Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I85. The North Star is a stake or a nail.


The North Star - stake, nail, horse riding, etc.

Tuaregs (Ancient Egypt), Syrian Arabs, Ancient India (Bhagavat Purana), Bhilas, Ancient China, Romanians, Gagauz people, Russians (Vologda, Penza), Ukrainians, Belarusians, Kalmyks, Urums, Adygs, Circassians, Karachays and Balkarians, Ossetians, Nogais, Kumyks, Turks, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Kafirs, Zoroastrianism, Estonians, Western and Eastern Sami, Finns (?) , Bashkirs, Kazan Tatars, Astrakhan Tatars, Kazakhs, Karakalpaks, Kyrgyz, Uighurs, Siberian Tatars, Teleuts, Altaians, Khakas, Tuvans, Baikal and Trans-Baikal Buryats, Khamnigans, Oirats, Khalkha- Mongols, Mongols of Ordos, Darkhats, Dagurs, Tundra Nenets (between Pyasina and Taimyr), Nganasans, Mansi, Eastern Khanty, Nanai, Manchus, Chukchi, Koryaks, Aleuts, Kutene.

North Africa. The Tuareg [The North Star is a stake to which a camel walking around (Little Dipper) is attached; his mother, the Ursa Major, is watching him]: Bernus, AG-Sidiyene 1989:144; (cf. Ancient Egypt [The Big Dipper is a bull tied to a pole; in the IV-II millennium BC α of the Dragon (Thuban), which was closest to the axis of the celestial sphere; if the table is associated with a star, then with her, not with Polyarnaya; {the author refers to other publications; the Egyptian images given are vague; N.V. Makeeva, Egyptologist: The Big Dipper is always the leg of a bull; she really tied to something; but not the whole bull}]: Didier 2009:121-124).

Western Asia. Syrian Arabs [Wetzstein heard in Damascus that the North Star is called Mismar, a "needle" or "nail"]: Allen 1899:457.

South Asia. Bhagavat Purana (9th century, perhaps a little earlier): Biruni 1963, ch. 22 [Manu's grandson was neglected by one of his father's wives and was given such power to bring him to the rotation of the star; it appeared in the first period of time and remained in its place forever]: 228; West 2007 [Dhruva ("Fixed") must become the North Star and promises to be motionless like a pole around which oxen walk during threshing]: 353; bhilas [North Star is an axis or pole (festen Pfahl); the sky revolves around it like an ox walking around a pole on a ground where they threshing grain]: Koppers 1948:287; Koppers, Jungblut 1976:219.

China - Korea. Ancient China [at least in the Chinese tradition of the last millennium α Ursa Major (Dubhe) is referred to as Tianshushin (celestial pivot); between 100 and 700 The Chinese cosmonymic tradition has been interrupted, so it is impossible to trace this designation deeper than Tang; however, the Shushin component is also used to designate other stars near the north celestial pole, including the Polar Pole and α Dragon]: Didier 2009:154-155.

The Balkans. Romanians [pole; pole on the threshing floor around which horses walk]: Mladenova 2006:111; Gagauz people [North Star - Demir Kazyk ("iron stake")]: Paptsova 2007:508.

Central Europe. Russians: Bondaletov 1983 (Penza or neighboring districts of the Middle Volga region) [Kol, Prikol]: 204; Mladenova 2006 [Sky Stake (Vologda), Prikol-Zvezda (Ural)]: 111 (same in Ruth 1987:49); Ukrainians [North Star - "stake" (Kil, Prikil, Pivnichny Kilok)]: Karpenko 1992:190; Belarusians [(rare); Standing Star - "Stands like a nail"; "Star Stake"]: Avilin 2015:97.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kalmyks: Basayev 2004 [Altn h Asn - Golden Coll]: 11; Potanin 1883 [(Bergmann, Bd. 3:42); Golden Stake]: 734; Urums (Donetsk Region) [Damirkhazykh ' North Star' (demir 'iron, iron'; khazykh 'pole, stick, stake, peg')]: Garkavets 2000:167; Adygi [North Star - Temyr Azek (Turkic borrowing)]: Kokov 1980a: 263; Circassians ["gushch1 bash" ("iron stake")]: Madina Pashtova, personal message. 29.04.2013; Karachays: Dzhurtubayev 1991 [North Star - Temir-Kazak, probably slightly distorted from temir-kazyk, "iron stake"]: 134; 2007:362 [Temir-Kazak broke off a piece from Zhetegeile (Ursa Major), so its extreme star is pale; Saraygan stands between them to prevent them from fighting and Toraigan {translation?} ; Zhetegeile revolves around Temir-Kazak, wanting to kill], 365 ["Cholpan is the head of the stars, Temir-Kazak is an immovable stone of the sky]; Karaketov 1995 [North Star - Temir-Kazak, "Iron Pole"]: 203; Karachays and Balkarians [Temirqazyq, "iron stake"]: Tenishev et al. 2001:57; Ossetians [evil Akhsaktemur walked with zeds (angels) across the sky; at certain times of the day he went to the river; he oppressed seven brothers on earth; in order to acquire the protection of Vodyanoy (Donböttär), the brothers took his son as pets; A. killed him; D. invited the brothers to watch A. by the river, but he stopped going to the river, sat down in the middle of the sky, putting two stallions as guards; brothers (stars of the Ursa Major) began to wander crooked towards the river (Milky Way); before dawn they notice the Polar the star and go to it, but it disappears in sunlight every time]: Miller 1882:300; Nogais: Aybazova 1984 [Temir Kazyk 'Polar Star' (letters. 'iron stake, rod')]: 90; Musaev 2006 [demir qazyq]: 342; Kumyks: Khalidova 2012, No. 178 [The North Star is the "iron stake", the eldest among the stars, seven stars spinning around it (Yetti Yulduz, Ettiler], 179 [after visiting his tulpar possessions, Tengiri went to rest; one day the god of thunder did not appear on time, T. wanted to go look for him, but tulpara was not there; then T. drove a golden one into the sky nail, tied a horse to it; stars around the North Star - tulpar horseshoe nails]: 208; Turks of Constantinople [North Star - demir qaseq ("iron stake")]: Potanin 1919a:86; Turks (Konya, 20th c.) [dirqazk (from temürqazk) - iron stake]: Clauson 1964:365.

Iran - Central Asia. Uzbeks: Musayev 2006 [North Star - ottin qoziq]: 342; Nikonov 1980b [North Star - Altyn Kazyk ("golden stake")]: 294; Chagatai [temir azu, "golden stake") count"]: Vámbéri 1879:154; Turkmens [North Star - Demir Gazik ("iron stake")]: Wamberi 2003:74; kafirs (band not listed; in Buddruss 1960:296 and in Snoy 1962:72 with reference Robertson says Kati) ["The Kafirs see to have little knowledge of, and to take small interest in, the heavenly bodies. One of them, an intelligent man, once instructed me that there are seven heavens riveted together by the North Star]: Robertson 1896:657; Zoroastrianism ["nail of the throne", "nail in the middle of the sky"]: Chunakova 2004:175.

Baltoscandia. Estonians [Põhjanael ("The North Nail"]: Potanin 1883:735 (=Holmberg 1927:221); Sami: Potanin 1883 [(Melang. russ., 2, 1851-1855:416); Culdanaste (count star)]: 735; Holmberg 1927 [Boahje Naste ("northern nail") holds the sky; on the last day, the archer Arcturus will shoot it down with an arrow, the sky will collapse, the world will burn]: 221; Lundmark 1982 ["north nail", "heavenly nail"," sky count "]: 107-108; Pentikäinen 1997 [North Star - "northern pillar", "pillar of heaven", "northern nail", etc.]: 118; Finns [the now lost idea of the North Star as The nail is reflected in the Sami borrowing from Finnish - Bohinavlle, "the nail of the north"]: Holmberg 1927:221.

Volga - Perm. Bashkirs: Davletshin 1979 [North Star - Temir Kazyk (Iron Stake); in Little Bear - Sary-at and Boz-at stars]: 48; Nadrshina 2001, No. 8 [Little Bear - Yetegen; these are seven wolves; two horses, Blue and Gray, are tied to the Iron Cola (North Star), and seven wolves chase them in an attempt to catch and eat them; they run around the Iron Stake seven times before dawn, but not can catch up with horses; both disappear at dawn]: 183; Rudenko 1925 [same as Davletshin]: 316; Kazan Tatars: Berkutov 1987 ["Akbyzft yoldyz, Kykbyzat yoldyz, Timerkazykh ber yalgyz" ( The White Horse is a star, the Blue Horse is a star, the Iron Stake is always alone)]: 26; Vorobyov, Khisamutdinov 1967 [The Big Dipper will flip seven times and the Iron Stake is in place; not far from the North Star to the side Star Big Dipper Akbüzat and Kükbüzat (White and Blue Horses)]: 315; Davletshin 1979 [North Star - Altyn Kazyk (Golden Stake)]: 48; Musaev 2006 [qazyq joldyz - "call star"]: 342; Makhmutov 2013, No. 96 [riddle: "Two horses fight on the same horse riding; although they fight, they will not escape" (North Star, stars Akbuzat and Kukbuzat)]: 45; Astrakhan Tatars [North Star - Temir Kazyk ("Iron Stake"), near her stars Ak-Bozat and Kok-Bozat]: Potanin 1919a: 86; Chuvash: Musaev 2006 [timěr s'alča - "iron stake"]: 342; Yukhma 1980 [Shalcha & #231; oltł - "count star", "sixth star" - isn't one of the names for the North Star? (usually "midnight star", "night star" - çurçěr s53/ltər)]: 267-268.

Turkestan. Kazakhs: Abishev 1949 [Ak boz at, kək boz at - White gelding and Grey gelding, entangled with a rope, the end of which is tied to the Iron Cola (North Star), graze in the meadow; they are guarded by a watchman ; Seven horse thieves (Big Dipper) want to steal this end and watch them all night]: 12-13; Valikhanov 1985 [The North Star is Temir Kazyk, two white horses tied to a stake don't walk around]: 57; Nurzhanova 1971 [Little Bear - White and Blue Horses, Ak boz at and Kog boz at, walk around Temir Kazyk, Iron Stake]: 234 (=Potanin 1881:125-126; 1972:59); Potanin 1893: 319 [(near Petropavlovsk); a rich man did not sell his horse for any money; chained him with an iron chain to Temir Kazyk (North Star); watched day and night, alternating with his daughter; seven people They conspired to steal a horse, this is Jety-Karak ("seven thieves", B. Bear)], 321 [Naarun-Zarkum owned many horses; the black mare brought a foal every night, but it was always kidnapped by someone; young Gali, N.'s son, watched and shot a monstrous bird; grows up, rides that mare's foal to marry the bride; puts an iron stake in the field, ties a horse to it, puts seven scarecrows around (jety karakchi); every day he finds a horse on the spot, and thieves find only a stake and a scarecrow; one day everything disappears; the bride says that the thieves, through prayer, have approved the stake (North Star), the horse and the scarecrow (Little Bear) in the sky; the horse is waiting for the owner; when he comes, the world will end]; Svyatsky 1961 [(said teacher A.B. Baitursunov from Orenburg in 1910); The North Star is a stake to which two horses, light and pale (Little Dipper), are attached to an arcana; they walk around the stake, and seven thieves (Big Dipper) seek to steal them; when they steal them, the world will end]: 112; Sidelnikov 1962 [Ak-boz at (White Horse) and Kok-boz at (The White Horse) are chained to Temir-Kazyk with a gold chain Blue horse); near Zheta Karaksha (Seven Thieves); they stole one of Urker's daughters (Pleiades), now the smallest and weakest star of the seven {the translator apparently did not understand that the weak star is - not one of the seven main stars of Ursa Major, but Alcor}; every night Zhety Karakshi try to steal two horses, but don't have time to do so before dawn]: 270; Chuloshnikov 1924 [North Star - Temir- Kasyk ("iron stake"); "two white horses" are tied to him on a rope; if one unties, the world is over; they are trying to untie the Jets Karakchi ("seven thieves"), the seven stars of the Ursa Major; they are the souls of seven robbers who stole during the day and repented of their sins at night; for this they were turned into stars after death]: 243; karakalpaks [North Star - Temirkazyk zhuldyzy ("iron stake, horse riding"); k Two horses (these are two stars) are tied to it: white (ak) and blue (kk); they are constantly moving around Horse Riding; there are 7 robber stars (Big Dipper) nearby; once they came to Horseback Riding Peri say that 7 thieves are going to steal those horses; Allah gathers angels and orders the robbers to be frozen; if they steal horses, the prophet will be left without horses in the future; horses are still on the spot]: Alimbetov 2014 (vols. 77-80): 26-27; Karakalpaks [demir qazyq]: Baskakov 1967:724; Musayev 2006:342; Kyrgyz: Abramzon 1946 [temir kazyk, altyn kazyk]: 65; Brudny, Eshmambetov 1968 [seven robbers stole the daughter of the Pleiades, came to the Golden Cola (North Star), have been circling around him ever since, and the Pleiades are pursuing]: 9-10; Nurzhanova 1971 [North Star - Altyn kazyk]: 234; Nikonov 1980b: 294 [Uzbeks, Uighurs, and often Kyrgyz have the North Star - Altyn Kazyk ("golden stake")], 295 [in all Turkic texts of the 10th-14th century. The North Star is Tamir Kazyk (Iron Stake); all Turks have Akbozat and Konbozat horses around the stake, i.e. light gray (boz - gray) and dark gray; they are followed by Seven Thieves trying to steal them]; Uighurs: Potanin 1883 [North Star - Altin Kazuk]: 735; Vámbéri 1879 [altin azu, "golden stake"]: 154; Musayev 2006 [Middle Uyghur: altun qazyq]: 342; Mahmud al-Kashgari ("Divan Lugat at-Turk"/"Collection of Turkic dialects", second half of the 11th century, Karakhanid State) [Tamur Kazuk "Polar Star"]: Mahmud al-Kashgari 2005, No. 4809:772.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Siberian Tatars [proverb: Iron Kol (North Star) is your elder father]: Urazaleev 2007:4; teleuts [yangys kazyk ("lonely stake"), altyn kazyk ("golden stake")]: Potanin 1883:137 (quoted in Holmberg 1927:333); Altaians [altyn qazyq]: Musaev 2006:342; Buryats [North Star - Altan gada h an (Golden Kol) - horse riding Tengria hormusts are the heads of the good Western 55 Tengrias; salt horses and mares are attached to it]: Sharamshinova 1980:54; Trans-Baikal Buryats (Agin, Nerchinsky District, Art. Razmakhninskaya) [there used to be only water and only a frog looked into it; God turned the frog with his belly up and built a universe on it; on each paw he created a separate type (dvipa); Zampu-tip (Jambu-dwipa) placed one of his paws; on the frog's navel he erected Mount Sumbur-Agula; at the top of this mountain is the North Star, Altan-Gatasun {letters. 'golden call'}]: Gomboev 1890:140; khamnigans (Transbaikalia) [Altan gadasu 'Polar Star' (gadasu (n) 'stake, peg; pile')]: Damdinov, Sunduyeva 2015:93; Oirats (traders) [North Star - Altyn Khasyn (golden stake)]: Potanin 1893:330; Khalkha Mongols: Potanin 1919a [star Altyn-Khatasun stands motionless; two horses are attached to it, which are always around they walk it], No. 27:50; Rinchen 1965 [the same as the Buryats; Khuday Mergen's horse riding; horses are guarded by seven elders who ascended to the upper world and became Burkhans]: 32 in Sharamshinov 1980:54-55; darhats (somon Khujirt, Uburkhangai aimag) [older brother Altan-Minjin had a Silver-red horse, his younger Mungun-minjin had an amber-red horse (var.: their horses are Red Fox and Red Lamb, dogs Asar and Basar; they tied dogs to the Golden Cola (North Star); their sister Sarisva-Dagina was 18 years old, she decided to marry, told her brothers to bring a hare with black eyes and ears the size of an inch, do not take a hare with brown eyes and ears in the span; A. brought a hare, S. drew herself, put the picture together with the hare in a basket, let it into the river; the hare sailed to Khan Erg; the khan saw the picture and sent two people to S., who ordered them to tell E. to come with 50 warriors; she would drink her brothers drunk, destroy them together with E.; A. became very drunk, but M. was not very drunk, took A., red horses, snatched out a stake, to which the dogs were attached, led and ran away; one dog ran away by itself, barking; M. came to one mountain and fell asleep; when he wakes up, A. calls, he replies that he is underground, M. dug it up; brothers they go, meet, take as companions 1) an antelope fishing on the run, 2) a thief capable of pulling out an antelope's tongue and feathers to a bird, 3) hearing what is being done in the upper and lower worlds, 4) drinking the ocean, 5) mountain-raiser; runner, thief, listener, ocean drinker, mountain lifter, Altan-minjin, Mungung-minjin went further in every way...; tied two red horses and became the 7 stars of the Ursa Major; they told S. to become the moon, so the Moon always looked at the stars of the Ursa Major; they drove the Golden Stake into the sky and tied their two red horses; This stake is now the Polyarnaya Star; and two horses are two stars are nearby; there is a black-eyed hare on the moon, it looks like spots; Mongols, when they carry babies at night, smear their noses with soot, like a black-eyed hare; this custom is associated with the black-eyed hare from legend about the Big Dipper]: Mongolian Expedition of the Russian State University for the Humanities, Western August 20, 2006, No. WS 30011, 21.08.2006, No. WS 30028; the Mongols of Ordos: Potanin 1893 [The North Star is the "golden banner of Mount Sumeru"]: 318; Mostaert: 73 in Sharamshinov 1980 [Genghis Khan tied his horses to a golden horse riding; one man stole it; he was buried to his knees and used instead of horse riding; he ascended to heaven, became the North Star - Altan gadas]: 55; Dagurs [Alten gat 'Polar Star']: Tumurdey, Tsybenov 2014:13; Tuvans [North Star - Altyn Kadys ("golden stake"); first three stars of Malaya The bears are lasso; the rest are saryg attar (salt horses) tied by this arcana to the cola, the North Star they walk around]: Potapov 1969:292-293 (retelling in Dyakonova 1976:286); Khakas: Butanayev 1975 (Kachins) [Ursa Minor: 1) The constellation of the Black Mare tied to an iron stake in the center of the sky; 2) A constellation of white and blue horses (Ah at, Kök at) tied to copper grave column on the Earth's axis; 3) Constellation of a black-brown horse near a golden horse riding]: 235-236; 2003 [Khan Chigetey is the father of the Pleiades; seven Khan Khan brothers once stole one of his daughters; he rushed in pursuit, but the brothers on the mirrored surface of Heavenly Lake Tigir Köl took to heaven and turned into seven stars of Ursa Major; HC shot them with a bow and nailed an arrow to the sky; since then, the Ursa Major has been circling around the HC arrow, which became the North Star; Alcor is the stolen daughter of HC; the remaining 6 sisters are the Pleiades; HC itself has become the constellation of Bootes and he is always chasing the Big Dipper; when he catches up with seven Khan brothers, the last year of peace will come]: 48.

Western Siberia. Nenets ("Samoyeds of the Turukhansky District" between the Yenisei, Pyasina and Taimyr) [North Star - Nua Chehua, i.e. "God's nail or lever on which the whole sky rotates"]: Tretyakov 1871:415 (quoted in Holmberg 1927:221); nganasans [The North Star is called Nights Star (Hi' Fatadya) or Nail (Tofo)]: Dolgikh, Feinberg 1960:51; Mansi [is God's Iron Pillar set to tie animals (North Star?)] : Karjalainen in Holmberg 1927:337; Eastern Khanty (Vasyugan) [is there an iron or stone pillar erected by Torem (North Star?) ; he wears an iron ring with a sled deer tied to]: Karjalainen in Holmberg 1927:337.

Eastern Siberia. Evenki Orochons {it is not clear whether we are talking about the Evenks of China or the Far Eastern} [Altyn Sagasu (The Golden Stake, Sagasu is a stake inside the courtyard"]: Potanin 1883:138 (quoted in Holmberg 1927:333); Amur Evenks [North Star - Khada ("Kol")]: Castren, Tung. Gramm., 129 in Potanin 1883:138.

Amur - Sakhalin. Nanais [North Star - Hada Hosikta (Khada - "Kol")]: Smolyak 1991:20; Manchus [Hadaha Usiha, "Kol Star"; Complete Manchu-Russian Dictionary Compiled Ivan Zakharov. Petersburg, 1875. P. 387. In Manchu, the word HADAHA can be understood in two ways: 1) a large wooden or iron nail, a spoke, a stake, a joke for tying a yurt or horse; a peg; a pile for slaughtering into the ground; 2) communion of the past time from the verb HADA- 'hit a nail, stake, joke, pile up... '.]: Pevnov, personal message 16.02.2016.

SV Asia. Chukchi: Anikin 1994 ["stuck stake star"]: 91; Bogoraz 1939 [The North Star is a "nail"; stars walk around it like tied horses or deer (=Bogoras 1907:307)]: 23; Koryaks (reindeer and coastal?) : Anikin 1994 ["star nail"]: 91; Jochelson 1908 [Polar - "star nail" (=Bogoraz 1939:28)]: 123.

The Arctic. Aleuts [an-gu-x - stake, peg, pole, "stake at the top", sky stake]: Bergsland 1994:73.

(Wed. NW Coast. Quakiutl: Boas 1935 [a pillar of heaven stands in the ocean; the Pillar of Heaven is also the name of an upper world leader whose people are stars; he descends down the copper column of heaven]: 126; Müller 1955 [Pillar -Sky is the leader of the stars]: 15).

The coast is the Plateau. Kutene [The Big Dipper is a grizzly; the spirits tied her to a pole, the North Star, and she walks around it]: Turney-High 1941:96.