Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

J7. Replaced signs.


A woman or girl goes to her husband (lover) or relatives, or a man goes to pick up a bride. She or he goes astray after a character has changed the signs that show the way. See motive J12.

Maragoli, Mosi, Eve, Sudanese Arabs, Joluo, Kalenjin, Ladins, Irish, Qatar, Mizo (Lushi), Atoni, Romanians, Moldovans, Belarusians, Ukrainians (Poltava, Kherson), Russians ( Gorkovskaya, Voronezh), Lezgins, Dargins, Megrelians, Persians, Yazgulyams, Baluchis, Estonians, Yurok, Karok, Sikuani, Yanomam, Warrau, Hishkaryana, Shuar, Aguaruna, Achuar, Candoshi, Bar, Uitoto, Tarian, Barasana, desana, makuna, surui, iranshe, paresi, tapirape.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Maragoli [5 friends went for fruit; agreed to collect them with their eyes closed; 4 immediately opened their eyes and picked ripe fruits, and the fifth honestly kept their eyes closed and picked unripe ones; came back; her friends promised to throw masatsi leaves on the trail so that she could find her way home; the cannibal overheard and poured leaves on the way to his house; kept the girl with him, put her in a pot, so that later eat; went to call other cannibals; the girl ran away; the old woman gave her a drum; when she meets cannibals, the girl every time says that she goes with a drum to her mother's funeral; got home; cannibal boiled water, but the girl was not in the pot; disappointed cannibals cooked and ate him himself]: Kavaji 2005, No. 11:226-228.

West Africa. Mosi [the girls go to file their teeth, drive the orphan away, ashamed of her rags; one sends her to her home for good clothes, warns her not to take a bad road; others replace signs with at the crossroads; a girl comes to Kinkirsi, but they do not harm her, but they file her teeth themselves, encrusted with gold and silver; tell her not to laugh or show her mouth for a week; at home a week later she was forced laugh, gold and silver fell out of her mouth; the rest of the girls became her maids; their teeth are still being filed now, but the gold is no longer falling]: Frobenius 1986:89-91; eve [the king holds the son's name is secret; promises to marry the one who guesses the name; orphan Akosiua asks the stepmother's three daughters to put a green line at the fork to the road to the palace, a dry line on the road to the forest; she must sort it out herself corn, clean everything; sisters put a dry branch on the road to the palace, green on the road to the forest; the wind raised the branches, put it on the contrary; after finishing work, A. bakes cakes to give to the king; meets an old man, gives him cakes; his sisters did not give him anything; the old man calls A. the name of the prince; A. marries him; sisters return home]: Pozdnyakov 1990:187-191.

Sudan - East Africa. Sudanese Arabs [while husband and son Muhammad are in the field, a lover comes to his wife; stabbed a ram, the woman has fried meat; the lover also goes to the field next to the woman's husband's field; the woman suffered meat; M. came to the house, overheard everything, was indignant that his favorite ram had been slaughtered; the lover agreed with the woman that he would follow a large branch to his field, but M. made a better visible trail to the field her father; the woman had to say that she had brought meat for them; when she saw her lover, she invited her husband to take meat to him, "otherwise this man can jinx us; M. carried the meat, ate almost everything on the way, throwing bones behind; father followed, picking up bones; lover asked M. why his father was doing this; M.: is going to castrate you; lover ran away; father asks why; M.: he said he had there is a cure for your hernia, but he won't give it; father ran to get the medicine; Mother's M.: Father is furious because of a slaughtered ram and women's interest in other men; father: why mother ran away? M.: tell women about your flaw; my husband caught up and knocked down your wife: you want to talk about my old defect, and now everyone can see your new one (he just meant that her skirt is up)]: Al-Shahi, Moore 1920, No. 66:215-218; joluo [Achieng girl always hesitates; others went to tattoo, left leaves at the fork; Boa constrictor replaced them, A. came to him; he ordered to crush one grain, enough food for both; wrapped his body around A., thus getting a beautiful tattoo; told him not to tell anyone; the young men are asking me to speak; she tells me to build a solid house around her first; When they saw Boa, everyone ran away, her lover remained, cut Boa to pieces; married A.]: K'Okiri 1970:32-50; kalenjin (marakvet) [returning from the dance, the guys left first; said girls who would lay leaves at the fork on the path to take; the cannibal peeked, put the leaves on the path that led to her; the girls came to the cannibal, she took the form of an ordinary women, fed; there were 5 grown girls and a girl named Tamining; her mother did not want to let her in, then gave her food; T. told the girls not to eat what the cannibal offered, gave her food; when at night, the cannibal was going to eat the girls, T. jumped up; the cannibal again took on the human image, asked why the girl was awake; T.: before going to bed, my mother tied a leather rope to my hand; the next once: until they bring me water from the savannah; the cannibal ran into the savannah, and T. woke the girls up and told me to run; T. fell behind, asked her throat to bow the tree to get there; the cannibal ran past and then returned to her place; when T. returned home, at Gorlinka's request, T.'s father and brother sacrificed goats, alcohol and honey by the tree]: Chesaina 1997:80-81; kalenjin (sebeei) [three sisters went for fruit; offered the younger one a game: who would be able to pick ripe ones with their eyes closed; (they peeked themselves), picked ripe ones, and the youngest honestly closed her eyes, she was immature; after picking the fruit, the sisters ordered collect the youngest one more, they promised to put green leaves at the fork on the path to follow, and thorns on the other; the cannibal changed the signs; when the girl came to him, he sent her to the river to get water, giving a vessel; by the river, an old woman asked the girl to pull the sand fleas out of her sole; when she pulled it out, the old woman said that the cannibal was going to cook the girl in this water; she took her home]: Chesaina 1997:82-83.

Southern Europe. Ladina [the priest went to the blacksmith's wife; the blacksmith's little son overheard his mother promise his lover to bring him a good dinner in the field tomorrow; he tells her where he will plow; the son tells his father put a blanket on his horse so that from a distance the horse looks like a priest's horses; the father is surprised when his wife brings him wine and pies; seeing that she was mistaken, the woman sends her son for a neighbor- as a priest, let him eat too; the son tells him that his father sent him; if the priest comes to his wife again, he will hack him with an ax; tells the father that the priest asks him to bring an ax to repair the plow; On the road, the boy scattered pieces of cake; the blacksmith walks with an ax, ripping pieces; the priest thinks he is picking up stones; the priest ran away and never looked into the blacksmith's house again]: Decurtins, Brunold-Bigler 2002 , NO. 130:343-345.

Western Europe. Irish [the owner has an employee Jack; he notices that the owner is hugging the maid and the hostess has a lover; hears how the hostess promised to bring her lover lunch in the field tomorrow, he will have a black and white horse; Jack throws it over a black sheet, the hostess brings lunch to her husband and Jack; the owner asks Jack to take food to the poor man who plows nearby; Jack on the way leaves on the ground eggs; the owner followed and began to pick up eggs; Jack tells his lover that the owner is picking up stones to beat him; the lover runs away, the master follows him; Jack tells the hostess that the owner knows everything and wants reprisals; when the husband returns, the wife flees; Jack to the master: she found out about you and the maid and ran to drown; master: this will not happen again; mistress: don't kill, I'm more I won't; {then part two, p. 111-114}; after that, Jack hired a tailor and became a good tailor; the owner fired the other employees; they together slaughtered pieces of meat from the royal bulls at night and sheep, and sew up their skins again; in autumn, the king is surprised: his cattle are barely alive; the old man advised the king to scatter money on the pasture and leave a barrel of resin; Jack and the owner went to raise money, the owner shoved hands in a barrel and stuck, smeared, died; the thief was caught but not identified; old man: we must wire the corpse down the street, the woman who cries is the thief's wife; the wife saw, roared; Jack cut his finger, said the woman was scared that he was stabbed to death, so she cries]: Larminie 1893:106 -114.

Western Asia. Qatar [father and mother died; sister heard about a man named Al-Khadrabouna (H.) and fell in love without seeing him; brother hears her say his name, goes in search; when he comes to H., he says that when his sister steps, a stuffed chicken falls {to the ground} when she laughs, pearls fall off her lips, and when she cries, it starts to rain; H. gives brother cloth to give it to his sister; she must wash it, pour the water in front of the house and grow a tree in this place; when H. comes and sees the tree, he will understand that the bride is here; the neighbor overheard the conversation between brother and sister; changed the water, poured it out who, after washing the cloth, H., in front of her own house; H. marries a liar; her sister sends a brother to him, but H. puts him in prison; her sister turns into a throat; flies to the guard, guarding her brother, talks about everything; stuffed chicken falls, pearls fall, a storm begins with rain; H. notices oddities in the guard's behavior, eavesdrops and spies, catches Gorlinka, {she turns into a girl again}; H. divorced a liar, married his betrothed]: Abu Shehab 2019:59-62.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Mizo (best) [parents send Nuchhimi and her sister to carry their aunt's pork load; at the fork, the road to my aunt is clear, there are heaps of branches and leaves on the road to Hmuichukchurudini; H. overheard, cleared her road, filled another with garbage; told the sisters that she was their aunt; the sisters lay down in the yard; sister N. had a wound on her head, H. began to suck it; said that bugs were biting; she ate it by morning the girl; N. saw the bones, said she was crying from the smoke; H. locked her in the basket, went to the station; the mouse freed N., she ran home; while H. was not at home, N.'s parents put an egg in her hearth, the hornet in a bed, a snake into a bamboo vessel, cut the veranda pillars, tied a ferocious goat there; H. came, she was stung by a snake, an egg exploded in her face, a hornet bit in bed, the veranda fell, the goat was butting]: McCall 1949:92-94.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Athoni (Amanuban District) [two sisters see a Musang man (common muskang, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, one of the palm civets, viverr), both expressing a desire to marry him; Musang hears them talking, marrying them; in the morning he says that he will go to the field; let them follow; at the fork on his path there will be his dry, fragrant excrement, and on the Monkey trail - liquid and smelly; Monkey overheard, changed the excrement; the sisters come to the Monkey; he tells his mother to give them mats to sit down, give them betel, food; in fact, they are leaves from a tree and some wild fruits; at night the Monkey lies down between both wives; when he falls asleep, they leave a stupa and a piece of wood in their place, run away to Musang, talk about the deception; he tells them to go up to his tree; the Monkey comes running with his people, Musang offers to go up to him, the Monkey asks for stairs; Musang lowers a long bamboo; when they reach half, lets go of the bamboo, the Monkey and his people fall into the pond, drown, Musang breaks their heads with a club]: Middelkoop 1959, text C: 169-173.

The Balkans. Moldovans: Botezat 1981 [brothers go to work, ask their mother to send their sister to bring them lunch, make a furrow from home to the field; the Serpent falls asleep, makes another one to his house; locks the girl, tells her to work; the elder brother walks along the furrow, the Serpent cuts off his legs, throws him into the hole; the same with the younger one; the mother drinks from the well, sits on the flints, gives birth to Flint; lowering the hut on his mother, makes her admit that he has brothers; during battle, the falcon refreshes him with water, he kills the Serpent; revives his brothers with living water]: 217-225; Moldavian tales 1968 [God and St. Peter was walking by, Peter baptized the peasant's third son, who became prophetic; the godson of God (KB) plowed a furrow from the kitchen to the arable land so that his sister would walk along the furrow; the dragon recognized, held out a furrow to his home, the girl took lunch, got to the dragon; KB goes looking for her, throwing an iron core forward; the chicks say that the dragon from the well is eating them, 24 has already eaten them; KB cuts off both heads of the dragon; mother asks the chicks, where their savior is, they send her in the wrong direction so that she does not swallow KB in joy; she finds, swallows, belches, KB becomes handsome; asks the bird to find her sister; she calls her sons- Winds; Eastern self with a nail, a beard with an elbow on a lame hare; Southern tall, blind, gives hairs, if burned, will come to the rescue; KB meets Obivala, Opivala, South Wind; East and South Winds tear the dragon in half; three brothers fight for their father's inheritance - an invisible hat, a whip to fly on, an awl that lifts him to a glass mountain, where the king hides his daughter from the dragon; KB promises to throw things into the lake (who can get them faster), takes them himself; the king promises a daughter for killing the dragon; KB overhears Scaraosky (?) tells the hell that KB must spray water on them from his baptism, then he will take the treasure; to prevent KB from sprinkling water on them, the devils bring him a dragon in a barrel; KB brings a barrel to the king, kills the dragon, falls fainted; the king puts him in a barrel, sheds him; KB burns his hairs, a man with a nail on a lame hare frees him; the king demands for his daughter 1) a flower from the Flower Mountain (The man with the nail gives); 2) eat a herd of cows (Oatmeal eats); 2) drink a water well (Opivalo drinks); 3) collect all mosquitoes (South Wind collects); the king threw the awl to hell into the lake; KB again threatens them with baptismal water, those give an awl; KYU climbs a glass mountain, marries a princess]: 185-194; Romanians [one hundred widow's sons went to plow; damn dragons first stole the older sister, then the rest 99, after spending a furrow (not to the brothers' field, but) to their house; the brothers went in search; came to the cow shepherds; they warned that the brothers would defeat the dragon if they could eat 99 roasted oxen, 99 bread ovens and drink 99 barrels of wine; they could not; the horse shepherd said that they would defeat the dragons only if they tamed a stallion with 99 hearts - they could not; the dragon killed them all; their mother swallowed a pea, gave birth to Pea Veselice; playing with the children, he learned about the fate of his siblings; to force his mother to confess, he put {something hot on her chest? Grundbalken; on the way he ate 99 roasted oxen, 99 bread ovens, drank 99 barrels of wine, drove to death a stallion with 99 hearts; his older sister recognized him when he saw his scarves and beads; before killing him the dragon, learned from him how to revive his siblings; on the way home, the brothers tied Pea to a tree; he escaped, got home and then went to see the world; saw a man at his bedside dying sisters; he indicated where to look for the Beauty of the World; Pea forced the owl to return the stolen hearts and killed him, returned his hearts; crossed the bloody river; saw the Beauty of the World swimming in a milk lake; he stole her clothes, but broke the advice not to look back and turned into a deer with 99 horns; with an old man hit him with a sword and he became human again; next time he did everything right, but did not give way to Titicot and he killed him]: Bîrlea 1966:404-406.

Central Europe. Belarusians (Grodno Oblast) [two brothers go to plow in the forest, mark the road with straw, the sister must walk along it to bring them lunch; the seven-headed Serpent overheard, changed signs, the girl came to the Snake; one, then the second brothers come, The serpent shows its wealth, offers iron bread, hangs his brothers on a beam; their mother's pea turns into a boy Pokatypea (P.), he grows up, the blacksmith makes him a seven-pound mace, he throws it to the clouds, it falls, breaks; he orders stronger; comes to the Serpent, eats iron bread, breaks the deck without an ax, burns it without fire; P. and the Serpent drive each other into the ground, P. drives him whole, kills him with a mace; kills a horse, hides in a carcass, grabs the Crow that has descended, orders him to bring living and dead water; he brings, P. tears the Raven in two, glues, revives brought with water; revives the brothers; on the way back, the brothers tie him to the oak tree, not believing that he is their brother; he drags the oak tree to the house, leaves his parents, leaves; meets and takes Vyrvigora as a friend, Vyrvidub; P. kills a six-, seven-, nine-headed snake, brings tongues to the king; the wives of the Serpents turn into a bed, into an apple tree, P. cuts them, preventing their comrades from sitting down and eating apples; the third Snake falls from earth to heaven; P. throws three kani (stones?) into her mouth , three falcons, comrades; each time she Snake returns to drink; P. hides with blacksmiths; they tell the Snake to wipe the doors with their tongue, grab her tongue with ticks, P. kills her]: Afanasiev 1958 (1), No. 134:254- 263; Ukrainians (Poltava, Romensky district) [Two Kondrati brothers go out into the field without a cauldron, ask their sister to bring them to the field, to which they will leave a trail of the house - pinches, the snake shifts them and changes direction to their house, the girl enters house, a snake locks her inside. The brothers go to free their sister, on the way they meet an old man grazing oxen, who advises killing and eating 30 oxen to free the girl, the brothers cannot kill, the old shepherd advises killing and eating sheep 200 sheep, they can't eat, baba herds ducklings and Peta advises killing and eating 200 ducklings, they can't eat them. They come to the snake, "Beat Chi Meritza?" The brothers are hit by a snake, nothing happens, it puts them on the bone, knees in the ground and kills them. Kondratyev's brother "Cinko-Klenko" grows up at a wonderful speed, forges a chain of 20 fathoms and cannot kill 40 bulls with it on the way, orders a chain of 40, then 50 fathoms, kills and eats bulls, 200 sheep and 200 ducklings (kills with a woman). The serpent hits Cinko-Clinco, who does not move, the snake hits the bone into the ground, then knee-deep, then dies. He finds gold with his sister in cellars, lives richly and happily with her]: Gnedich 1916, No. 1485:16-17; Ukrainians (Kherson) [the elderly have three daughters; the grandfather asks to bring him lunch in the field, promises on the road to cut a stick and throw chips; the serpent recognized, put the chips on the path to his house; the snake tells me to have dinner, the salty meat is human; in the morning the snake gave the keys, forbade entering one room; she came in, there were dead people and blood vessels; she dropped the apple given by the snake, the blood could not be washed off; the serpent cut off her head, threw it into that room; next time the youngest daughter, father, sprinkles ash, the same; middle daughter, father sprinkles potatoes; she did not drop the apple, the serpent believed that she had not looked into the forbidden rooms; she caught a crow, forced her to bring living and dead water, revived her sisters, put them in a chest told the snake to take the gift home; a few years later she gave birth to a half-human half-snake; told the snake to take gold home; cut the child, threw it into the forbidden room, sat down in the chest itself; the snake returned - No wife]: Yastrebov 1894, No. 15:145-148; Russians (Voronezhskaya, p. Bolshaya Vereyka, 1936) [The employee finds out that Popadya lives with the deacon. She finds a deacon in a purse full of feathers, where she hides him. The worker takes him to the stable, saddles and puts a clamp on it. Shows his ass that his wife is crazy. The worker hears how he promises to bring the deacon into the field of pancakes so that she does not make a mistake, the deacon takes a piebald horse and sprinkles chips on the way to his field. The worker also sprinkles the road to the ass, and puts a shirt on the horse, and it looks like a piebald. Popadya chooses the near road and gets to the employee and husband. The worker offers to call the deacon, tells him that the pop has learned about his connection with the hit and is going to cut his head. He returns to his ass and says that the deacon asks me to come with an ax. The deacon gets scared of the priest and runs away. Pop decides that the church is on fire and runs after him. The employee says that her husband found out that she lives with the deacon. She apologizes to her husband, he hits her and rips off her shirt. She runs home without clothes]: Baryshnikova 2007, No. 29:142-144; Russians (Gorkovskaya) [when leaving for arable land, the father marks the road with nuts: let his daughters bring him lunch; the bear shifted the nuts to his den; the eldest daughter went to the bear; then the middle daughter; when the youngest went, the father began to watch; came to the den, killed the bear with a horn, took his daughters]: Eremina et al. 1979, No. 38:218-219.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Lezgins [seeing dew, the poor man's daughter dreams of being loved by the handsome Chigali ("dew Ali"); wearing iron shoes and taking an iron stick, her father goes to look for a man with that name; merchant C. gives him a handkerchief; if his daughter washes it, she must drain the first water to the roof of her house (roses will grow), the second to her neighbor's roof (a tree will grow up); C. will take the girl from the house where roses are; father explains all this to her daughter, the bald neighbor overhears, replaces water; the poor man's daughter asks God to make her father a snake, herself a dove; the bald one tells C. to slaughter the dove, a drop of blood turns into plane tree; bald tells her to be cut down, a sliver falls into the neighbor's yard; the old woman picked it up; someone cooks in her house, she hides, grabs the girl; C. gives horses to feed, the old woman gets an oath, the girl turns her into a beautiful horse; girls gather at C.'s house, a sliver girl tells her story, C. takes her as his wife, drives her bald girl away with her child]: Khalilov 1965, No. 71:218-222 (Mazaev, Kasumov 1997 (2): 102-109); Dargin residents [the widow has 21 sons and daughters; 7 brothers are peasants, 7 are students, 7 are robbers; the daughter carried food to the peasant brothers through the forest, they left notches in the trees, disappeared; brothers go in search, find other notches, walk along them, get to the witch, who throws them into the same hole as their sister; the same with students and robbers; the mother of the missing bit off the one who fell from the sky the golden apple, the rest was eaten by a mare; a hero and a horse were born; the hero drove the witch neck into the ground; she showed where the brothers were and she ate her sister; the young man cut off her head; the robber brothers threw the youngest into the hole, shared the wealth of the witch; the youngest dug a way into the old woman's house; killed Azhdah, who closed the water in that village; the poor came to the wedding of the robber brothers; no one can pull a bow, this they offer a beggar, he kills robber brothers; their brides marry peasant brothers]: Khalilov 1965, No. 62:183-185; Megrelians [nine brothers buy a plot of land and go to work there; The sister is told that they will throw garlic heads on the way; the old mdevi picks up garlic, scatters it on the way to her house; hungry and unable to find her sister at home, the brothers come to Mdevi, her sons they defeat them, lock them in a barn to eat at the festival; God sends the Raven to find out why the mother of the missing is crying; the crow promises to tell God if the old woman gives her eye; He tells God that cries for a murdered child; the same with the second eye; God sends a Dove, who tells the truth; God curses the Raven, with the Dove sends a handkerchief to wipe her eyes and see the light, an apple, to conceive a son; he becomes a giant, hears from his playmates that he had brothers and sister; comes to Mdevi, fights; the severed head of the younger monster grows back, the bird tells him to sprinkle ash on the wound; so the hero kills all the mdevis, frees his brothers and sister; the brothers offer to race, provoking the hero to step on the carpet that closes the hole; the hero falls at the well, the daughter of the underground cries next to him a king who is eaten by a dragon who has closed the water; the hero falls asleep, wakes up to a tearful beauty, kills the dragon with an arrow; the grateful king puts the hero on an eagle along with a load of meat; There is not enough meat, the hero cuts him off from his own leg, on the ground the eagle heals him; the hero returns to his mother, does not take revenge on his brothers]: Mashurko 1904, No. 1:1-6.

Iran - Central Asia. Persians [boy Hasan-Zanoza (H.) went to his aunt for vinegar; meets, agrees to take it with him, carries a jackal, a crow, a scorpion, a dog; in his aunt's house he tells a scorpion to climb into the box matches, put a jackal in her shoes, a crow to relieve her need when a woman looks at the sky, turning to God, a dog to grab her aunt by the leg if she tries to go down to the basement; H. climbed into the basement steal vinegar, the jug's lid broke, the aunt wanted to light the fire, planned misfortunes fell on her; mother H. cooked soup, splashed it into a crow jug, poured it into a jackal plate, and dogs, the scorpion killed; the crow's head was stuck, the jug broke, the corolla remained around the crow's neck; H. promised to remove it if he croaked every time H. pushed him in the side; H. and the crow came to to her aunt, she has a lover; H. sees how she hid pilaf and her lover when her husband came; the crow pushed, he croaks, H. explains: why for a man there is pilaf under the cauldron, and for her husband bread and onions; the aunt hid lover under the stairs; in the morning she told him to leave, sprinkling millet with her - she would bring him lunch; H. heard that his lover's trail had been erased, scattered millet on the way to the field where his aunt's husband worked; the husband was surprised that his wife brought lunch; next time with straw scattered; the aunt asks the sacred tree how to dazzle H.; H. himself hid in the tree, tells X. to feed X. for 40 days with pilaf and chicken; full X . pretends to be blind; aunt tells animals to be driven away, H. hits her lover with a stick, says he is blind; kills his lover by pouring boiling oil in his face; aunt asks to bury the dead; H. tied the corpse to the donkey, brought him to the field, the owner hit him, H. accused the man of killing his father; received a ransom; brought the "father" to the caravanserai where the Lures were staying; said that his father could die if the strangers will spoil the air; poured paste into the sleeping lures; the Loures fled in fear, H. buried the corpse, took the goods of the Loures; tells the widow that her late husband had, he sells greens at the entrance to hell; the widow gives a golden watermelon, asks to give it to her husband; father-in-law ran to look for a deceiver, did not find it; H. brought all his mother's wealth]: Osmanov 1987:416-423; Yazgulyam [stepmother does not like five-year-old stepson, does not carry food to her husband, but to her lover; stepson overheard, collected eggshells, which the lover crumbled on the way to his field, put them on the road to his father's field; wife and brought scrambled eggs there; stepson hides in the mazar, replies to her stepmother that if she wants to get rid of her stepson, let him feed him roast lamb, he will go blind; stepson gets fat and pretends to have bad eyes; pours boiling water into the trough where the lover hides dies; the stepmother and husband decide to leave, the stepson hides in the basket in which they carry property; urinate, they think that the butter has melted; they regret that there is no stepson to climb at an apple tree; he gets out of the basket, climbs an apple tree, throws not an apple into his stepmother's mouth, but a stone, her husband barely took it out of her throat; they decide to push the boy into the river at night; he changes places with stepmother, father pushes his wife off the cliff; returns home with his son]: Grunberg, Steblin-Kamensky 1976, No. 58:454-459; Baluchi [a woman cooks good meals for her lover and bread for her husband out of rough pain; tells her husband that it is his sister who gives off the winds from Khorasan and takes away the sown flour; the husband goes to his sister; she is indignant and sends the bald man with him (to the workers); he notices everything; lover scattered the grain on the way to his field, and the bald man picked it up and scattered it on the way to his uncle; the woman went where the grain was and brought the chicken to the bald man and his uncle; to explain why she suddenly came and said that she had a dream, she should donate a chicken; but let them also invite a man who is in another field; the bald man went to him (this is the woman's lover) and said that his uncle wanted to kill him; the lover began to leave; the bald woman said that that man wanted the woman's husband to come for him; he went with a stick, his lover ran away from him, the old man thought he was crazy; the next day, the woman told her lover that it was all bald; promised to slaughter a ram; the bald man lay down in the grave and, on behalf of the saint, ordered to feed the bald man and his uncle lamb for three days - then they will go blind; and herself and her lover should not eat this meat; the bald man taught his uncle to complain of progressive blindness as he ate lamb; a lover came, the woman left him in at home, believing that her husband and bald man were blind; the lover fell asleep, the bald man poured boiling fat into his mouth, he died; when the woman came in, he hit her legs with a stick: oh, I thought it was a donkey; the woman asks for a bald take the corpse out, promises gold; the bald man carried it to the river and threw it into the river; then drowned the woman, took all her property and returned to his village]: Zarubin 1932, No. 17:201-209.

Baltoscandia. Estonians (Tapa) [the woodcutter told his son to bring lunch, left pieces of spruce bark on the road; the devil put the bark on the road leading to hell; began to feed well, gave the keys, one big iron from a room that cannot be unlocked; gave a golden egg, threatened to kill if the boy lost it; he opened it, dropped the egg into a barrel of blood, had difficulty reaching it, but the devil saw blood on his hands and egg; put his head on the chopping block, the boy can't put it right, the devil shows how to do it, the boy cuts off his head, runs away, his head is chasing, screams läll, läll; the boy ran home, father burned the line's head]: Järv et al. 2009, No. 30:130-131.

California. There are pillars in front of the chief's house; the Coyote carries them to his home. Yurok; karok.

Llanos. Sicuani, No. 138 [Opossum changed feathers].

Southern Venezuela. Yanomam [(Albert MS); two dove sisters reject the smelly Possum, want to marry Meda; their brother tells them that Med's house will have mako feathers; Opossum wears Honey's jewelry, himself throws mako feathers; honey works on the site, Opossum only pretends to cut trees; girls see mako feathers, hang hammocks in the Opossum section; he cuts off a piece of meat from his thigh, gives them disguised as tapir meat; Honey demands its mako feathers back, Opossum has to hang motmot feathers; Honey takes his wives; Opossum made a witchcraft potion out of his hair from his armpits, killed Honey with it in his in a hammock, the girls also died; Opossum ran, hid in a hollow in a tree; two Ants got up, crushed it with a stone; bird people cut down the tree, the axes were dull, but it still fell; birds and animals painted with blood, bile and the brain of the Possum]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990, No. 130:229-234.

Guiana. Varrau [The toad owns the fire; the man goes to pick it up; his pregnant daughter follows the father; the Toad closes the path the man has walked, opens his path; the woman gets to the Toad, dies] : Wilbert 1970, No. 190:440-441; hishkaryana [Turtle's husband and wife went for fruit; husband told his wife to climb a tree; she ate and threw it to him; Monkeys, Eagles and other animals and birds wanted to go with her copulate; the insect split the tree, everyone took it out through this gap; the husband saw it, went home; closed the path to his house, opened it to the Jaguar house; the Jaguar mother hid the woman; the Jaguars had a domestic turtle, blew the winds, the woman spat, she was found, eaten, the eggs were given to her mother; Mawarye and Woxka were born of them; they hunt for an old woman; they hid from the Jaguar in a tree, he followed them, they went down in the form leaves; the Jaguar understood who was in front of him; the brothers did not have penises, they grew up in the forest; they pulled them out of the ground, took them for themselves; someone stole fish from the top; brothers sent sentries; they caught an Otter, copulated with it , almost torturing him to death; she says that there are women; M. caught his wives for himself and his brother; they have a fish in their vagina; while M. went to get a vine to make fish poison, V. inserted a penis, the fish bit it off; M. put his penis back; M. slept with his wife on the river bank, swallowed by an anaconda; he came out through the anus; the brothers broke up]: Derbyshire 1965:54-78.

Western Amazon. They are looking for a groom; the Tsuna (a foul-smelling tree) changes the feather signs. Shuar: Barrueco 1988 [sisters Ipiaku and Sua go marry Nayapi; he tells them that there will be a parrot's tail at the fork in the path to his house and a tail on his brother's path Ikiachimi; Tsuna replaces signs, sisters come to him; from hunting he brings crab; his body exudes a fetid liquid (like plants with this name); at night, sisters acquire the same smell; they return to N.; he drives them away, sends animal people and birds to kill them; sisters think about what to turn into; reject the hill, water, wood, etc. (People will say what kind of hill it is, what kind of hill it is nasty tree, etc.); I. turns into an achiota (a bush with seeds that give red paint), S. into a genipa (a tree with fruits that give black paint); pursuers climb on them, paint with red and black paint, turning into animals and birds]: 33-36; Pelizzaro 1961, No. 20:13; Rueda 1987, No. 22, 22a: 119, 123-124; Aguaruna: Chumap Lucía, García-Rendueles 1979, No. 39:457; achuar: Mowitz 1978:79; kandoshi [The swallow met two girls, Huito and Achote {"genipa" and "uruku"}; went hunting, explaining that there would be a parrot feather on the path to his house ( guacamayo clavado), and on the path to Alcanfor (smelly insect repellent from the sap of certain trees}, a chicua feather; A. changed feathers; the girls came to him; later came to Swallow, but he rejected them because of the stench; they turned into genipa and achiote, snatched feathers from Swallow's tail, now it's split]: Page 1975:24-55.

NW Amazon. Bar: Pereira 1980 (1): 226, 252; Uitoto: Preuss 1921, No. 10, 23 [at the Imenigisa festival, she first danced with Yedo, then with his brother, the forest cockerel Zibunaforo ; she liked him better; in order not to fight with her brother, Z. told I. to go alone to his village; on the road to him there would be an arar feather, on the road to Y. there would be owls; J. changed signs; I. managed to escape across the river to Z.; J. burned down the house with those who were inside for letting I. go; J. comes to Z., refuses to sleep wherever he is offered, agrees in the hammock where Z. and I. lie; defecates there, is expelled; the next a day trying to rape I.; Z. invited him to climb a Juansoco tree for fruit, made him fall on rocks, crashed, eaten by wasps; his soul tried to kill Z. and I. in a hammock, but they put it deck (=Preuss 1994:153-155)]: 105-107, 333; Tariana [Mahadië (some bird) started cooking the dabukuri festival, told his two cousins to go to it from the fork on the right road, Where he would leave the pen, do not walk on the left, leading to his cousin Possum's house; he overheard, moved the pen to the left path; the youngest wanted to go to the right, the eldest insisted on the left; grandmother The opossum put them in his hammock; he brought ants from the hunt, the girls did not eat them because of the smell; the eldest met with the Possum, the youngest refused; the sisters heard the noise of the holiday; at this time, the Opossum beat on the water, trying to drown out the sounds; by the river, the sisters asked those who passed by to take them to the party; the Crane, Diapo, refused, but the sisters jumped into D.'s boat themselves; he said they smelled like from the opossum; M. ordered them to be washed, then they entered the maloka, began to dance; Opossum came and demanded that M. give him one of the girls; he was tired, he ordered the Possum to be killed; when he left, Opossum warned his grandmother that if she was killed, it would rain bloody before dawn; blood dripped, the grandmother told the Harpy Eagles to kill M.; in the morning M. and both wives went to the river; the eldest asked him to sing, he reluctantly agreed; after the third song, the Eagles took him to a tree; people asked for his long feathers, the Eagles gave them only feathers, brought him to the Opossum house, ate him; Grandma M. asked the brothers Diroá kill the Eagles; they came to his maloka, killed both birds with puçás (darts?) , gave Opossum's grandmother only their little feathers; Grandma M. is happy]: Moreira, Moreira 1994:32-34; Desana: Kumu, Kenhiri 1980:164; Barasana: S.Hugh-Jones 1979, No. 7K: 300; Torres Laborde 1969 [Month (Muihu), Meni's son, comes to his sister at night (her name is Méneri-Ya, Mya), she became pregnant; spread the black paint, smeared his face; identified him in the morning; since then on the moon stains; The month drowned in shame; his body rotted on the shore; the Bat ate his flesh, since then he became an ogre; Menya sent a shaman owl to look for his son, he did not find it (since then owls have big eyes); Adiab's three brothers (creators) found Muihu's bones; told the ants to put them together, stuck them with tobacco leaves, creating a new body; Muihu came to life, but fell apart again when middle A. said that M. slept with ME; A. revived him again; I did not recognize him; he had a monkey with him, he asked ME to get her a kaimo fruit from the top of the tree to eat; made the tree tall, I stayed in upper world; the mochilero bird began to look for it, saw a reflection; I was bitten by a wasp, a mochilero killed a wasp, brought ME water, a anklet; weaved a rope to go down; the rope broke off, ME fell and returned home; Muihu told her to bring water, but the filled vessel dried immediately; while she tried to fill it, Meni and Muihu left; at the fork in Meni left a vessel decorated with turkey feathers looked like a man; Meni told him to show ME the right way if I came crying, and false if laughing; I laughed while I was far away, and when she went to the vessel, she cried; the vessel showed the way to the Jaguars; I came to the Opossumicha; she asked her to lie in her son's hammock, but he smelled badly, I moved on; the Jaguars had their mother at home Oako is Menya's sister; the Jaguars returned from work at the site, carrying axes; Jaguar saw Mya hiding in a vessel in the mirror; she spat out of disgust; the youngest Jaguar agreed to dance with her ; starting with his fingers, he ate it; the giblets were given to his mother; she carried them to the river, the boy Warimí Sué jumped from the uterus into the water; the Jaguars tried to catch him; he became a frog; they ate a frog , but in fact he went down the river to where Menya's sons live; bathed with them; the boys did not know who he was; he did not go into the house; painted or ate butterflies; their fathers told them to lure V. ; the big girl was buried in the sand, others wrote from above; butterflies flew; V. began to paint and the girl grabbed him; V. became a little boy, began to cry; Menya thought it was a child his eldest daughter; passed from one daughter to another, but V. stopped crying only on the youngest's lap; he was blown, painted with red paint (since then they have been doing this to babies); V. quickly grew up to be a ten-year-old boy; Meni told him that his mother had eaten jaguars; V. came to Maloka Jaguarov, became a baby again; the jaguar who ate Menery-I touched V., licked his finger, it turned out bitterly; V. saw this Jaguar regurgitate his mother's blood; V. turned the Jaguars into different animals (tapir, paka, etc.), they ate each other; the Jaguars played a sounding calebass made from the head of W. , you can hear her voice, my Son; V. put a log in his hammock, the Jaguar ate it; in the morning, the Jaguars played me again with my skull, V. threw him into the forest; told the water gauges to collect palm husks miriti, threw it into the water, she turned into piranha; Tapira, with whom he went to collect miriti, V. pushed it into the water, the piranhas ate it; V. made a bridge, the Jaguars walked along it, V. swung it, the Jaguars fell, piranhas ate them; the one who ate Mia held one paw above the water, was left with one leg; the house of the Jaguars V. sjeg; came to Menya, showed him the wounds he had inflicted on himself; asked Menya to go with him against the Jaguars; they are all dead; V. asked Watsóa Wehéro to throw him the Wansoko fruit; he made a ladder, offered to go up, threw away the stairs, V. could not go down; in winter they flew in Herons gave him feathers, taught him to fly; on the way, the trap was like scissors; V. put a log into it, everything flew safely; on the site, the fire, V. caused rain, everyone flew by; ducks and other birds flew with them; flew to Romi-Kum; she fed everyone; suspects that someone is with the birds because she ate more than usual; arranges a dabukuri festival; the birds came back, and V. stayed with the Republic of Kazakhstan; she took him to his father's Rimáhinó (Serpent Venom) house; RK woke him up by touching a hot shard; V. became a flea, R. took it off his back, put it in his mouth; V. jumped out of his nose when R. sneezed, took away the poison; flew as a bird to his grandmother, Menya's wife; began to cook poison, tried it, lost consciousness; at this time the snakes stole it, became poisonous; V. killed the ogre eagle Ram & # with a wind gun 233;; his blood turned into various types of cane; his feathers were taken for dance costumes, he taught many songs]: 31-45; macuna: Trupp 1977:52.

Bolivia - Guaporé. Surui [lonely Iapeab copulates with a tree, inserting his penis into a crack in the trunk; the tree gives birth to two girls, the eldest is Kabeud, the youngest is Samsam; I. their mother educates; Peshire (bird), Mokoba (owl), etc. come to the party; sisters fall in love with P., laugh when M. dances; I. lies to M. as if they consider him handsome; P. leaves his a feather on the path to his house; M. replaces him with his own; sisters come to M.; his mother feeds them meat, he feeds them honey; S. realizes that these are rats and mucus from the owl's eyes, but K. eats; S. puts his fingers like vaginas where M. inserts his penis, but K. really copulates with it; sisters run away; the redfin bird Oyo hides them in her mouth, tells M. that her teeth hurt, pushes him, M. turns into owl; at home offers eels to the sisters, K. eats; then the sisters see that O. digs up worms, calls them blackheads; turn it into birds; come to the Makabe heron; S. again only simulates copulation by putting their fingers in V: sisters come to Itshiab the deer, who feeds them corn; cuts the meat off his leg, gives it under the guise of game; sisters ask why boneless meat, they scold I., he turns into a deer; they come to P., but he already has a different wife; they turn him and his mother into birds; they come to a land turtle, turn the Monkey and the Parrot into animals; they go beyond Jaguar, because only he finally feeds them real meat; S. gives birth to a son; K. is pregnant; Jaguar's mother asks her to take the thorn out of her leg, blows the wind, K. laughs; when she laughs again, Jaguariha devours her; saves the uterus to eat later; S. saves it, raises his sister's baby; tells his son how her aunt died; he rises to heaven, produces thunder, making himself and his brother adults; cannot hit Jaguariha with arrows; brothers burn it; together with S. they rise to the sky (No. 25, p.82: turn into thunder), cut off the vine to prevent Jaguar from following them; Jaguar finds and turns it over mother's corpse; all blood-sucking insects fly out of the corpse]: Mindlin 1995, No. 22:73-77.

Southern Amazon. Iranshe [the bird Sabia (Turdideo) comes to the village to teach him to play the sacred flutes; the hummingbird is among her companions; the girl gets pregnant with him; the Owl (Speotito cunicularia) hears him telling she comes to him when the child is born; at the fork she shifts a crown of feathers from the Hummingbird Trail to her path; a woman with her younger sister, child and mother come to the Owl; he gives them grasshoppers, Blatideos, an inedible false cassava to eat; urinates when copulating; they go away; Cayman carries them across the river; gives fish, grabbing it and regurgitating it; they only pretend to eat it; The turtle dumps Palm tree sisters, copulates with the elder; follows her mother; women get tired of waiting, leave; the battleship gets honey; they pretend to treat him by squeezing bee larvae into his eyes; they take him away honey; drinking honey, swimming in the river, hearing the sounds of sacred flutes; Stagmatoptera predicativa is the guardian of flutes; kills women and children with an ax so that they do not see the flute; Hummingbird regrets not going to Fork to meet his wife]: Pereira 1985, No. 2:37-43; paresi [two brothers married two sisters; one has a son Kazalynazaré, the other has a daughter Ayryazeró; K., his father, both mothers turned into birds, swallowed by a huge fish; Father A. arranged a party; Trogonideo bird-man meets a girl; in the morning she goes to his house; Owl replaces the pen sign at a fork in the roads, a girl comes to Owl's house, everything is in mud; she runs, spends the night in a hollow, where she paints parrot chicks; they take her home; she tells me where the parrot's nest is, her brothers kill the chicks; parrots from revenge makes her get lost again; she gets to the Wolf; says that she is on her period, covers the parrot watchman's beak with dough, comes to Mãe do tucum-do-campo; to the emams; to the Forest Cockerel; refuses to sleep with him, he flies away and takes away the fire; to the Spider, he does not want to have sex, he drives her away; she comes to the Aquatic Men, their mother kills her; her soul flies away like a bird; she and the soul of the swallowed their cousin's fish decide to be called Ayryazeró and Kazalynazaré and take revenge on the fish; they pick up stones and tree trunks to then be able to lift their enemy; raise the main fish to the tree where the stones were brought before; they are eaten; fallen pieces of meat and drops of blood have turned into poisonous insects and snakes; scales into fish; the head into stingray]: Pereira 1986, No. 16:246-261.

Araguaia. Tapirape [ancestor (name not given) goes east, leaving his pregnant wife; she gives birth to a son Mukwura (opossum), goes with him looking for her husband; evil M. leads her down the wrong path, one day At night she copulates with her, she conceives the twins Tomatociri and Mukwura-yra ("Son of Possum"), gets to the eyeless water spirits Anchunga-ayuma; they dance around the boiling pot and push them into it a woman; before that, she gives birth to twins who grow up overnight; twins kill anchunga-ayuma; a huge bird named Jacques directs them to their father (actually "grandfather" but called "father") who lives in the "home of the gods"; he gives T. a bow and arrow for tapirape, and M. gives guns for Brazilians]: Wagley 1977:179-180 (briefly 1940:255).