Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

J33. Scarecrow. .

A boy, boy, or two children live in the older character's house. In order to provoke a certain reaction on his part, they kill a person or a large animal, stuff the scarecrow with insects, worms, ash, grass, or inflate it.

The Midwest. Sauk, Fox [see J19 motive; a man with a second person on the back of her head kills a woman, rips her stomach open, pulls out twins; the father throws the youngest under a log, he is raised by an old woman- a rat; he comes to play with his brother; brother and father grab him; brothers kill a white bison, make a scarecrow out of their skin, scare his father]: Lasley 1902:176-178.

Plains. Pawnee (throw it off) [see motif J23; two brothers kill a monstrous lizard, puff out its skin, drag it with them, frightening their father; do the same with the scarecrow of the witch they killed]: Dorsey 1904b, No. 25:91-93; 1906, No. 13 (kitkehahki) [two girls sleep outside, one wants a star for her husband; wakes up in the sky; gives birth to a son; husband tells you to be careful when digging roots; she digs, holes in the sky, makes a rope from the tendons; descends, taking her son with him; hangs before reaching the ground; the husband kills her with a stone, she falls to the ground; the son sucks the breast of a dead mother, then comes to an old woman with a grandson of the same age; the grandmother does not tell them to go in a certain direction, they go, lightning kills monsters that threaten them; the bear; they make a scarecrow, scare their grandmother; another monster (not described); they kill cougars and other dangerous ones themselves animals; come to people; Star Boy disappears (probably back to heaven)]: 56-58; Grinnell 1894 [two girls spend the night outside discussing stars, one (the chief's daughter) points to a bright star that she likes it; wakes up in the tipi of a star man; gives birth to a son; her husband warns not to dig deep by digging up roots; she digs, sees the ground through the hole; asks her husband to give her tendons, weaves a rope (var.: her an old spider woman woven her); the rope is short, the woman and the child hung; the husband threw a stone, killing his wife, she fell to the ground, the son was not injured; the little son of an earthly woman notices traces; the mother leaves the scraper and the hoe, they are untouched; then the bow and arrow; the fallen boy takes them; the earthly calls him to his mother; both grow up; the old woman does not tell them to go to the forest of thick trees, there the grizzly kills everyone; they go, the Upper boy brings a grizzly, scaring the old woman, then kills with an arrow; the same with the puma (panther), the Upper boy stuffs the scarecrow with grass, frightens the old woman; the brothers kill the snakes; the Upper marries the leader's daughter]: 197-200.

California. Jokutz: Gayton, Newman 1940, No. 2 [two orphans live with their grandmother; the eldest shoots a lark, which falls into a hole in the ground, the boy goes down to the lower world for him; Skylark offers to play beads; the game is to shoot the hoop; Lark people lose; The lark gives the boy a bow and arrows, sends him to the ground; the boy kills a bear, makes a scarecrow, frightened his grandmother with it; the boy and his younger brother they are lucky; they go down to the lower world of Atil and stay there]: 17; Kroeber 1907a, No. 34 [the girl collects clover; her mother tells her not to go far; she goes, the Grizzly eats her; the mother finds blood on the leaves brings home, a boy emerges from the blood; she makes arrows for him; each time he brings bigger game; she shows him a closet where his (father?)'s battle bows and arrows lie i) relatives (killed by a grizzly?) ; he takes them, goes east; sends all the grizzlies one by one; when his mother's killer comes out, he kills him with an arrow; puts his skin on a stone, where the grandmother takes water into the stream; she gets scared, runs home, on the way he fills the basket with urine; the grandson says that such water is not good, and the stream is just a scarecrow]: 225-227; kitanemuk [cannibal bird and bear kill the boy's parents; grandmother brings up him; he kills a bird and a bear, frightens his grandmother with a bear skin (making a scarecrow?)] : Blackburn, Bean 1978:568.

The Great Southwest. They scare mother or grandmother. Hopi [Pookongs (same name as twins usually have) kills a monstrous bear, fills his skin with grass, drags him along, scaring his grandmother]: Voth 1905, No. 22:89-90; Zunyi [two Brothers (Gods of War) live with their grandmother; she consistently warns them not to go to a certain direction of the world, but the younger brother suggests going; the Rodent digs a passage to the lying Cow; gnaws off her hair skins under the heart; the older brother kills the Cow with an arrow, she manages to kick the younger one; the rodent gives him medicine; a creature kicks passers-by off a cliff; the older brother dodges, the brothers throw the creature from the cliff into the abyss; old woman Ahdoshla offers to take insects out, puts her brothers to sleep, kills, cooks; they come to life, kill A., make a scarecrow out of her; come to another world where they are eternally mature corn, vegetables, melons; dwarfs live there without mouths; brothers cut their mouths, dwarfs eat for the first time; they are afraid of a boiling pot of corn porridge falling on them; brothers eat porridge; they find in a cave who produce lightning, thunder and rain stick and stone; bring them home; drag the effigy A. with them, pretending to run away from it; a frightened grandmother hits a scarecrow with a stick, the brothers laugh; pick up a stick and a stone, a thunderstorm begins, the grandmother almost drowns; the brothers think they killed her, but she returns from hiding; tells her older brother to go west, younger brother to go east; she goes to Halonaava herself]: Quam 1972, No. 37 : 182-194; Oriental ceres: Dumarest (Cochiti) [girl gets pregnant from the Sun, gives birth to twins Maaseve and Uyuev; four days later they ask for a bow and arrow; they guard the tree for arrows puma and bear; twins kill both, make a scarecrow out of the bear, sit on it, frightening the mother; she says that only the Ogre Eagle has arrow feathers; on the way to the eagle, the twins come to the spring; his the monstrous Deer guards; the Gopher makes a hole to the heart of the lying Deer, the twins kill him with an arrow; they tie themselves with blood-filled guts; the Eagle carries them away, throws them into its nest; blood splashes, The eagle thinks they're dead; the twins kill him with arrows, tell the eagles not to be cannibals anymore; returning to their mother] in Benedict 1931:211 and in Boas 1928a: 252; Gunn 1917 (Sia) [Yellow Woman gets pregnant from the Sun, gives birth to twins; the mother tells them who their father is; their grandmother Spider gives them a bow and arrow; weaves the web like a bridge across the river; in the center there is a hole leading to the Sun's house; he experiences sons; 1) a turquoise steam room (they cool it by spitting out its shells); 2) locked in a room with moose, bison, deer, antelope; 3) in another with bears, cougars, rattlesnakes; the Sun gives they have bows and arrows, hunting sticks for rabbits (they can't throw them before reaching home); mother and father warn not to go to dangerous places, the twins go; the cougar throws those following poles into the abyss for arrows, they throw it off; 2) the bear guards the arrow feathers; they kill the bear, pull the scarecrow on a rope, scaring the mother; they turn into the skin of a dead deer, let the eagle carry themselves away; they kill eagles, they throw them out of the nest; they kill the eagles that have arrived; the groundhog plants a seed by the cliff, a pignon pine grows, they descend it; the giantess puts them in a basket, carries them behind her back, they grab a tree, run away; she catches them again; sends them at home for fuel; they push her into the fire themselves; they fire lightning arrows; the mole digs under the antelope; the twins pierce it from below; tell the antelopes to eat grass, not humans ; the mole is promised her giblets]: 43-52 in Boas 1928a: 251-252; tewa (Hano) [girl rejects suitors; Sumacoli's people live in a lake; young S. travels on a rainbow, comes to marry, girl agrees; he easily catches deer, moose; sorcerers are jealous, put a sharp stick smeared with snake venom on him; he steps on it, returns to his parents, cannot take out the splinter, and he is about to die; his wife gives birth to twins; they grow up quickly, find a father, create hummingbirds that suck a splinter; his father recovers but remains lame; tells him not to go south; brothers go and kill a dangerous a bear, make a scarecrow, drag him along as if a bear is chasing them; they laugh when they see that his father is frightened; one of S. is killed by enemies; brothers revive him, but he is blind; they make new eyes out of resin ; Sumacoli's mask is half-blind (with small eyes) and lame]: Parsons 1926, No. 15:246-254.

Mesoamerica Heroes kill an old woman's husband (usually an animal) and stuff his skin with insects and ash. The old woman comes to the scarecrow, is angry that her husband does not react to her words, hits him with a stick; the scarecrow bursts, insects (ash) harm the old woman. Nahuat (Puebla) [the woman has two sons; they are surprised that her mother takes food to the forest; they see a Deer there; the youngest disguised himself as a woman, lured a Deer; his brothers killed him, filled his skin with stinging insects; when the woman came, the scarecrow fell, insects bit her to death; the brothers rose from the fire into the sky; the elder was frightened, the youngest rushed into the fire, became the sun; the elder took not hot coals, but ash, became month]: Barlow, Ramirez 1962:55-57; Masateki [deer]: Williams García 1953:360; cuicateques [the old woman found two eggs, put them in a vessel, of which the Sun and Moon were born; every day she went to feed the deer corn porridge, told the twins to stay at home; called the deer the father of twins; when she returned, the house was a mess; once sent them to feed their father themselves - call him Kundo, Kundo! ; they called, the deer came, they killed him, the Moon took her right eye, the Sun took his left eye; fire was needed to cook the meat; they sent a fox to the old woman; she set fire to her tail, ran away; so that the tail would not burn, the fox placed fire in the stone {obviously in the flint}, the twins cut fire out of it; brought the old woman roasted venison, and made a scarecrow out of the skin, filling it with wasps and other stinging insects; old woman she ate, and by the river, the frogs told her that she ate deer liver; the twins told the old woman to pour sand on the frog's ass, so it was rough; the black vulture also told the old woman that she ate deer; she accused the twins of killing their father; went to check it out for herself; the deer did not respond; she went to the scarecrow and hit him with a stick - why she did not answer; insects bit her; she returned home and promised the twins call their uncle; this is a jaguar; they dug a trap hole, the jaguar fell into it; then the old woman called the twins' aunt, an eagle with two heads; they made a cage, the eagle sat on top, they grabbed her by paws (and killed); the old woman called another uncle; this is an aquatic animal with a shell, but big; the twins ran, met Thunder, asked them to hide them behind her cheek; Thunder replied to the beast that his teeth hurt and his cheek swollen; the beast tried to get into Thunder's mouth, but the Sun asked to hit, Thunder smashed the beast to pieces; while Thunder was working, the twins opened three vessels in his house: water, wind and hail; The soaked Thunder came back, closed the vessels and drove the twins away: that's why your aunt kicked you out; they found honey, the Sun ate a little, and told the moon to eat more, she was thirsty; the Sun gave water only after how they changed their eyes; the Sun did not tell them to drink everything, but the Moon drank everything; the Sun told them to regurgitate some of the water, otherwise it would not be on earth; the moon regurgitated, but the dirty water stained her face, so she was wearing it stains; the woman has a chest; the Sun gave her ripe cherimoyi and said that there are many of them in the forest; she left, and he asked the rat to gnaw through the chest; the woman hears and asks, Sun: don't worry; the same with the woodpecker; agouti gnawed, a wheel with a rope in the chest, the Sun and the Moon rose to heaven, agouti followed; asks what to do; Sun: cut the rope above you; Aguti fell, buried in the ground; the woman managed spanking the moon; so when the moon looks like a sickle, women are menstruating; woman to the Sun: remember me when I cover your face with my underskirt]: Weitlaner 197:56-62 (=Bartolomé 1984:6-9); zapotecs [two orphans Sun boy and Moon girl live with Sousse Lay (an infertile woman); they hunt, but she gives everything to her old husband Gol Gisa; he lives in the forest, nothing does not; St. Anton always helps children with advice; twins kill GG, let SL eat his heart under the guise of a deer's heart, stuff his scarecrow with stinging insects; when SL touches her husband, from there insects fly out; she and her brother Ros (the worm) want to burn the children in the steam bath; they run away, strangle SL with smoke in her house, pick up the parts of her loom, ring, jug, comb; He grew up into a snake, chases the twins; they throw the objects they took, they turn into different mountains; they throw hot stones into Dew's throat, he dies; the sister grabs the right bright, and brother is Rosa's left, dim eye; sister wants to drink; brother makes a hole of water; offers in exchange for a bright rabbit eye; lets sister approach the water when she puts her eyes on the ground; God appoints a boy to become the sun, a girl to become the moon]: Parsons 1932a, No. 1:279-278 (=1936:324-327); tricks: García Alvarez 1973 in Bartolomé 1984:17; Hollenbach 1980 [twins born a girl (or married woman but not from her husband); they are thrown away to ants, they are alive; then they are thrown into the river; they are caught by old woman Ga'ah, tells her deer husband that she gave birth to them; The deer lives in the forest, she wears tortillas for him; when he leaves, the twins jump out of the cradle to play; the birds warn them when G. returns; once the birds overslept G.'s appearance, the twins no longer take the form of babies; not They believe that the Deer is their father, they kill him, fill the scarecrow with wasps; the opossum is sent to bring fire (see the D4A motif), they roast Deer meat, give G.; the frog tells her what she ate, she does not believe it, hits it, now the frog's skin is wrinkled; G. is angry that the Deer is silent, hits him with a stick, bitten by wasps; drives the twins out of the house; the snake is going to devour the world, the twins throw hot stones into its mouth; they send a fly to check if the snake is dead; the fly defecates in its left eye; the younger brother takes a brighter right eye, the elder takes the left eye; the brothers go, the youngest wants to drink; the older one gets water as only the youngest agrees to change eyes; G. comes to the twins; they put her to sleep and rape her, putting stones on her penises; they run away to heaven, the eldest becomes the Sun, the youngest becomes the Month; he swallowed the rabbit, which is now visible on it; the birds wake up G., she is covered in blood; throws after the twins the parts of her loom (turning into the Taurus constellation) and sandals (turning into the Pleiades); G. herself becomes in the spirit of a steam bath], No. 8.26-8.37:463-468; Relatos Triquis 1998 [the only woman lived in the forest among animals, her husband was a deer; she replied to her son and daughter that their father did not have time to go home, she takes food to the forest where he works; the children met a deer, talked to him, he did not answer, they trapped him, filled his skin with bees, asked his mother to cook meat; the deer did not show up in the morning her call, she found him, hit him with her hand, the bees that flew out bit her; when she returned, the children began to laugh; she asked God Riki to punish them; he turned his son into the Sun, his younger sister into the Moon; they will walk above the ground and shine until they are forgiven]: 26-29; chatino [deer]: Bartolomé 1979:24; 1984:11; Carrasco 1961:64-65; Cicco, Horcasitas 1962 [girl played with a bird, pregnant from her; gave birth to two boys, they were like dolls, her parents threw them into the river; the woman picked them up, said she was their mother; they guessed that this was not the case, that her deer husband was not their father; they killed a deer, they made him a stuffed animal full of bees, brought her his meat; the frog said she was eating her husband; she ran to the scarecrow, the bees bit her; the children burned her in temazcal, she became a temazcal spirit; children met their real mother, who weaved clothes for all animals, took her with them; they do not know where to get maize to feed their mother; they broke the bottle, threw it on the mill, the fragments turned into a husband and mosquitoes; left their mother, came to the place where the snake was going to swallow the girl; killed the snake by throwing hot stones into its mouth; the Sun climbed into the sky by thread, the Month climbed in its own way; his wife climbed after him; The Sun told the tuza rodent to gnaw through the thread, the woman fell; The month still wants to return to his wife]: 74-78; mixteks [deer]: Cruz 1946 [the parents of the Sun and Month did not like them, threw them into the river; boys an old woman picked it up; asks them to take their food to their "father" in the forest; this is a deer, his brothers kill him; they ask another old woman to fry meat; she does not give it; they send an Opossum; he is soaked in the river, asked for permission dry out; carried away the fire on the tail; since then, the tail of the possum has been naked; the old teacher hits the Deer with a stone when he does not respond to her; wasps fly out, chase her]: 217-219; Dyk 1958:10-14; Solano Gonzá ; lez 1985 [Our Creator Father (BUT) learns that the owner of a temazcal (steam bath) owns a ball of thread to measure the world; comes ashore, where she washes, fires miniature arrows at her, she thinks flies they bite; he turns into a baby, gets out of the water; she brings him home, tells her twin sons that they have a little brother; she goes to take food to her husband, who works in the forest; when she comes back, feeds the baby with his milk; the next day, the boy asks the twins to let him play with their mother's ball; it is stored in a vessel; BUT pulls the thread, measures the world, puts the ball back, lies down in the cradle, cries; the woman scolds the twins for not caring for her brother or comforting him; on the fourth day she returns when BUT is still measuring the world; he explains that he is looking for meat to eat; goes for a walk, she warns not to go to the right; he goes screams, Go get some food, dad!" A deer appears, BUT kills it with an arrow, makes a scarecrow, fills it with wasps and bees; brings meat to a woman; she eats it with her twins; when she brings food to her husband, he does not answer, she hits him with a stick, Wasps and bees fly out, bite it; BUT drowns the temazcal to treat it, closes the exit; it stays inside; it takes the twins and takes it away]: 172-177; Miche [man]: Bartolomé 1984:22-23; Miller 1956, No. 3, 4:81, 89-90.

Western Amazon. The twins kill the mother or father of the jaguars. Napo [the woman got lost, went to the Jaguars; her grandmother hid her under the roof, the Jaguars were found, eaten, and the children from the womb were given to their grandmother; they were Kuilyur and Dusira, children of the Month; they carried water , firewood, tired of working; made the chakra huge, the grandmother could not go out, they took it out; they made a bridge, brought it down when the jaguars stepped on it, the pregnant female escaped; came to the chief Jaguars, began to play guitar; the Jaguar sat in a chair and began to play himself; the brothers closed the door, turned the house into a rock; now Mundupuma lives inside Cerro Galeras; killed the grandmother of the jaguars, filled her skin with worms, meat was given to her sons; the Jaguars found out, the twins turned into birds, flew away]: Foletti Castegnaro 1985:63-64; napo or canelo [see motive A31; the girl became pregnant by her brother; he went up to the sky became a month; it became an ilucu bird (a nightjar? ; but then the story continues; the same below with the mother of the jaguars, who became a toad but continues to act as before) has left home; the Cuillor (younger) and Docero twins from her womb show the way; ask her to pick a flower, then a leaf, a fruit; when she picked the fruit, she was bitten by a wasp; she clapped her stomach because of you; the twins fell silent; the parrot on her shoulder began to point the road, but he was carried away by a falcon; the woman came to the mother of the jaguars; she hid her under the roof, warned her not to spit; the jaguars came, she spat, the eldest climbed, did not find it, the youngest found the woman, they spit her they were torn to pieces, the twins were given to their mother (tender meat), but they asked them not to eat; the old mother of the jaguars hid them, a month later they had grown up; the old woman asked them to prepare firewood; they collected a huge pile, they told me to pull from below, the old woman filled up the firewood; the next time she asked for water, they directed the river, when the old woman opened the door, the water carried her; the twins told the old woman to collect corn for in the middle of the field, made it endless; she can't find her way back; the voice of the toad "ooh" can be heard; since then, where corn grows, the toad unculu screams; the brothers brought the old woman home; the elder brother tells the younger Do not throw the leftovers wrapped in leaves into the water; he threw them away, they turned into a stingray, and when he started fishing, the stingray plunged his thorn into it; the mother of the jaguars asked them to make a bridge over the river for them; the brothers turned into birds, made clubs, came back; the elder told the youngest to cut off the bridge at the signal, but he said there was no need for a signal; when all the jaguars stepped on the bridge, the elder cut off his end, and the youngest had been messing around for a long time and a pregnant jaguariha ran away; her traces are still visible on the river rocks; the brothers told the Old Jaguar about their adventures; he asked them to set traps and brothers they caught almost all birds and animals; the Old Jaguar decided to eat them; his brothers killed him, took out his spine, filled him with ash, put insects in his eyes; shouted that the jaguar wanted to eat them; old mother The jaguars came running, hit the scarecrow with a stick, the ash blinded her, the brothers washed her eyes; the ancient Jaguar devoured everyone; the brothers made a room inside Mount Galera, put a lot of food and musical instruments, lured Jaguar with a game; he began to play himself, did not notice how the brothers came out; they told the hole to close; the Jaguar began to rush, one leg remained outside; you can still hear a roar; other jaguars they bring him food; a huge harpy eagle devoured everyone; Cuillor hid in a rubber bag; the eagle could not tear it, threw it on the clouds; C. does not know how to go down; the old man Uchitican says he is also with land; told him to sit on his back, close his eyes, open after the second whistle, flew; but C. opened after the first one, fell into the forest; Docero went to look for him; began to pick edible mushrooms from the trunk; from the trunk scream {apparently mushrooms are C.'s ears, but not directly said}; the woodpecker cut the hole; for this D. gave him a red handkerchief over his head; C. made glue, the eagle stuck, D. broke his wing with a blow of the club; the brothers turned him in stone; he is visible now - looks like an eagle with a broken wing; a huge anaconda devoured people; brothers made a trap, persuaded them to climb into it, turned the anaconda into stone; the thunder killed many; brothers found him sleeping on a tree branch; they cut his neck with an ax, told him to petrify him; there are thunderstones in this place now; an evil toad spirit ("devil") took the form of a mother, told the children to dance; brothers they hid and told him to become a stone; the brothers asked the caiman to transport them across the sea; when the first one sailed, he told the caiman every time that it smelled like fragrant flowers; jumping ashore and said that like a caiman; the same when the caiman took the second one, but he had time to bite off the young man's leg; the bees waxed his leg; the brothers made a fire, the smoke rose to the sky, became a staircase, and the brothers climbed into heaven; C. became a morning star and D. became an evening star]: Orr, Hudelson 1971, No. 2-15:7-49; saparo [see J9 motif; the girl smears her lover's face with genipa juice; he turns out to be her brother; out of shame he rises to the sky turns into the Month; a woman comes to the Mother of the Jaguars; her children are a red jaguar, a black jaguar, a spotted jaguar, a jaguar cat, a tiger, a bull herd jaguar; she hides a woman under the roof in a vessel; the jaguars found her, ate her; her sister (who is also her brothers' mistress) got a piece, her mother got giblets; there were two boys in the uterus, Jaguariha raised them; going to dig cassava, they killed the Father of the Jaguars, stuffed his skin with earth, ash, crackling insects (grasshoppers?) ; they told the old woman that they were afraid of him; she came up, heard a noise (grasshoppers cracking), hit her husband with a stick; Jaguarich's ash began to suffocate; the brothers ripped off her scalp, both heads (her and hers) husband) cooked; after becoming hummingbirds, they ask jaguars if their parents' heads are tasty; they bring down a log on which jaguars cross the river, they are eaten by caimans]: Reinburg 1921:11-13.