Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

J18A. The mother is eaten, the children are running. . (.65.)


cannibal eats a woman, enters her house. A woman's daughters (daughter and son, one daughter) run away, climb a tree or climb a rope into heaven. The cannibal pursues them and dies.

Tibetans (Sikkim; Amdo), Kachins, Chinese (Gansu, Shanxi, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Shandong, Hunan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Manchuria) Koreans, Lolo, Lisu, Hani, Dongxiang, Salars, Mongors, Japanese (including North Ryukyu), (Kanta).

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans (Sikkim) [mother goes to dig tubers, tells her daughter not to open strangers; Rakshasa knocks, shows her paw; the girl replies that mother's hands are smooth as oiled; Rakshas asks oil and fire, burns the hair on her hands, oils them, the girl opens them, hides under the ceiling; to find the girl, Rakshasa makes indecent sounds, she laughs; Rakshas asks how she got in; Putting needles on top of each other; Cups; finally admits that buckets; Rakshas takes the girl away; the mother goes to look, shares the zamba with the crow, the fox, the wolf; the wolf drove the Rakshasa sheep, that rushed after her; saw a dead fox, a raven above her; ran to the fox, she jumped up, Rakshasa followed her; the mother and the wolf in the Rakshasa house took the girl out of the bag above the fire, put ice and thorns inside; the rakshas returned , water has flowed, he thinks that the girl is peeing; hits her, scratches her against thorns; realizes that she has been deceived; looks for a fox; she pretends to be a different fox every time; throws sand in his face; smears glue; offers to get into the basket to learn to weave, descends from the mountain, he dies]: Krapivina 2001:51-65; Tibetans (Amdo) [mother goes to dig wild tubers, tells three daughters not to unlock strangers; the cannibal eats her, takes her form; eldest daughter: the mother was not wearing black clothes; she comes in white; the middle daughter: the mother was not wearing white clothes; the cannibal persuaded the youngest daughter to stick her hand in to take the tubers; grabbed by the hand: if you don't break it, I'll tear off my hand; at night, the cannibal lies down with the youngest; the sisters hear chomping, the cannibal replies that she drinks water, eats beans; the sisters found the youngest's head torn off; persuaded her to let her go they should pee (they refused to do it in a pot, into the hearth); the cannibal tied ropes around their necks, they tied them to a chicken and a pig; the sisters ran to the top of the mountain, turned to the Pleiades; they lowered the iron staircase, the sisters climbed into heaven; the cannibal followed, the crossbar broke, she fell; during the day, the mother is looking for her older sister, who became the sun, and at night the youngest, who became the moon]: Kajihama 2004 , No. 9:33-37; Kachin [mother went to buy firewood, told her daughters not to unlock the door; Tiger pretends to be a mother, says her eyes are red with pepper, her hands are dirty from work; the girls open they hide in a tree; the eldest advises to smear the tree trunk with oil, but the middle one advises to make notches on it; God lowers a golden vessel on a rope from the sky, picks up the girls; he raises the tiger in a clay vessel with a rotten rope, the Tiger falls, breaks; the older sister becomes the sun, the middle moon, the younger star]: Kasevich, Osipov 1976, No. 29:104-106.

China — Korea. Chinese (Gansu, Hunan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang {especially many versions}, Fujian, Shandong, Guizhou, Guangdong, Yunnan, Hubei, Shanxi, Anhui, Sichuan {version 1}, Manchuria {1 version}), Koreans [a tiger (less often a wolf, bear, fox, evil spirit, cannibal) devours a woman, enters her children's house, pretending to be their mother; at night she asks for her youngest child, devours it; the eldest girl asks what the mother is chewing, sees the baby's finger, realizes that it is not the mother; children flee in the tree, advise the tiger to rub the trunk with fat to make it easier to climb; the tiger slides down; in some versions children climb from a tree on a rope into the sky; the stalker tries to follow, falls, breaks; the plot is widely known in China, as well as in Korea and Japan; in Korean versions, children turn into sun and moon]: Eberhard 1937:19-23; Chinese (Gansu) [an elderly woman went to the mountains with a bag, sat on a rock to rest; the Tiger took the image of a peasant woman, began to ask questions, found out that a woman was at home 3 daughters and a son remained, found out their names; offering to look for lice, killed a woman, put on her clothes; began to call the children by name, they unlocked them; daughter asks why her mother's face turned black; Tiger smeared face with flour; refused to light the lamp — it's expensive and the midges flew off; the sisters went to bed separately, and the brother went to bed with his imaginary mother; at night, the Tiger hit one girl with his tail, replied that it was hemp brought from his uncle; What do you eat? - Turnips. - Give it to me! The imaginary mother gave the boy's finger; the girls asked for time off, climbed a tree, called the imaginary mother, pulled her up twice on a rope, threw her down; the Tiger climbed the trunk, was doused with oil; the Tiger said that he would go to sharpen his claws and come back; in the morning the girls got down; the needle merchant stuck needles by the bed, the egg merchant put an egg in the cauldron, the turtles put a scorpion in the firewood compartment, and the ducks put the duck flowers, millstones — hung a millstone above the doors, with carts — tied a cart to the doors; at night the Tiger came, sat down on the bed, pricked; he was bitten by a scorpion, an egg burst into his eyes, the duck frightened him with quacking, The millstone fell on him, the wheels of the cart spun; in the morning, the girls buried the dead Tiger; a huge cabbage grew in this place, but they did not eat it]: Eberhard 1941, No. 8:27-33; Chinese (Shanxi) [ a woman went to take lunch to her husband in the field; a werewolf asks for permission to remove the louse from her head, eats the woman; comes to her five daughters under the guise of a mother, consistently addresses each of daughters asking them to unlock the door; each replies that the mother had a bruise on her right knee and a white spot on her left knee, saying that the caller was not the mother; the youngest unlocked the door; in the evening, the imaginary mother told the youngest - a fat girl to lie down with her and ate her; replies that she eats beans; each of the sisters asks for permission to go out into the yard out of need; imaginary mother: in the window the spirit of the window, the spirit of the doors in the door can harm; finished eating the youngest; sisters went out into the yard, climbed the tree; the eldest replies that she climbed, stepping on branches, the others that the eldest picked them up with a rope tied to her leg; the older sister raised the imaginary mother to half the height, let go of the rope, the werewolf fell, became a head of cabbage; the older sister exchanged it for a thread from a beggar; a head of head to a beggar: if you carry me (too) high, I'll cut your neck, if it's low, my legs; beggar asked the innkeeper to cook a head of cabbage; when he was brewing, he heard something like “I'm eating your mother's ass”; it turned out to be a pot full of soup]: Serruys 1946:210-214; Wilhelm 1921, No. 9 [mother with baby They go to the grandmother as a boy, two daughters stay at home; the leopard eats the mother, puts on her clothes, carries the boy's bones in the basket; the sisters do not open it, they say that the mother had different eyes, face, legs; The leopard explains why they changed (spots on her face — she slept on peas); the sisters open it, make sure it's not the mother when she gives them not turnips, but her brother's finger; they climb a tree and offer the Leopard pick it up in the basket, hit it against the trunk, the Leopard takes his shape, runs away; the sisters tell passers-by that the Leopard will come back and eat them; the nail seller tells you to drive two nails into the bench with the point up; scorpion catcher - put the scorpion behind the stove; the egg seller put the egg in the ash; the turtle seller - the turtle in a vat of water; the mallet - hang two above the door; the Leopard comes, sits on nails, bitten by a scorpion, an egg bursts into his eyes, he rushes to wash, the turtle grabs his hand, the mallets fall, kill]: 19-22; Koreans: Kontsevich 1980b [The tiger ate the mother of four boys, dressed in her dress, came to her house, grabbed his younger brother; the others climbed the pine tree, the Tiger followed; the heavenly lord lowered the iron rope to the brothers; the Tiger also began to rise, fell, fell into the field millet, crashed, since then the millet stalks have been red; Brother Hasun became the sun, Halsun became a month, Pelsun became stars; var.: Brother and sister who love each other were afraid of the tiger, rose to heaven, became the Moon and by the Sun]: 565; Choi 1979, No. 100 [The tiger ate the mother, puts on her clothes; her three children do not open the door because they do not recognize the mother's voice, they see the shaggy paw; when they open it, the Tiger eats the youngest; the other two asked for permission to go out of need, ran away, hid in a tree; two ropes came down from the sky, new and rotten; brother and sister rose to heaven, brother became Sun, sister Moon; Tiger climbed on rotten, fell into a millet field; since then, the millet stalks have been red with his blood; options: The tiger tied ropes to the children, when they came out, they tied them to a mortar; the Tiger fell into the well, drowned; his sister was afraid shine at night, asked to give her a day; embarrassed, became a bright Sun not to be looked at; three sisters are running, turning into Sun, Moon, Stars]: 27-28; Cho 2001, No. 78 [woman returns to at dusk, carrying cakes to the children; the Tiger meets her on every hill, consistently demanding that she give her cakes first, then her garments; on the last hill there is nothing more to give away, the Tiger eats the woman ( obviously takes her form); her three children do not open the door at first, because they do not recognize their mother's voice, they see a rough paw; the imaginary mother explains that she is hoarse, her hands are rough from work; asks for a younger one; sister and brother peek, see her eat it; hide in a tree in the yard; the Tiger first sees their reflection in the well, then looks up; the brother explains that they climbed in with sesame oil on the trunk castor oil; but the sister says what they did on the trunk of the notch; at the request of his brother, a strong rope descends from the sky, the children climb it; the Tiger asks God to lower his rotten rope, believing that he would do the opposite; she broke off, the Tiger fell into a millet field, since then the roots of the millet have been red; first the brother became the Sun, sister Moon; but the sister was afraid to walk at night, so they changed; to They did not stare at her, the Sun Sister began to dazzle those who watched with her light]: 118-122; Park 1991 [the woman returns at dusk, carrying roasted beans to her children; the Tiger ate her, put on her clothes; her three children did not first they open the door because they do not recognize the mother's voice, they see a rough paw; the imaginary mother explains that she is hoarse, her hands are rough from work; the children unlock; while the sister and middle brother are eating beans, the Tiger climbs under the blanket, eats the youngest; the children ask for more beans, the Tiger gives the boy's fingers; the sister asks for permission to go out of need; in the yard he climbs the willow with his brother; the Tiger first sees their reflection in the well; the brother calls out him, he looks up; his brother explains that they climbed, greased the trunk with soybean oil; then says what they did on the trunk of the notch; at his sister's plea, an iron chain descends from the sky, the children climb her; the Tiger asks him to lower the rusty chain, she breaks, the Tiger fell into the stubble, since then the roots of the corn have been red; the sister has become the Sun, Brother Month; so as not to be stared at, the Sun Sister throws at the beholders needles]: 46-51; lolo (buy) [the witch eats the woman; knocks on her children; they say that the voice is rude, the hand is hairy; the witch puts on the woman's clothes and shoes, the children let her in; at night she eats boy; girl asks to go to the yard, ties a rope to the dog's paw, climbs a peach tree; a witch asks to throw her a peach, a girl throws a knife; a witch dies, turns into nettles; merchants white and red carpets are spread, the girl jumps, misses, falls into nettles, turns into wormwood; wormwood heals nettle burns]: Cherkasova 196:360-364; Chuan miao [a woman was eaten by a witch Na Bo Ntsong; her two daughters went to the forest, called their grandmother; NBN answered her in a voice; when she came, she sat on a vessel, not on a chair, to hide her tail; said she would sleep with that granddaughter, who does not have lice; the eldest specially poured sesame seeds into her clothes; shook her clothes over the fire, the seeds cracked, the imaginary grandmother decided to sleep with her youngest granddaughter; the eldest in the attic hears how the witch devours the youngest; she replies that she eats beans; when asked to give it to her, she gave her younger sister's finger; in the morning the witch noticed the eldest's shadow in the well, found her sitting on a pear tree; she says that the witch would be able to climb the tree wearing leather shoes that were at home; she could not climb into them; the girl asked for a spear to knock down pears for her; the girl asked her to open her mouth, pierced with a spear; the witch turned into a thicket of blackberries surrounding the tree with a ring; fabric merchants were walking by, the girl promised to marry someone who would help her go down; the merchant covered the thorns with cloth, let the girl down] : Graham 1954:276-277; fox: Dessaint, Ngwâma 1994:167-179 [father did not return from hunting; mother goes for roots, tells daughters Amìma (eldest) and Alěma not to open the door; cannibal ( t'ishüma, the category of evil spirits) ate her, came, asks her to open it; Amima talks to her; her mother always brought a herd of cows; the cannibal brought her; show her ear; the cannibal picks up a mooing cow; the same a herd of sheep; pigs; a basket of roosters; the mother always has a spinning wheel in her hands spinning hemp; show; she slips; the mother's hand is not shaggy; the cannibal pulls out her hair; not bloody; licks blood; younger sister: if you are a mother, break constipation; the cannibal breaks off, comes in, sends her sisters to fetch water; Amima brings dirty, Alema is clean; cannibal: the one who brought clean will sleep with me; at night Amima hears how the cannibal sucks Alema's blood, eats it; she says she drinks water, gnaws hemp seeds; in the morning, Amima pretends to believe, calls the cannibal for breakfast, offers to wake Alema up; cannibal: let sleeps; the cannibal wants to relieve herself; Amima tied a ball of thread to the fence: when you unwind, you can do your business; after a little reeling, the cannibal asks if it is possible; Amima replies that her mother at this time (all episodes of hemp processing and making clothes), then father at this time (episodes of preparing a bow and arrow, a knife); finally, the ball was unwound; Amima ran into the house, found her sister's bones, told all objects in the house to be responsible for her; then sticks and wooden balls on the road; runs away; the cannibal consistently devours all the objects that respond to her; chases; notices under the apricot tree Amima's shadow; how did she get in? throwing her left breast to the left and right; the cannibal ripped her breasts off the bark, cannot climb; Amima promises her apricots if she brings her father's gold-silver spear, burning it in the fire; tells open your mouth, close your eyes; misses for the first time, tells her to heat her again; pierces the cannibal, her blood floods the valley; Amima asks Grandpa Month to pick her up, then Grandma Sun; everyone says that busy; blood rises; at the last moment the Sun picks up Amima; when the bloody flood has passed, the Sun wants to bring Amima back; she is afraid of cannibals; the Sun gives four dogs to protect Amima from her head , from the feet, on the sides; three times a night it is necessary to change the place of sleep; when dogs killed almost all cannibals, the Sun decided to take them away; Amima begged to leave the male and female to defend themselves from the remaining cannibals; this couple's current dogs are happening], 409-426 [an orphan girl and her younger brother live with her grandmother; went to chase birds to the site; someone mimics their words; grandmother does not believe, she goes by herself; she does not mimic; children: tease to believe; now someone repeats the grandmother's words, the cannibal t'ishüma appears; invites the grandmother to look in her head; she takes ticks out ticks from the cannibal's head; cannibal ate her grandmother; the children saw it, ran home, locked themselves; the cannibal comes disguised as a grandmother; the girl repeatedly says that her grandmother looks different; the cannibal consistently changes her teeth, cuts off long breasts, etc., gets dressed; girl: grandmother came carrying a trough; cannibal with a trough; this time the boy said how to open the door; pretending to be a grandmother, a cannibal sends children for water, then for fuel; the girl brings dirty water, raw branches, the boy is clean and dry; at night the cannibal takes it with her; ate it, crunches her bones, supposedly the crunch of magic beans that give immortality, which she chews; first the cannibal gives the girl beans, then her brother's finger; in the morning asks where to relieve her need; the girl rejects all places (her mother or father did something there); you have to go to the mountain, she she will let the ball go where the thread runs out, relieve the need; and then wind the ball back; the girl tied the thread to the tree, ran home, found her brother's intestines, wrapped it in cloth, hid under the bridge; then climbed a tree; peed herself; the cannibal thought it was raining; the girl laughed; the cannibal: how did she climb? legs forward; the cannibal climbs; no: throw your legs around your neck; then: bring my father's spear, hot in the fire, I'll knock down the fruits for you; open your mouth wider; threw a spear, missed; bring my grandfather's spear with two points; the same; great-grandfather with three points; this spear fell into the mouth of the cannibal, she died; the flood began; the girl consistently asks for water from deer, dogs, hunters, bushes, knife, leaves, people who carry meat, flies; everyone refuses, is busy; the frog drinks for the promise to give it a needle, pierced its stomach, the water has poured out again; the same frog, but it has pierced its back; since then frogs were stained behind; the girl got off the tree, began to pick up the remnants of yarn that the women had thrown, began to weave them; the moon came down to drink from the stream, she could not; girl: sideways; her grateful moon took it along with the tree under which she was sitting; you can see her weaving on the moon; if only half of the moon is visible, she drinks; people are mortal because they can no longer eat magic beans]; Hani [cannibal Milaominao swallowed the sun and moon; a 30-year-old woman lived on the mountain with two daughters, Apei, 12, and Aniu, 6; one day, her mother went to get water and M. swallowed it and took her form; the youngest believed that the mother came, and the eldest told me to show her hand; she was black and clawed; M. rolled her hand in ash; again they did not believe it; M. hears the youngest say: the mother would enter through a hole in the wall; says that the one who she would rather wash her feet, sleep with her; at night, the eldest dreamed of an old man predicting her victory over M. in the mountains; she woke up and heard chewing; M. says she was chewing peas; the girl felt blood and saw M. devouring the youngest; said that she wanted to go to the yard; refused to write in the room: the spirit of this place lives in every place; M. allowed me to go out, the girl climbed a pear by the pond; in the morning M. asks to throw off the fruits, threw it right down her throat and another vuk from above, M. died, turned into a thorny bush; an old man came up, the girl asked him to spread his cape, she would jump off and become his granddaughter; old man: I have a granddaughter; girl: I will be second; and so on until 12; went down, the old man disappeared, she went to look for the youngest; herding buffaloes, ducks, chickens do not know where she is; the frog tells me to wait for her to drink the sea; when she drank, the youngest appeared; they began to think who would be the sun and who would be the moon; the youngest was afraid of being the moon, afraid of the dark; so the eldest became the moon, and gave the youngest needles to prick eyes of people who will look at the sun immodestly]: Coyaud 2012, No. 1:9-19.

Turkestan. Salary (Altiuli, Xunhua-Salar Autonomous County) [the old woman had three daughters; before going to the mountains, she told them: “Don't open the door [to anyone] until her mother returns! When your mother calls [you] at the door, then open it!” ; Mungiskarchi ate it in the mountains; when he came to the house, he began to sing: “Tuttyrja, open the door! The mother came, stung the grass with a sickle, cleaned the grass with a rake, swam across the Morin River, the ditch crossed [through] the waters, open the door!” ; T. asked: “Why is the face yellow and why is the face white?” ; M. was lying in the dust and singing again at the door; T.: “Why is his face yellow and why is his face red?” ; M. was lying in the reddish dust and singing again; T.: “Why is his face yellow and why is his face blue?” ; M.: “Will you open the door or not? If you don't open it, I'll break the hook!” ; T. opened the door; the youngest sister pressed against M.'s chest; in the evening he ate it; the older sisters heard a crunch of bones, saw the younger sister's head and decided to run; going out into the yard, they sang loudly: “The girl Luna, hold out the rope! Sun Maiden, help me!” ; after that, the savior came; he took two girls with him; M. also went out and sang: “Maiden Luna, hold out the rope! Sun Maiden, help me!” ; someone appeared who took the girls away, attacked M. and shredded him with a sword]: Tenishev 1964, No. 26:65-66.

Southern Siberia — Mongolia. Dongxiang [the old woman has four daughters, the eldest has a daughter, the old woman went to her with gifts; on the way she is swallowed by a monster, takes her form; the youngest daughters do not open the door, they say that the mother had sleeves of a different color; the eldest opens; at night the monster eats her, the second and third daughters run away (the fourth is not mentioned); the girls tell the river to become narrow, cross; the tree is low , climb on it; they answer that they got up, holding a stone slab on their heads, leaning on a stick; then they lift the pursuer to half, cut off the rope: the monster turns into a dog, a peddler goods kill her; one girl marries a peddler, the other marries another person]: Todayeva 1961, No. 2:80-83; the Mongors [the old woman has four daughters, the eldest is married, she has a grandson; the old woman goes to visit him, tells the youngest daughters not to open it to anyone; a mangus in the form of a woman meets an old woman, invites her to her place, takes her true form, eats it; taking the form of an old woman, comes to the house where girls; the older three do not unlock, they say that the clothes are the wrong color; the mangus changes the colors of the clothes; the youngest hesitates, sticks her finger, the mangus grabs it, has to open it; when going to bed, mangus tells the youngest girl to lie down with her; at night, sisters hear sounds - mangus eats a girl, drinks her blood, her head rolls to the floor; sisters ask to go to the toilet, mangus ties a rope to them; they they tie her to the kettle and to the chicken, run away; ask the mountain to become low, behind them high again; the river is narrow, wide again; so 9 mountains and 9 rivers; ask the tree to become low, then raise them; answer mangus that you can get up by eating pig, human, dog crap; they lower the rope, let go; the mangus breaks; a young woodcutter walks by, finishes off the mangus, cuts, buries]: Stuart, Limusishiden 1994:112-116.

Japan. Japanese (73 versions from Tohoku to North Ryukyu): Ikeda 1971, No. 333A [a cannibal comes to a woman, eats all her food, then the woman herself, takes her form, goes to her children; they ask put her hand into the hole, it is said that the mother's hand was softer; the cannibal returns, rubbing her hand with tarot leaves; the mother's voice was softer; the cannibal drinks butter (honey); the children let her in; she lies down in bed, eats a baby; one of the children asks for food, gets a finger; children say they need to go to the yard, untie the ropes that the cannibal tied to them, climb a tree; How did they get in? - After dousing oil on the trunk; 1) she falls, breaks; the children take the living mother out of her belly; 2) she sees their reflection in the pond, tries to drink it; the children ask the gods to lower the rope from heaven, they rise, turn into stars; the cannibal asks too, her rope is rotten, it breaks, it falls, breaks, her blood stains the roots of millet]: 91-92; Markova 2000, No. 17 [colors buckwheat roots; brothers turn into a month and into a star]: 71-73.

(Wed. The Central Andes. {The story's recent spread under European and possibly Far Eastern influences is likely}. Kant (dep. Lima) [passers-by do not know that old Mama-Gallo feeds them human; one day she sends two grandchildren to bring water in a basket, kills and cooks their daughter; pieces of the mother's body scream to the children from the cauldron to they ran to heaven; children ask their grandmother to show them how to carry water in a basket, take pieces of their mother's body, run; San Miguel lowers a chain from the sky, they climb into the sky; MG climbs after him, an acacllo bird cuts off the chain with its beak; MG asks the Fox to spread out on the ground; he does, but MG still turns into a lake in the air; the rock in the middle of the lake is now called MG]: Arguedas, Izquierdo Rios 1947:114; (cf. Villar Cordova 1933 [Pachakamaka and Pachamama had Willka twins, a boy and a girl; Pachakamak drowned in the sea; Pachamama went with her children across the mountains and went to the Wa-Kona cave (during ritual dances Wa Kon wore a jaguar mask); sending the children to bring water in a leaky vessel, VK tried to seize P.; not achieving what he wanted, he ate it; the bird told V. about the murder of his mother, advised me to run, tying the sleeping VC by the hair; when she woke up, VK set off in pursuit, asking various animals if they had seen the children; the mother of the skunks sheltered the twins and fed her blood; set up a trap, VK fell off a cliff, crashed, its fall was accompanied by an earthquake; the twins were tired of eating blood, they went to the field to dig potatoes; playing with an unusual tuber, the girl abandoned a hat came down to heaven; a rope came down from the sky, the twins climbed it to their father Pachakamak; the boy became the Sun, the girl became the Moon; the path of the stars across the sky was a continuation of their earthly journeys; Pachamama incarnated in the mountain range, Pachacamac gave her power over fertility]: 162-165).