Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I76A. The snake is made by a dragon.

.22.23.26.-.30.32.-.34. (.35.51.)

After a certain period of time, the snake or fish turns into another creature, usually a dragon.

Viets, Kashmiris, Tamils, Maldives, Ancient China, Koreans, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Croats, Serbs, Romanians, Hungarians, Poles, Slovaks, Western Ukrainians, Belarusians, Karachays, Armenians, Vakhans, Turkmens, Zoroastrianism, Persians, Dards (Kho), Kazan Tatars, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Khalkha Mongols, (Mansi, Eastern Khanty, Tarahumara)

Burma-Indochina. Vieta [between the 4th and 8th of the fourth month, the carp passes the test and if it survives it, it turns into a dragon; therefore, carp is highly valued]: Pouchat 1910:608.

South Asia. Kashmiris [the king is chasing a deer, he ran away, on the way back the king saw a girl crying; she said that she was the daughter of a padishah of China, enemies attacked, she fled; the king married her; feels he is getting worse; the yoga disciple flew over the palace, went down, fell asleep on the king's bed; grateful to the king for not taking away his box; he returns with his rishi; he explains that the king's wife is snake; let the king give it salty food and hide the water; at night it will turn into a snake, crawl for water; the king sees it all; rishi: if no one looks at a snake for a hundred years, it becomes jahmar; in the next hundred years, ashdar; if 300 years old, viha; viha can stretch any distance, take on any form; rishi tells you to push his wife into the oven to bake bread; in the ash will turn out to be a stone, it turns all metals into gold; whether ash also had special properties, the rishi did not say]: Knowles 1888:233-239; Tamils (Malabar) [there are precious stones in the ground; some snakes blow at them and after a long time turn into flying snakes; they fly with these stones in their mouths; a comet is such a snake]: Thurston 1912:90-91; Maldives [lives inside a sea cucumber a small, thin fish; at a certain time it sails into the depths of the ocean and becomes giant, capable of swallowing ships]: Romero-Frias 2012, No. 76:279-280.

China - Korea. Shu and ji (6th century y.e.): Fisser 2008 [Visser 1913; the water snake (shui yuan) changes after 500 years into jiao (scaly snake), that after 1000 years into the moons (dragon), that 500 years later in Tse Long (horned dragon) and 1000 years later in ying moon (winged dragon)]: 79 (quoted in Ivanov 1949:136-137); Gan Bao 2004, No. XII.300 [pheasant who survived to a thousand years becomes an oyster; up to a hundred years, a sparrow becomes a mussel; up to a thousand years a turtle speaks like a person; up to a thousand years, a fox turns into a beauty; up to a thousand years, a snake explodes and grows in parts; You can guess a rat that has lived to be 100 years old]: 160-161; Koreans: Ionova 1969 [the serpent turns into a dragon 3000 years later and flies to heaven]: 186; Gale 1900 [after the snake has lived for a thousand years in mountains and a thousand years in the water "following closely the doctine", it is made by a dragon]: 332; Choi 1979, No. 130.1 [poor young man goes to the mountains to commit suicide; beauty invites to his place; he visits parents, who are rich, it is the beautiful woman who sent wealth; on the way back, the old man says that his wife is a centipede, gives cigars; the young man lights a cigar, the beauty turns pale, he throws the cigar out the window, she falls into the eye of a snake, it dies; the beauty explains that she (the centipede) and the big serpent competed to see who would become a dragon and fly into the sky; with a blow of thunder, she soars into the sky; blessed rain turns barren land into fertile land], 130.2 [a scientist meets a girl on the way; his friend says she is a centipede, always covers her chest; she admits that she has three centipedes on each nipple; She had 3 years to 1,000 years to turn into a dragon; now her secret has been solved, she is turning into a centipede]: 46-47, 48.

The Balkans. Bulgarians: Gura 1997 [a snake that has lived for forty years becomes a snake; a snake that has lived for forty years grows wings; if a snake that has lived forty years has not been seen by a person's eyes and has never been beaten, he becomes a snake; after many years, the serpent itself turns into alu, lives in the sky among the stars; a snake that lives to 40 or 100 years old becomes a snake (azdraa) with seven or nine heads, and seven tails and devours everything in its path; the snake comes from a hundred-year-old carp]: 298-299; Marinov 2003 [a snake grows wings after 40 years, a snake turns into smoke (about the same as challah)]: 164; Macedonians: Gura 1997 [when snakes are forty years old, they grow wings, they go to hell to torment sinners]: 299 (same Marinov 2003:164 among Bulgarians); Plotnikova 2004 [demon lamya comes from a snake or snake, which after a hundred years reaches a huge size and releases paws with sharp claws and large wings]: 78; Croats (Dalmatia) [a snake becomes a snake when it reaches the age of 100] : Gura 1997:299; Serbs [such an old snake gets legs, turns into ala; into a snake king; a serpent comes from a forty-year-old carp]: Gura 1997:299; Romanians [Into a dragon (balaur) turns into a snake that no person has seen for 7, 9, 15 or more years if it has not seen sunlight herself]: Civian 1979:204; Romanians [balaur appears as a huge, giant snake with wings that moves through the clouds; the origin of the balaur is associated with a snake whose tail falls off, legs grow as a result of some unusual circumstances, for example, in a snake that has not been seen by any person for 7, 9, 15 years or more; snakes are often presented as the ultimate image of the metamorphosis "common snake - balaur - a snake", i.e. a balaur that no one saw for the next 7 years, or a balaur who sucked a black cow]: Plotnikova 2008 (with references to Muşlea, Bîrlea 1970:185; Bîrlea 1976:458); Hungarians [shuffling is usually portrayed as a scaly dragon or a winged snake; the dragon could come from a pike that has been in dirty water for a long time, or a rooster that has run away from home and hiding in the middle of nowhere; he was looked after and turned into a shuffler by a sorcerer; or the shuffling comes from a runner that lived in empty places for a long time, grew to the size of two cows, with wings and with a few heads]: https://fantasticbeings.fandom.com/ru/wiki/%D0%A8%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%8C.

Central Europe. Slovaks [a snake that no one has seen for seven or nine years grows wings]: Valentsova 2014:319; Poles: Gura 1997 [the snake comes from a snake with a golden crown; every seven years, it grows one head at a time; a winged seven-headed snake can be anyone that neither man nor beast sees for seven years; not only a snake, but also a frog that has not heard the bell ringing for seven years, turns into a winged seven-headed snake; the frog is more dangerous: the snake only grows legs, but the frog already has legs, it grows wings and two tails with arrows; the snake becomes a frog, seven years not who has seen the sun]: 299; Moshkov 1901 (Kalisz Gubernia) [(=2004:269); anyone who has not been seen by the eyes of a man or animal for seven years turns into a winged snake with seven heads; the sun has scorched its wings such a snake so that it does not bite people; if he has not heard the church ringing for seven years, he will also turn into a winged serpent]: 67; Western Ukrainians: Gura 1997 [the seven-headed snake language comes from a snake that has not heard the bell ringing for seven years; in the Hutsuls, the language viper becomes winged and seven-headed if not a single person or animal has seen it for seven years; according to Ukrainians in Transcarpathia, from a winged shuffle grows in deserted areas in seven years; if anyone sees it, it will stop growing; in villages above Uzhey {Smolenskaya Gubernia, most likely Belarusians} and partly in the Svalyava area (Transcarpathia) they believe that when he grows up, he flies into the forest and settles in a cave; according to other beliefs, shufflers live at the end of the world; shuffling causes a tornado, a storm]: 292-293, 298-299; Chubinsky 1872 (Vinnytsia County) [if the viper lives underground without going out into the light of God, 30 years old, it will turn into a runner; when it goes to earth, no one is spared from it, it devours everything]: 65; Belarusians (? Polesie, ethnicity is not specified) [if a person has not seen a snake for seven years, it has horns on its head, and wings and feathers on its body, and turns into a flying snake]: Plotnikova 2009:440.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Karachayevtsy: Karaketov 1995:19 [1) If a snake lives near a lake or swamp and does not see a person for 20 years, it turns into a dragon], 19-21 [Al-Jelan ("male snake") lives in the underground the world is 999 years old, trying twice to move to heaven and the middle world across the World Ocean (Doluan Tengiz), a lake, a spring, a well and a swamp; diesel fuel is located beyond nine ravines, nine rivers, nine rivers, nine mountains, where there is a small island "where the gods live", formed from the blood and skin of the beast (i.e. the Snake) and from the mud from the roof of its house; the island is also located on the edge of the ocean where it grows a red oak with two bare peaks and a "seeing" hollow; the lake is often identified with a lake. Hurla-Köl, a spring at the top of Elbrus, a swamp near the Tree of Life (it grew until the 1940s in the Gunalary area); every 420 years, the gods move to Elbrus from the island, and then ED comes out on the surface of the sea to be seen by the Gullu-Chypchik bird, which foreshadowed the beginning of ED legs with feathers and wings; legs reached the required level within 9 years, wings after 570 years; during certain periods between January and February and summer, black chicken or rooster must be donated (in winter), at which time ED legs and wings grow faster; if a person sees this process, there may be earthquakes, wars, etc.; before deportation in June 1943, a snake was seen flying across the sky], 69 [if a snake has not seen a person for 20 years, it turns into a dragon (Saryubek); S. grows legs, he begins to harm people and their property at night; then it doesn't grow wings and fly to heaven; if a person sees this, you should slaughter a goat and black chicken and take it to the lake before sunrise] ; Armenians: Harutyunyan 2004 [a vishap that has lived to be a thousand years old can swallow the whole world]: 198; Zelinsky 1882, No. 6 [if a snake does not see a person for 100 years, it will become a vishap]: 48.

Iran - Central Asia. Wakhans [nak is the name of a huge mythical fish, a water monster; "If a fish stays in the water for a long time, it turns into a nak, it grows teeth, it becomes striped like a palace"]: Steblin-Kamensky 1999:242; Turkmens [large snakes that have not seen a person for 40 years (or another period) turn into ajdarkha; after that they become huge, capable take the form of any creature, protect treasures; after 80 years, ajdarha turns into yuvha or yuha, who can turn into anything, most often beautiful; legends say about villages devastated by Azhdaha; Musa Pihamber throws his hasa staff, made of zeytun (olive) wood, into the mouth of Azhdaha, she chokes on it, after which swallowed people come out of her womb; or a staff is called ak ("white") azhdaha, he swallows punishment ("black") azhdaha, i.e. ajdaha itself]: V.V. Ivanova, personal report, 2007; Zoroastrianism ("Neyrangistan") [when the snake reaches thirty arshins in length and a hundred years old, and it gradually increases until it reaches such a size that all animals on land will be sad. Then God throws the dragon into the sea, and he grows into the sea until he reaches ten thousand arshins and can swim at the speed of fish. Its movement causes sea turmoil. And when the harm caused to them becomes obvious, God throws him into the abode of the Yajujas and Majujas to feed on them]: Hedayat 1958:330; kho (Chitral) [if the fish live 100 years, nor Once she sees a person, she turns into a snake, and after the next century in solitude, she becomes the nahang dragon; there is a cave near Mastuj where such a monster lived; one person from Tangir killed him, rewarded him with land that his descendants still own]: Yettmar 1986:462; Coorg Province [the cobra lives 1000 years; at the end of 500 years it cringes and becomes brilliant as silver, then becomes no longer than one foot, the color of gold; when it reaches a few centimeters, it rises into the air; dies in the air, falls to the ground, disappears; whoever passes through this place will die from skin disease]: Moshkov 1901:66 (without specifying the source); (cf. Persians [after living as a snake for 40 years, the Snake South always turns into a beautiful girl; the man married her; began to wither away; the dervish told him that his wife was a snake; let him feed her salted lamb, at night, he would take water out of the house and ban the door; the husband saw his wife become a snake, crawled out of the house to drink, then returned; the husband trembled and explained that he had a fever; the dervish advised to push his wife into hot tone; when it was opened, there was only a handful of ash in the shape of a snake's body; the dervish took a handful, rubbed the copperware with it, and it turned golden]: Nikolsky 1886:50.

Volga - Perm. Kazan Tatars: Koblov 1910 [a snake from 1 to 8 years old - hayat, from 8 to 100 - afghi, from 100 to 1000 - azhdaga; the cloud takes Azhdahu to an island in the ocean, where it has lived for 1000 years, and then turns into Juha is a seductive woman; after 49 days she becomes an ajdag again]: 448-450; Nasyrov 1880 [if the snake lives 100 years, it turns into an Azhdag dragon; it is picked up by a cloud, carried away by north, leaves the island at sea; there after 1000 years he turns into a yuha girl; she seduces men, but copulation with her is impossible]: 245-246; Bashkirs [the snake, after reaching the age of 100, turns several dozen fathoms long, lives in lakes and wells; devours cattle suitable for watering; after living to 500, 1000 years old turns into juha; juha devours girls, can turn into a person, an animal; by the grace of Allah, before reaching this age, she is carried away by clouds to Mount Kaf (Kaf Tauy) beyond the Arctic Ocean, filled with snakes and dragons; in clear weather, a cloud of thunder and lightning appears approaching the lake; as soon as the cloud touches the water, it begins to rage, the head of a monster with rolled eyes appears from it; the cloud grabs him and drags him, his body is spotted, his tail is split; unable to escape, the monster moves away and his body takes on an increasingly bright golden color under the sun's rays]: Yuluev 1892:245- 248); (retelling in Rudenko 1925:301; 1955:316; in Khisamitdinova 2011:29).

Turkestan. Kazakhs: Potanin 1883, No. 28v (Barnaul District) [a snake that has not seen a person for a hundred years becomes azhdaha; a snake that has not seen a person for a thousand years becomes Juka; this one can take any form]: 187; A hundred-volume book of Kazakh folklore (in Kazakh, translated by Ruslan Doutaliev), vol. 78 [the dzhigit was walking along the steppe and met a girl; she said that she was behind her nomadic, the dzhigit brought her home, married; began to wither away; fortuneteller: two people (a horseman and his mother) and an animal live in that house; the horseman did not sleep at night, saw how his wife turned into a dragon, stuck her head out through the upper opening of the yurt to the river on the outskirts of the village, she began to drink; the fortuneteller advised me to build an iron house and hide in it, and feed her wife salty meat, hide the water, close the house and set it on fire; the dragon tried to enter the house where the horseman disappeared, but died; the wife was a dragon who lived two hundred years; if a snake does not catch the eye of a hundred years, it turns into a dragon, and if two hundred, her forehead splits (or becomes the size of two fingers), and she gains the ability to take on any form (girls, young women, different animals); if no one had solved it, she would eat everyone in the village]: 117.

Mongolia. Khalkha-Mongols: Egupova 2012 ["Mongol Ardyn Ulger" ed. P.Horloo. Ub., 1969:131; a poor young man goes to a wise lama to ask about his fate; a poor man asks him how to get out of poverty; a rich man why his 18-year-old daughter does not speak; a snake: why he has already reached 1000 years old, but never turned into a dragon; llama: let the poor man dig a trough of jewelry from under the elm tree; the girl will speak when she sees her betrothed; there is a magic stone in the snake's head, it must be removed; to questions The lama himself did not answer: he answered only three questions a year; when the young man removed the stone, the dragon flew to heaven, and Janosha became rich and educated; when she saw him, the rich man's daughter laughed and spoke, married a young man; the poor man dug up jewelry; all is well]: 34-36.

(Wed. Western Siberia. Mansi: Karjalainen 1996 (3) [(according to Munkacsi); vitkəš living in deep pools looks like fish, elk, bear or horse; forest animals and water fish become vitkə in old age š; when an elk is 25 years old, its nostrils grow as thick as a forest, it goes into the water, where it never dies]: 28; Pelikh 1998 [an old moose goes to the water, turns into something like pike is a kamya-eta monster; they are afraid to kill huge taiga pikes]: 37-38; Chernetsov in Ivanov 1949 [anten variety - pike up to four fathoms with deer antlers; lives in lakes, eats people; turn - turned into the water bear or elk; at the same time, the elk grew long straight horns in place of the old ones, a fish tail appeared]: 137; Eastern Khanty [the water monster Wes (its horns are mammoth tusks; the Vakhov Khanty ə nti-Sart, "horned pike") does not reproduce; it can turn into an old dog or pike; the dog's digging the ground was explained as a desire to go down, underground, where this transformation takes place]: Kulemzin, Lukina 1977:130).

(Wed. NW Mexico. Tarahumara [old fish, especially catfish, become otters; old squirrels lose hair and limbs, and become boas and rattlesnakes]: Merrill 2002:335).