Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I74. Stars are stones. . (.21.) .23.25.26.


Stars are (bright) stones, sparkles, beads.

Pare, Teda, Bretons, Mara, Anula, D'Entrcasteau, (toto), baiga, (juang), Panayans, Tingyan, Ilokan, Isneg, Bukidnon, Chinese (Sichuan), Miao, Bulgarians, Abkhazians, Armenians, Wakhans, Ishkashim, Mordovians, Kazakhs, Evens, Nanais, Udege, (Orochi), Manchus, Kodiak, Maricopa, Tunebo, Guahiro.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Pare [Izuwa (sun) is male, Mweji (moon) is a woman, they gave birth to humans; stars are pebbles in the moon's hand when she consults an oracle about having children]: Millroth 1965:28.

Sudan — East Africa. Ted [at the birth of every person, Gabriel puts a new star stone in the sky; the richer and more powerful a person is, the brighter his star is]: Kronenberg 1958:106.

Western Europe. The Bretons [stars are diamonds left on land after the sea has ceased to cover the sky; they still have enough water to form a river (probably the Milky Path), in which billions of stars are “en formation”]: Sébillot 1904:10.

Australia. Mara, anula [old hawk Kakan opened fire with friction; quarreled with the White Hawk, as a result, the ground caught fire; before that, men, women, children climbed the pine tree every day to the sky; now the pine tree has burned down, some people did not have time to descend, they remained in the sky; the stars are crystals implanted in their heads, elbows, knees and other joints]: Spencer, Gillen 1904:628-629 in Maddock 1970: 187.

Melanesia. D'Entrecasteau [stars in the sky are like sand and rocks on the ground]: Jenness, Ballantyne 1920:160

(Wed. Tibet is the Northeast of India. Toto [Itpsa came down from heaven, made man and animals, and returned to heaven for a stone soul for humans to make them immortal; he forgot to remove the stairs (i.e. a log with notches) leading to the room where the figures were located; Pidua (his brother, the owner of the forest and spirits) climbed there, sprinkled water on the heads of humans and animals, they came to life; when he saw I., P. ran into the forest; I. threw stone life into the sky and its parts became stars]: Majumdar 1991, No. 3:207-208).

South Asia. Baiga [1) stars are trees growing on clouds; 2) stars are made of diamonds; 3) stars are children of the moon, whom she spit out of her mouth, descend to the ground for food and drink]: Elwin 1939:335; (cf. juang [Rusi lived in an anthill; sometimes he went out and drummed a grindstone; once he drummed for 12 years, the stone and everything around him caught fire; the gods asked Fire to settle in a certain place promised to respect, offered to live in stones and trees; therefore, Fire is offered to smoke before the rest of the gods; The grain grater has become the sun, the grain washer (grinder) is the moon that flew off from grinders hot pieces - stars]: Elwin 1949, No. 12:114).

Taiwan — Philippines. Panayan [Tungkung Langit and his wife Alusina were the first to appear; she was senselessly jealous, he drove her away from nowhere; wanting to attract her and bring her back, he created the sea, then the land; hers He turned the necklace into stars, the comb into the moon, the crown into the sun; when he cries for it, it rains]: Eugenio 1994, No. 31:82-83; Tinghian [Kadaklan created a flat earth, sun and moon that are chasing underground one after another; sometimes the Moon almost grabs the Sun, but gets tired and lets go; the Sun and Moon are Cadaclan's light, just like the stones that are stars; his dog is lightning]: Cole 1915, No. 62:189; ilocan: Eugenio 1994, No. 43 [the husband brought a deer; the wife began to pestle the bones, placing the comb and necklace in the sky, which was low; the pestle knocked on the sky, she asked every time the sky moved away; the sky rose, the necklace became stars, the comb became the moon], 55 [the same, the husband was breaking the rice; the stove also rose to the sky, which became the sun]: 104-105, 119; isneg [the sky was low; wife she destroyed the rice slowly; the husband began to raise the pestle on a grand scale, touched the sky with its end; the sky rose, taking with him a necklace (the beads became stars), the comb (became the moon), the flaming hearth (became the sun), a vessel with a lid; when the moon is full it is a vessel, when it is not there, a lid]: Eugenio 1994, No. 45:106; bukidnon [the old maiden destroyed rice by putting a comb and necklaces in the sky; the pestle rested against the sky, she hit the sky harder, it rose; the comb became the moon, the necklace beads became stars]: Eugenio 1994, No. 62:125.

China — Korea. The Chinese (Sichuan, Wu. Guanghan) [the evil Gungun killed many people, he had a horn growth on his head; the more people he killed, the bigger the growth became; when he finished killing people, the growth became tall, as big and heavy as a mountain, began to press down Gungun; he became angry and hit Mount Buzhou, which served as a pillar of heaven; the mountain collapsed, the ground shook, and large and small holes through which the waters of the heavenly river flowed to the ground; Nuiva realized that all living things on earth would die in the waters of the flood, collected stones and filled large holes with them, and filled them with small stones small; stars are small stones that Nuiva used to patch the sky; after a long time, the stones decayed, loose and began to fall down; people say that stars defecate]: Zhou Yang et al. 1998 , No. 4:26; Chinese (Sichuan, Wu. Wanxian) [In ancient times, the Heavenly Lord, in order to prevent people from losing their conscience, gave Brother Month only one silver stone. But I thought it was too little for a month and secretly took a few more. As he came out of Heaven's Gate, the Lord of Heaven saw him, waved his sword, and cut off more than half of him. The silver stones in his hands split and scattered across the sky. This is how stars appeared in the sky, and the month became incomplete. During breakfast, the inhabitants of the palace saw that only less than half of the month was left, and began to beg Heavenly Lord, and he made it full again. After breakfast, he began to gradually lose sight of him, and so the moon turned out to be a flawed one. The silver stones were freed, and to thank him for a month, they asked them how they could help him. A month replied that his flawed body was not enough to shine at night and asked for stones to help him. They agreed, and so stars appeared in the sky]: Zhou Yang et al. 1998b, No. 13:13-34; Miao: Tishkov 1957 [the stone rolls down the mountain, in which baby San, the old man and the old woman raise him; two dragons got into a fight over nine peaches in a tree in front of the cave, broke the sky, got badly injured, the eldest lay down at the bottom, the youngest in a cave; rain is pouring through a hole in the sky, snow is falling; greenbearded the elder tells S. to marry the daughter of the bear lord, who lives on a mountain pole; gives his bast shoes, stomp them at the foot of the mountain; the two eldest daughters refuse to work and repair the sky, the youngest agrees; tells him to get a hammer out of the dragon's horn, be nails; gives him his bast shoes, stomp them at the foot of the mountain; two eldest daughters refuse dragon teeth; barely alive dragons give him one — their horn, the other — teeth; S. and his wife fly up to the sky on two rams; with a white wool handkerchief she covers the largest crack (the Milky Way); stars — nails driven during repair from dragon teeth]: 15-24 (quail. Cherkasova 196:232-242); Schotter 1911 [the sky was low, he was touched by a burden of brushwood, a pestle of rice; his great-grandfather picked it up, placing incense wood supports in the four corners; stretched out colored canvases, which made multi-colored clouds and multi-colored stones; made the sun out of gold, the moon out of silver, stars from colored stones; dwarfs live underground, whose eggshells serve as vessels; Giants live in the sky]: 326.

The Balkans. Bulgarians [stars are holes in the sky through which God looks at the earth; candles (a person is born - a new one appears); splashes of dirt, clay played by the Christ child; stones that God and the devil was thrown into the sky]: Stoynev 2006:132.

Caucasus — Asia Minor. Abkhazians [Sasrikva took his sister from the sledges; they decided to escape from shame to a place where no one knows them; on the way they met a witch riding the rooster of the deity Shashva, her stirrups were thorns, a whip - snake; she explained to the sledges that S. would die if his right, steel leg was broken; others claim that his left leg (and arm) was iron, his right leg was made of steel; sledges offered S. to break his knee stone; he broke it with his left foot, pieces scattered across the sky like stars; when he put his right leg up, it broke, he died]: Inal-ipa 1977:24-25; Armenians (Zangezur) [mystery: you can't plow the fields, and stones cannot be counted (sky and stars)]: Grigorov 1892:123.

Iran — Central Asia. Vakhans, Ishkashim [Shaitan climbed into heaven, God started throwing stones at him, now these stones are stars]: Bobrinsky 1908:107.

Volga — Perm. Mordva [Shkai made the sky, then made stars out of stones collected on the ground]: Devyatkina 2004:27.

Turkestan. Kazakhs [stars, according to some Kyrgyz, are nothing more than large mountains of precious stones]: Valikhanov 1985:56-57.

Eastern Siberia. Evens [old woman Guna embroidered beads across the sky — stars appeared]: Podmaskin 2013:64-65.

Amur-Sakhalin. Nanais [stars are gems in the hands of heavenly inhabitants]: Lopatin 1922:330; Udege people [stars are bright celestial stones]: Arsenyev, archive, in Bereznitsky 2003:80; (cf. Orochi [stars — pegs]: Arsenyev, archive, in Bereznitsky 2003:80); Manchus [it's dark on earth; the daughter of a heavenly god asks her father to build the land, but he refuses; she descends herself down, her father forbids her to go back; she pulled out her left eye, threw it into the sky, it became the sun; her right eye became the moon; she threw a pearl necklace, it became stars; she turned into a mountain herself; her The silhouette resembles the top of an eyeless female figure]: Bäcker 1988, No. 1:5-8.

The Arctic. Kodiak [rocks were scattered on the floor of the big drums; people threw them into the sky and they became stars; first the sky was close to the ground, then rose]: Pinart in Lantis 1938:136.

The Great Southwest. Maricopa [see motif B1; water floods the world; Cucumat and Isasipas (hereinafter also Sipas) sink to the bottom; I. pops up first, answers K., who kept his eyes open; K. goes blind from salt water; both swim on a log, gradually the water descends, but around the swamp; one of them digs a hole, pulls out sand, scatters it, the earth dries up; I. rolls his hair into a ball, puts it on the eastern sky, making the sun; from the nail, the moon; placing it on different sides of the world, it slides off; when it stays in the sky to the west; throwing sand into the sky, creates stars; I. and K. make people out of clay]: Spier 1933:345-352.

The Northern Andes. Tunebo [stars are pebbles that Bistoá picked up in the house where they drank chicha (the whole world is the home of the gods); Karasa decorated the house with them so they can stay there until the end of the world]: Márquez 1980:653; guajiro [stars — jewelry thrown into the sky]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1986 (2), No. 68:675-694.