Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I91. A pond at the foot of the tree. .27.30.-.32.34.-.36.

At the

foot or around the base of a tree that connects the tiers of the universe or is gigantic and is considered the main tree of the world, there is a source or reservoir, water which usually has extraordinary properties.

Hungarians, Georgians, Avesta, Kafirs, Edda, Chuvash, Mordovians, Altaians, Khakas, Buryats, Northern (?) Khanty, Southern Selkups, Nganasans, Western and Eastern Yakuts.

The Balkans. Hungarians [égigérö fa (a tree reaching the sky), tetejetlen fa (a tree without a top), with seven branches, connecting the earth's world with the sky that supports its peak, and with the underworld to which it is rooted; the source of life flows from the foot of the tree; the fruits, resin and juices of the tree give life and nourish everything on earth; on the upper branch of the tree is the house of the Sun and its mother; just below is the house of the Moon and her mother; the wind rises from the movement of the tree branches; sometimes the dwelling of Szél-anya (mother of the wind) is localized on these branches; gifts - the fruits of this derva - are carried fairies (tündér); the tree is protected by a huge bird (eagle); a shaman (taltosh, táltos) can find its way to it]: Eichenwald et al. 1982:185.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Georgians [the branches of a mythical tree are dotted with gems, a bird sits at the top, a spring flows out at the roots; it reaches the sky with its crown, goes back to the underworld]: Surguladze 2004:202.

Iran - Central Asia. Avesta [Mount Hara (Hukarya) was located in some texts in the center of the world, in others in the north, or was considered the main peak of the Haraichi (Khara Berezad) Ridge, surrounded by "both the eastern and Western countries", i.e. the whole land; two rivers surrounding the land ("Bundaghishn") flowed down from it; at the foot of the mountain is the huge Lake Vorukasha, where a chaoma tree grows at the spring of Ardvisura; var: hom tree chaoma, gaokerena or all-healing wispobish tree, which contains the seeds of all plants, grows in the middle of Lake Vorukasha and is protected "from toads and other reptiles" by the wonderful Kara fish (Menog-i Khrat); the tree of all seeds, which sometimes replaces, sometimes duplicates chaoma, is inhabited by the "king of birds" Senmurv; he scatters seeds from the tree, breaking its thousand branches; another bird carries the seeds to a source from which The pre-born star Tishtria (Sirius) drinks; with the rain she returns the seeds to the ground]: Braginsky, Lelekov 1980:562; kafirs (prasun) [a golden tree with seven golden trees grows in Lake Süum branches; there is a golden disc on this tree (apparently the sun); at night the sun falls into Lake Süum; it rains from this lake; the goddess Dīsnī comes out of this tree; it is possible that seven branches correspond to seven celestial tiers]: Buddruss 1960:205-206; kafirs (kati) [a tree grows in the distant land in the middle of the lake; it takes 9 years to climb to its top; its branches The journey spans 18 years; god Satarám fell in love with him, it opened, the goddess Disani sat inside; she gave birth to the god Bagist]: Robertson, S 382f in Buddruss 1960:205-206.

Baltoscandia. Scandinavians [gods gather at Yggdrasil ash tree if they must judge; ash branches above the sky; ash trees have three roots: one in the sky for aces, the other in the sky for the frosty giants, where the world was abyss, the third in Niflheim; under the third root is the Boiling Cauldron, this root is gnawed by the Nidhogg dragon from below; under the root of the giants is the source where knowledge and wisdom; Mimir drinks water from it; Odin I came there, but received water only after he pledged his eye; under the root of the aces is the Urd spring; aces come to him along the rainbow; an eagle sits at the top of the ash tree, and the hawk Vedrf is between his eyes & #235; flaxseed (faded by bad weather); squirrel Rodent scurries over the tree, carrying the abuse that the eagle and Needhogg shower each other; four deer (Dine, Dvalin, Dunayr, Duratror) run among branches; there are many other snakes in the Boiling Cauldron stream; they also gnaw ash, a deer eats the top of its head, the trunk dies from rot; the burrows water the ash tree with water from a spring so as not to dry out Urd]: Younger Edda 1970:22-24.

Volga - Perm. Chuvashi [at the center of the four- or octagonal middle world is Mount Ama te, surrounded by water; at its top is the Ama Yivaç tree; its roots go to the lower world, and the crown - to the upper; branches reach the farthest periphery in all directions and support the sky]: Egorov 1995:133-134; Mordovians (moksha) [birch grows on a hill in the depths of the forest; its roots surround the whole world, and its branches surround the sky; its leaves are palm-sized and its buds are whip long; its roots have a spring; next to it is a red wooden vat, containing a honey drink and a scoop depicting the sun and moon on bottom and stars on the handle; the scoop handle turns as the sun moves across the sky]: Ahlqvist 1861:133 in Holmberg 1927:350.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Altaians: Nikiforov 1915 [there is a yellow island in the middle of the yellow river; in the middle of the yellow island there is a hole of hell with seven mouths; an iron poplar (tepir terek) without branches grew out of hell with seven mouths; its lower end is in the lower world, and its upper third world (i.e. the sky) has sprouted; a bird, rising from the ground, never sits on its top; animals cannot climb it; at the top there is a white Erdine, which revives the dead; when Aldtyn-Mize and his horse Uchkur-Kongur died, another horse, Arshin-Jeder, became a black beaver, gnawed through Temir Terek, took Erdine, revived the dead]: 77-78, 104-105; Karunovskaya 1935 [in the center of the earth, Mount Ak togon altaj sn is the residence of hunters' ancestors; at its top there is a young lake syt kəl, where the shaman's soul is washed on the way to the upper world; in the center of the mountain is the navel of the earth and sky; a tree with golden branches and wide leaves grows from the navel and water, its top is in the sky; through this tree, the shaman gets to Ulgen]: 161-162; Khakas (Minusinsk Tatars) [piercing 12 heavens, At the top of the mountain stands a birch tree with golden leaves and bark; at its foot there is a pond with water of life; this birch was given by the Creator to the ancestor of the Tatars, who has kept it ever since]: Schiefner 1859:52 in Holmberg 1927:350; The Buryats [there is a tree of life on the sacred mountain, at its foot a source of living water; at the top sits an omniscient cuckoo capable of reviving the dead and bestowing wealth]: Curtin 1952 in Haekel 1958:67.

Western Siberia. Nordic (?) Khanty [there is a huge tree in the sea in the middle of the sky]: Karjalainen 1922:45 (quoted in Haekel 1958:67); southern Selkups ["tree to heaven" is recorded only in the Sheshkup range; grew on On the top of a flat mountain, many spirits live in the branches, "holding all living things on earth"; the tree is deciduous (but not birch), never loses its leaves; var.: the tree "supported the top of the sky" to the sky, grew in the middle of the island on the lake near which Šeγa paja ("Land Old Woman", mother of brother and sister Ia and Ne) lived; birds did not sit on it, but sometimes a raven sat at the top; N. offended the Crow thin in short, he stopped arriving, the tree dried up, the lake was gone]: Tuchkova 2004:75-76, 215; nganasany [(shaman describes how, at the age of three or four, during a serious illness, he was without three days consciousness, having been to other worlds at that time; see motif G6); walked down to the middle of the sea; sucked the breasts of the water mistress; her husband Syrad Nguo, the main underground owner, told him that he was chosen as a shaman and should avoid the roads of disease; he gave ermine and mouse to the guides; smallpox people carved and cooked his heart; in the middle of nine lakes there is an island with larch to the edge of the sky; next to seven herbs that are our ancestors plants; a certain bird with chicks swims on each lake - duck, loon, goose, swan,... (unspecified}, mousetrap; the tree owner ordered to catch a falling branch, three of its three branches will be tambourines, and the shaman's three wives will take care of them; (further meetings and trials follow)]: Popov 1936: 85-97.

Eastern Siberia. Yakuts: Middendorf 1851 (3): 79 in Holmberg 1927:353 [Er-Sogotoh sees a tree in front of him whose roots go back to the lower world, and the summit has pierced nine heavens; flows from under its roots live water; aged animals drink or lick juice, get younger again; (same retelling in Haekel 1958:66 with comments that they are Western Yakuts)]; 1949 Okladnikov in Haekel 1958 (Eastern Yakuts) [in the center of the world, on a high mountain, there is a sacred larch created for the happiness of all living things; a stream flows out of its western branches into the sea of milk; old and weak, after swimming in it, gaining strength; the goddess living in the tree fed the heroes]: 67; Ergis 1974 [an eight-branched tree Aal Duup Mas or Aar Kudukh Mas grows near the hero's estate; the main trunk has passed through through the lower layers of the sky; then bends back, returns to the middle world; moisture oozes from the branches, its drops fly like white partridges; the main root sprouts through the earth and goes out into the lower world, but because of the smoke of the fires, the underworld bends upwards; when it comes back to the ground, it exudes moisture, which forms a frost-free white milk lake; after drinking from it, the old people are younger, the weak gained strength, patients recovered]: 190.