the night away from the people; ordered the bag to be handed over to the Puma and not to open it, he handed it to the Snake, that Eagle, etc.; in the end, the Fox handed it to the Coyote, who opened it out of curiosity, the darkness flooded the world, the light disappeared; the Puma came running to CLL, said they did not know the chants, that only he knew them; he admitted it, told Coyote to fire arrows in four directions, zenith and nadir; day came again; CLL became the Month, walking across the sky]: 103-117.