Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K100A. Tobiah. .14.-.17.23.27.-.34.

When going on a journey, the young man releases the caught fish, an animal, or he or his father does someone a favor. As a reward for help, a person or creature in the form of a stranger or animal comes to the young man, becomes his companion and protector.

Kabiles, Berbers and Arabs of Morocco, Libya, Egypt, Basques, Italians (Istria, Menton), Ladins, (Sicilians), Bretons, Irish, Frisians, Germans (Austria), Old Testament, Arameans, Arameans, Arabs Iraqis, Sinhalese, Hungarians, Romanians, Bulgarians, Croats, Bosnians, Slovaks, Russians (Terek Coast, Olonetskaya, Vologda), Eastern Ukrainians (Kherson), Kalmyks, Abkhazians, Abazins, Karachays, Balkarians, Avars , Tabasarans, Rutulans, Tsakhurs, Udis, Georgians, Megrelians, Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Talysh, Kurds, Persians, Turkmens, Uzbeks, Tajiks, Tajiks in Sistan, Bukhara Arabs, Vakhans, Baluchis, Norwegians, Danes, Finns, Karelians, Estonians, Latvians, Chuvash, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Karakalpaks, Kyrgyz, Uighurs, Tuvans.

North Africa. Kabila [the king keeps his son Mehend in a secret room, tells him to feed him boneless meat; M. finds bone in the lamb, breaks through its wall, runs out to the market square; witch Settuta asks if he was married to Hamisha, Hitina's daughter; he asks S. to cook soup for him, puts her hand in boiling water, S. shows that H. lives in the east; M. saves the fisherman caught fish, exchanging it for their horse; the fish turns into a young companion; after 7 years they arrive in a city where mourning: the princess is sick; the king promises to pass her off as someone who will cure her; companion M. is summoned do it; in the princess's room tells stories; three brothers wandered, spent the night in the forest, took turns keeping the fire; the youngest saw a tree resembling a human figure, carved out a figure women; the elder dressed her; the middle one turned to God and revived her; the brothers began to argue who she should belong to and killed each other; she was an evil fairy; she loved only the one who revived her and saw him dead, began to take revenge on people; the prince's companion tells the fairy to leave Sumishi; S. belches a black snake; she swallowed it quietly while drinking water from the spring; general glee; a wedding is scheduled, but instead the one who expelled the snake comes to S.; his companion says that he cannot be her husband, because he is the spirit of water, who took the form of a fish and was saved by Mehand; disappears, M. marries S., returns with her to his mother , leaving her to their young son's father]: Taos Amrush 1974:99-110 (=Grim 1983:49-61); Kabily [the prince came to the well to give the horse a drink; the old woman asks to wait for his jug to be filled; they quarrel the old woman orders the prince to bring the Sun Maiden (SD) into the house; the prince lost his peace; called the old woman to make peace; put her hand in the hot soup: tell me how to find SD; she says that SD is the king's wife black in the high mountains (but SD herself is white); on the way, the prince sees a man who is being executed; the local king explains that this is a murderer, this is not the first time he has been tried, but the prince buys him back by giving him four times more gold than his weight; Ali Demmu (that's his name) promises to be a loyal servant; in a black city, he breaks into the king's bedroom; he sleeps tied to SD (legs, belt and neck); Hell stabbed the king, SD advised him to put on his clothes, they left the palace, came to the prince; AD ordered him to hide the SD in a box and not open it on the way; while he was going to get water, the prince opened the box, the spirit stole the SD; they met the shepherd, who drove sheep to the sea; Hell asks him, the shepherd replies that he serves the one who steals brides, he has recently brought a new one; he lives overseas, you can get there on the back of a black sheep; Hell has changed with a shepherd clothes; the shepherd further explains that you have to go into the yard and call a woman to milk the sheep; this time a new wife of the spirit will come out; when SD came out, AD put the sheep with his head to her; SD is surprised, AD says who he is (pretending) to accuse her of running away, SD objects; they agreed to wait until night; the spirit tells SD he is going to sleep with her that night; SD: then tell me what your life is; on a cliff in the sea dove sits on an egg, it has the life of the spirit; Hell sailed on a sheep to the rock, took out a dove with an egg, came back, broke the egg; however, inside the dove was a second egg, so that the spirit did not die, although it lost its strength; Hell brought SD to the prince; sent the shepherd to the island, let him take all the treasures of the spirit; Hell with SD and the prince spent the night under a tree; Hell hears the conversation of two birds: a snake will crawl, turn Hell into stone; To revive him, the prince must strangle his son over the stone; when his son was born, the prince brought him to the statue and strangled him; AD came to life; birds: if you rub the child with droppings from our nest, he will come to life; Hell got it litter, revived the boy; everyone was happy; Hell stayed with the prince and he married him]: Grim 1983:99-119; the Berbers of Morocco (Fez) [the poor fisherman caught a donkey carcass; then a stone; then a huge fish; left his son to guard, ran to get an ax; the fish was crying, the young man pushed it into the water and, fearing his father's anger, ran away; he met another young man, he was an orphan, they went together; in the city, a companion rented a cloth shop, the fisherman's son became rich; the sultan invited him to his place, he fell in love with the princess; the companion advises to ask for her hand; the princess's mother gives a pearl: let the groom bring the same; the companion gives a handful of pearls ; after the wedding, the young man forgot his friend and did not come to see him until a year later; he forgave and said that he was the fish that had been released; if necessary, he could be called again; the fisherman's son found his parents and sister brought to the palace]: El Fasi, Dermenghem 1926:126-138; the Berbers of Morocco (Fez) [the Sultan finally had a son, Sidi Mohammed (SM); he imprisoned him in an underground palace, with him a servant to teach him; when her mother accidentally discovered SM, the sultan cut off her head in front of his eyes; after that, SM was able to go out into town; one day he came across an old woman; she yelled: let you marry Aruaj bin Ilak! (AI); SM went in search; on the way he bought a young man named Sidi Mohammed Bu Rjilat (BR), whom the local sultan hung by the legs for not wanting to reveal the secrets of magic to him; he promised get AI — let the SM send his father's army back; get the guards drunk, they fell asleep; swapped the lamps at the AI's bedside; sent SM; AI gave him an earring, bracelets from his arm and leg; SM presented them her father; he agrees to marry if SM indicates which cocoon (the closed space where the bride is) - AI; BR suggested; on the way home, BR warns: until they reach his land own efreet, SM must not get off the horse, otherwise his wife will be kidnapped; but he got off his horse as needed, AI disappeared into the air; BR went to efreet, who kidnapped BM; asked the shepherd what he does when she brings sheep; shepherd: I knock on the gate with a stick; the new wife, who was kidnapped by Ifrit, lets me in and lets me out in the morning; BR changed clothes with the shepherd, found AI, told her to find out what life was like efrita; in the middle of the sea, there is a dove on the tree, there are three eggs in its nest; break the first, the efrita will be engulfed by a red flame, the second will be blue, the third will remain only ash; with the help of his efreets, BR obtained eggs; when Ifrit died, the prisoners were sent home; SM, AI and BR go three; two girls cut off the heads of travelers at the bridge; SM cut the bridge with a sword, took one girl for himself, gave the other to BR; now each has two wives; weddings; AI gave birth, and BR's wives fell ill; only the blood of a newborn would cure them; SM sent him to slaughter his son; but it turned out that BR only wanted to test his friend, he had a son himself; but wrote that he needed more blood; SM sent a daughter born to a second wife; friends are happy and married children]: El Fasi, Dermenghem 1928:151-164; the Arabs of Morocco [the son of a wealthy merchant almost broke him when begged for a monkey and tied it at the entrance to the shop where customers used to gather; then the monkey scratched the merchant's wife; after that, the merchant shot the monkey and began to raise his son strictly; he grew up a noble young man; bought the deceased, whom the creditors did not allow to be buried; the merchant praised his son and ordered him to pay for a memorial meal as well; the dead man took the form of a bald man, came to eat, but ate only lentils; the merchant asked him to be a friend and mentor to his son; things went uphill; the young man decided to go with a caravan; at a parking lot in the desert, a bald man noticed fire; there were 40 robbers; each departed Follow the tent to rob him later; the bald man killed them one at a time, took the treasures and returned to the merchant's sleeping son; the caravan came to town; it was empty, the ghoul ate them all, leaving one beautiful girl; the bald man began to fight the ghoul and dealt him a fatal blow; hit him again! — My mother taught me not to do the same thing twice; when they returned, the bald man offered to share the money, including the girl; he and the merchant's son took her by the different legs and swung his bald sword; three fell out of her the eggs were the product of a ghoul, the bald man crushed them; went towards the cemetery; the merchant and his son caught up with him at the grave, but he turned to dust]: Bushnaq 1987:124-128; the Arabs of Libya and Egypt [blind The Sultan will see the light if he gets the medicine — green fish; the Sultan's son and the son of the vizier catch it, but she asks her to let go and the Sultan's son lets her go; the Sultan orders him to be killed and his blood brought; the young man's mother persuaded the soldiers to bring gazelle blood to the Sultan; the Sultan's son meets a stranger and they become twin brothers; a Jew hires the Sultan's son for business: a bird brings him to the mountain, where diamonds {obviously he drops diamonds to the Jew, but cannot go down}; his brother rescued him; the Jew comes for him again, tells him to get a magic ring and treasures from the treasure on the mountain; the sister makes the Jew return the young man, The Jew remains on the mountain; on the same mountain, the Sultan's son got the princess; the brother offers to divide everything; pretends to cut the girl in half, she regurgitated the box and there is a cure for blindness; the sister says he is that green fish; the Sultan's son marries a princess and receives the throne from his healed father]: Nowak 1969, No. 53:79.

Southern Europe. The Basques [the king will see the light if you get the white crow (blackbird); the eldest, middle sons leave, lose everything at cards; the youngest does not play, pays the brothers' debts, they are not executed; the owner of the white crows ask him to get a princess for this; the fox (this is the spirit of a dead man whose debts the young man paid) teaches what to do; the princess sings, people run, her father agrees to give her back if the young man gets it another king's white horse; the horse laughs, but people allow the young man to take him away; he asks for permission to put the princess on his horse, takes him away; the white crow flies to the princess's knees, the young man takes everyone away; brothers they throw the youngest into a water tank, take the crow away; the fox pulls out the young man, the crow flies to him; the young man returns to his father, the princess and the bird sing, the horse laughs, the old king sees the light; the young man all says, marries a princess; father drives his eldest sons into the desert]: Webster 1879:182-187; Italians: Andrews 1880 (Menton) [the merchant's son went on trade; saw the thrown out on the road, the debtor's corpse; paid his debts to be buried; the next time he bought two women from Moorish captivity, one of them young and beautiful; she refused to give her name, and hers the governess is Isabel; the father no longer gave money, only lodged his son and his wife and I. in a peasant house; the young man built the ship himself, the wife attached a portrait with her son to the stern, ordered him to sail to Portugal and take the ship ashore aft; the king recognized his daughter, sent ships for her; one of them was the princess's former lover; on the way back he pushed her husband into the sea; someone in the boat saved him; promised take him to Portugal for promising to split the most precious thing in half; the husband came to his wife's wedding; she made it so arranged that the groom's exchanger flew into the air when he set fire to the fireworks; everything is fine, but a stranger He asks for half of the most precious thing; a man wants to cut his son, but a stranger stops his hand and explains that he is that buried dead]: 48-52; Crane 1885, No. 35 (Istria) [=Calvino 1980, No. 45: 138-141; the merchant's son received money from his father, bought the debtor for the burial; told his father that pirates took everything from the sea; next time he buys the sultan's daughter from pirates, makes him a Christian, takes them as wives; father drives them away; wife paints pictures, husband sells; Turks come to buy, see a girl, take them to Turkey; a young man comes to live with a fisherman, takes the boat to Turkey, they are enslaved, made gardeners; a fisherman makes musical instruments, a young man plays, his wife recognizes his voice, the maids secretly bring it to her in a basket; they pick up treasures, sail away on the ship, return to pick up the fisherman , they sail again; the fisherman demands to divide everything in half, including his wife; the young man is ready to give everything but her; the fisherman says that he is dead, disappears; with his wife and wealth, the young man returns to his father]: 131-135; Ladina [Barba Giatken's younger brother married a rich, childless, rich; the elder Barba Gionlin has many children and is poor; his son asked the priest godfather for 2000 ducats; in response to a question about bail, pointed to the crucifixion; with this money he and his uncle went to Turkey to buy fabrics; spent the night in a hotel, someone was threshing all night; this dead man, who owes 500 ducats, will be at night until he works threshing; a young man (his name is Gion) paid for him; at another inn he buys a princess and her maid for 500 ducats, who are captured and forced to sing at night; after learning about the senseless expenses, uncle went home, leaving his nephew in Turkey; he bought goods for 500 ducats, brought him, got rich; one woman worked in a warehouse, the other was his cook; my father overheard that the princess was the one in the warehouse , Gion married her; she gave birth to a son Franz Gisep; Gion came by ship to his father-in-law, the King of Amsterdam, told him everything, and on the way back, the chief clerk (Hofschreiber) pushed him into the sea, he was swallowed by fish; he asked the princess to marry him, but she asked for a 7-year delay; Gion swam out, hired to herd goats; when 7 days were left until the age of 7, the fox told him to hurry — his wife's wedding with the clerk is being prepared; if he gives her half of what he has saved in a year, she will take him immediately to Amsterdam; he hired him in the kitchen, threw a ring in the princess's omelet; she recognized the ring; Gion came to work for the mason and sprayed the groom's solution; he ordered him to be grabbed; at the wedding table, the king asked what to do with someone else's wife; groom: break horses; Gion opened; a year later, the fox demanded that the baby be separated; Gion grabbed his sword, but the fox stopped him: it was the dead man bought, she also became the fish that saved Gion from the sea; (disappeared)]: Uffer 1973, No. 35:131-139; (cf. Sicilians [the king promises a daughter to whoever builds a ship moving by sea and land; two older brothers reject the old man's help, their ships explode; the youngest appoints St. Joseph the elder, the ship is ready; they take as companions 1) a bag of fog, 2) carrying half of the fallen forest on his back, 3) drinking a river, 4) aiming at a partridge sitting on a branch in underworld, 5) taking one step from Catania to Messina; the king demands 1) to deliver the letter to the prince of the lower world in an hour and return; the runner reported, fell asleep, the shooter woke him up with a shot, he managed return; 2) drink half of what is in the basement (the drinker drinks the river); the king promises as much dowry as one person who carried the trees takes everything; the king sent a fleet after, collecting the fog released him; at the house of St. Joseph demands that everything be divided in half as agreed, including the bride; the young man is ready, but St. Joseph only tested it, leaving everything young]: Gonzenbach 2004a [1870], No. 14:96-102).

Western Europe. The Bretons [the king will be healed by touching the bird Dredane, she is with Princess Marcassa across the Red Sea; the eldest, middle sons left, did not return after wasting money; the youngest was sitting in ash Ludoin's mess went on a camel, found his brothers, they took his money, he drove on; buries the dead husband of a poor old woman; Lisa explains that before midnight you can go to the castle past the guards and take away the cage with the bird; he did so, took possession of the sleeping princess, took the cage; on the way he sold indestructible bread and a jug that did not run out of wine; he won with a saber taken away from the castle enemies of the King of Saxons for promising to release his brothers (they were taken into custody for debts); the brothers pushed L. into the well, took the camel and the bird; the birds are sad, the king is only worse; the fox descends into the well his tail, L. gets out; the fox tells him to change clothes with the poor; explains that she is the soul of the poor man he buried; L. got a job with the king as a swineherd, became a groom, the brothers recognized him; when he saw L., a bird sang, the king almost recovered; Princess M. gave birth to a son L., who grew up, went to look for his father, M. with him; demanded the return of bread, a jug of wine, a magic sword (L. gave it to the King of Saxons); M. comes, L . tells his story; the king finally recovers, his older brothers are burned in the oven; L. marries M., the king is dead, L. gains the throne]: Lopyreva 1959, No. 27:93-104; Irish: Curtin 1975 [The king of one of the four parts of Ireland sends his son to school; the sons of the kings of the other three parts send the young man to his father to kill him himself; otherwise they will kill both father and son; son leaves to travel, takes five pounds with him; in the cemetery, two people try to put the coffin in the grave, and the other two do not let him do it; they demand 5 pounds from the dead man in debt; the young man gives them his money; soon the Shaking-Head (TG) approaches him, becomes his companion; they consistently come to three giants; TG forces them to give up a black horse that the enemy will not catch up with, a sword, who kills everyone, a cloak of darkness that makes the person wearing it invisible; a young man marries a princess who has not met the matchmaking conditions on stakes; the princess gives a ring, the young man owes him in the morning return it; he puts it by the cheek, but the princess puts everyone to sleep, turns the maid into a rat, she tickles the young man in his nose, he sneezes, the rat takes the ring; the princess brings it to the giant, gives it to him; all this sees TG invisible to others, takes the ring, returns it to the young man; on the second night, the comb; the maid in the guise of a cat takes it, the giant throws it into the sea, but TG intercepts it, brings it to the young man; the third task: you have to show the head in the morning that the princess will kiss in the evening; TG cuts off the giant's head, brings it; wedding; when he returns to Ireland, TG explains that he is the ransom dead , disappears; the kings of three parts of Ireland go to war; TG reappears, brings the young man's father-in-law's army, it smashes enemies, the boy's father, and soon he becomes king of all Ireland]: 121-134; Larminie 1893 [the prince paid to be buried; in the morning he shot a crow that fell into the snow; the prince decided to marry only a woman whose hair was black as a raven's wing, her skin was white as snow, and her cheeks were white blush like blood in the snow; went to look for a woman like this; a red-haired man hired him for a year and a day on condition that he split everything they got in half; he asked him to wait until he went to to a relative; calling the giant his uncle, said that the king of the East was going to kill him; the giant asked to be locked in an iron house; the red-haired demanded that he tell him where the dark cloak was; to the giant I had to say it, but the red-haired man still did not let him out, he tried to get out and died; red-haired prince: there are trees around that woman's palace, each head, the last one is not yet; they came there; the princess gave the prince a comb: if she did not return it in the morning, she would be executed; the comb was gone; the red-haired man put on a dark cloak, followed the woman; she made a boat out of the shell, sailed to the giant on the island, gave him the comb, promised to give him the prince to eat in the morning; when the giant put the comb in the chest, the red-haired man immediately took it; the woman spent the night with the giant and returned; on the way, the invisible red-haired splashed water on her; in the morning the prince showed the comb; told the king that he had obtained a third of his daughter; the next day, scissors, not a comb; king to the prince: I hope you will get the last third; woman : get the last lips that I will kiss that night, otherwise I will execute; these are the lips of a giant; the red-haired man cut off the giant's head and brought it to the prince; ordered the woman to be tied up and that the king father and the prince beat her; demons They left her, she became an ordinary woman; she married a prince and gave birth to a son; the red-haired man offered to share what he had begun; the prince was ready to share his son, but the red-haired did not; said that he was buried dead]: 155-167; Freezes [three sons of a peasant, the youngest of them, Gjalt, goes to seek happiness; I see a coffin dug from the grave in the cemetery; wants to bury it, a giant comes up, says that the deceased owes him a thaler, he will not let him be buried; I give a thaler; a two-headed giant comes up, requires 2 thalers; three-headed — 3; I bury the deceased, remains without money, breaks up with my brothers; to him An old man comes up, says that he is the brother of the deceased, will serve out of gratitude; I.: I will be the Big Me and you will be Little Me; they come to the castle of a one-headed giant; I teaches you to say what he sent them giant's brother: a peasant army is sent to kill the owner of the castle; the giant agrees to hide in the well, gives his sword, inexhaustible purse and a receipt for the sale of the BYA castle; the companions pull out the well is a ladder, covered with a stone; the same with a two-headed giant; with a three-headed giant; he was given a mirror showing the truth and wings for flight; the princess gives the grooms impossible assignments, all the failed are executed; the king's tasks for the BU: 1) play cards with the wizard who runs out of money first; 2) race, bring an eagle egg from the nest on a sky-high mountain; 3) win the wizard and bring his head; BYA wins thanks to an inexhaustible wallet and MYA, which shows him his partner's cards in the mirror and helps him stay awake; BYU overtakes the wizard on his wings; wins with a giant's sword, and MYA hides BU under a dark veil and the wizard does not see the enemy; BYA marries a princess, gives her parents a home, lives in a castle himself, and his treasurer]: Mürk 2014:38-50; Germans (Austria) [the count is blind, learned about the songbird doctor; the eldest, middle sons go in search, lose, remain to work their debt; the youngest goes, pays for the funeral of the unburied; the fox says that he freed her from the curse, promises to help; he helps ants work; gives sugar to bees; the bridge over the river protects soldiers; the young man lets ants and bees at him, crosses the bridge, goes to the cave after the fox; takes the cage with the bird while the dragon sleeps, the fox carries it back; goodbye, the fox tells him not to buy hangman meat; the young man bought the brothers, they pushed him into the well; the fox she lowered her tail into the well, pulled out the young man; the brothers do not sing, the father does not see the light; the youngest son came to the count unrecognized, the bird sang, the father drove away the eldest sons]: Cerf 1992:137-142.

Western Asia. Old Testament (Book of Tobit) [Pious Tobith was taken prisoner by the Assyrians in Nineveh. He buries the executed, goes blind, prays to God. His niece Sarah offers the same prayer in Ekbatan. Sarah is loved by the evil spirit Asmodeus, who kills her suitors out of jealousy. Tobit recalls the silver he left in Mussels, sends his son Tobiah to pick it up, hiring Azariah, who is actually the angel Raphael, as a guide. When crossing the river, Tovia tries to swallow fish. He catches it, saves her heart, liver and bile. Azariah encourages Tovia to marry Sarah. Tobias burns the heart and liver of the fish, and Asmodeus flees to Egypt from this smell, where Raphael binds him. Returning with his money and wife to his father, Tobiah puts fish bile on his eyes, and Tovit sees the light. Azaria refuses the reward, announces who he is]: Meilah 1982:516-517; Aramaeans [the fisherman caught but released the fish; the next day he pulled out a chest of pearls; went to Istanbul with his son to sell pearls; another young man joined them on the way; many men marry the king's daughter, but everyone is found dead in the morning; the fisherman's son asks his father to take her out; at night he crawls out of the girl's mouth the snake wrapped around the young man's neck and wants to strangle him, but the companion stood beside him and killed the snake; the king is happy; a year later they go home; the companion offers to share everything; swung his sword to cut the woman, she was frightened, snakes came out of her mouth; the companion said that he did not need a woman or money, and that he was the fish that the boy's father let go; everything is fine]: Bergsträsser 1915, No. 17:55-57; Iraqi Arabs (Shiites on the lower Euphrates) [the sultan asks his son to marry, but he refuses: all women are vicious; the sultan imprisoned him in a prison palace; one fisherman caught a fish — gold on one side, with another silver; brought it to the prince; he let her into the pool; realized that the fish was also suffering in prison; released it into the river; the fish returned to his lover; he took the form of a dervish, came to the prince; In fact, there is a lover, but he refused to marry because his father wanted to marry him to his cousin (ideal marriage); the prince and the dervish came to the girl, took her away; the dervish demands share what he had obtained; swung his sword, a long snake crawled out of the girl's mouth and disappeared into the desert; the prince and his girlfriend returned to their Sultan father; wedding, everyone is happy]: Campbell 1950:11-17.

South Asia. Sinhales [the prince does not study well, the king drives him away; four bully the debtor's dead body, the prince buys it; the dead man is reborn in the guise of a fish; the prince buys the princess he sells king; the prince sells coconuts, the wife weaves scarves, they are paid dearly for them; the king who sold the princess is now looking for her, promises her to be a wife and a crown to boot; the minister, having learned about expensive scarves, finds a princess, takes her and her husband on a ship, pushes the prince into the sea; a fish (a former dead man) brings him ashore, he promises half of what he gets first; finds a wife, gets kingdom, the minister's head is cut off; the fish demands a reward, the prince's wife offers to cut off half of it; the fish says she only needs a promise that the prince does not demand his initial debt; prince, of course, I agree, the fish is swimming away]: Volkhonsky, Solntseva 1985, No. 73:152-156.

The Balkans. Hungarians [when he hears the bird singing, the old man is younger, asked his sons to catch it; the eldest, middle sons let dogs on the fox, which turns them into stones; the youngest invites it to dinner, the fox turns into a young man, leads the bird to the Blue Kingdom; teaches him to take a bird but not to bite pears; the youngest son bites, the king has mercy on him if he gets a girl; the fox turns into a shoemaker, lures the girl to try on shoes, carries her across the sea; the youngest son takes her as his wife, the fox takes her form, marries the Blue King, runs away; revives the petrified, they cut off the youngest brother's head, the fox revives it with the drug taken from the snake; the youngest brings the bird, forgives the brothers, the father is getting younger]: Gidash 1953:95-102; Romanians [the fisherman's son agrees to let the king fish go; his father hits, he leaves; meets a dwarf, takes him as a sister; a dwarf notices that one owner has a new employee every day; watches how he tells the worker to climb a rope to a tree and lower it from there a basket of gems, put the empty basket back, drops the rope, the snake swallows the worker, spews gems into the basket; the dwarf is hired by the owner, refuses to climb again, saying that dizzy, the owner climbs himself, the snake swallows him, the dwarf receives gems, takes treasures for the fisherman's son from the owner's house; the princess married 99 times, the groom has only bones in the morning; the dwarf enters marriage, at night lies in the place of the fisherman's son, does not sleep, kills a snake that has crawled out of the princess's mouth; threatens to cut her in half, she regurgitates three snake eggs, the dwarf breaks them; says he is that fish king; the son of a fisherman and a princess are rich and happy]: Sadetsky 1973:212-220 (same or very similar text in Nortines 1935:125-136); Bulgarians [Tsarevich releases fish that should serve as a cure for his father; the king drives him away; a young man meets a man who becomes his companion; marries a princess whose suitors die on the first night; he guards his brother with a knife, kills a snake crawling out of the mouth of a sleeping princess; on the way back, his brother cuts goodbye in two, snakes appear in her stomach; he explains that there is a fish saved by a young man, becoming a fish, disappears into the river]: Daskalova-Perkovska et al. 1994, No. 507C: 182; Croats [in a dream, the king is told to build a church; after the third dream, the king builds a church, but the same old man tells him to get a cage with a bird from the garden of the Persian king, otherwise the church will collapse; three sons go to pick up a bird; the older two have lost cards; the youngest buys the hanged debtor to bury him; in a deserted area he meets man; he says that he is the dead man bought by the prince, promises to help; tells him to take a cage with a bird, but nothing more; the young man takes a sword and dagger, is captured; the Persian king tells him to get it King Wasan's horse; his companion and the prince sail in a boat across the sea, the companion tells you to take the horse without a bridle or saddle, the prince violates the ban, is captured; the local king orders him to get the daughter of the Greek emperor; the companion teaches them to take away the emperor's three daughters; King Wasan gives a horse for them, but the prince and his companion manage to sail away, keeping both the horse and the princess; the same with the bird; the companion breaks up with the prince, leaving everything he has obtained; the prince meets his brothers, they kill him, take everything for themselves; but the king's bird does not sing, the horse is sad, the princesses cry; the companion sends the spirit of the wind for living water, revives the victim the youngest prince; he returns, the bird sang, the king wants to execute his eldest sons, but the youngest forgives them, everyone gets a princess]: Schütz 1960, No. 20:159-177; the Bosnians [the sultan is blind; I learned in a dream that he would see the light if he rubbed his eyes with fat from the king of fish; he had a crown on his head and stripes on his body; Sultan's son Rahman and his servant go to the sea, caught the king of fish; he asks R. to let him go, promises to help; afraid of his father's anger, R. runs away; meets a stranger, they go together, his name is Schahbas; it's his turn to guard R. at night; he chased the hare, he disappeared into failure, jumped out from there giant; everything repeats itself, this time two warriors and a beautiful woman are in failure; they say that it is their sister, they have been sitting here for 8 years; they marry R., but tell her to guard; at night she is carried away by a giant; the brothers are going to cut off R.'s head; S. asks to wait two weeks, he will return their sister; he found the giant's palace, killed him, hiding behind the door, returned the girl; in the city shows shoes taken from the giant's palace, they go to the daughter of Sheikh al-Islam; the Sultan's daughter wants the same, S. returns to the giant's palace, brings another couple, for which the Sultan agreed to give his daughter for R.; R. with his wife and Sh. they go to Father R.; stay in the city; while R. and his wife are sleeping, S. hears four pitchforks talking: 1) Father Sultan will send Rahman a horse, which will cause his death; 2) Rahman will be given a cup if he drinks, will die; 3) Rahman will be swallowed by a dragon; 4) whoever tells will petrify; S. cut off the horse's head when it fell on the grass, the flame rushed; cuts off the hand of the Tatar, who held out the goblet, he falls, the flame again; at night in the room where R. sleeps with his wife, a spider came down from the ceiling, became a snake, the serpent was a dragon, S. cut off his head, threw him into the sea; in the morning no one knows where the sultan (he was that spider and dragon) went; Sh. R. talks about everything and becomes stony; R.'s wife gave birth to a son; in a dream, a voice told her to kill the baby and smear the stone figure with his blood; S. came to life and the baby too; S. gave three of his hair, so that in case The need to call him for help, left; he was the king of fish]: Schütz 1960, No. 38:278-292.

Central Europe. Slovaks [two pilgrims spend the night in the prince's house, where his wife gives birth; the elder says the stars are favorable; the prince makes him the godfather of the newborn; he promises the boy that he marries the most beautiful girl in the world; the son grows up, goes to look for his betrothed; the Sun King sends him to the King of the Wind, the King of the Month; the King of the Month helps to cross the bridge, leads to the forest, where they are already waiting those pilgrims; they bring the young man down on a rope to another world; he leaves them a handkerchief — if he turns red, he is in trouble; in the lower world, a woman teaches them to steal the crown that a beautiful woman will put on the grass who comes to swim with her friends; grabbing the crown, the young man runs away; for the first time he turns around, turns into a deer, pilgrims restore his appearance; the second time he turns into a bear; the third time he becomes an ant, hides in a horse's skull, the girls do not find it, the pilgrims raise it to the ground, the beauty and her girls follow, agrees to become his wife; at night the pilgrim hears how the beautiful friends who have become pigeons say that the young man's father is preparing a carriage for him, sitting in which he will fall and crash, and whoever tells will become dumb; for the second night, the father will give poisoned wine; three times, a dragon will crawl into the newlyweds bedroom; without explaining why, the pilgrim does not allow the young to get into the carriage, pours out the wine, demands that it be left in the bedroom; kills the dragon; everyone is happy, the pilgrim leaves]: Nmcová 1970:186-199; Russians (Terevsky Bereg) [the elder prince asks to let him down for a walk in an open field; disappeared; the same middle one; younger Ivan: Let me down - I'll go, and don't let me down - I'll go; I got to the brothers, the forces are dark and dark against them; I. drove around her, entered the house, there the girl weaves crooked; she will click the stuffing {kind of surf comb duck} - the horse will jump out Yes, the man went to the service; I. cut off the stuffing, shot the girl; the brothers beat the force and burned the house; they are going - the stove, under it a hole; I. asks him to lower, there are three houses and three girls, each wiped off her kingdom put it in an egg and in her pocket; the brothers picked up two girls; the third to Ivan: they argue over me; stayed with I. in the lower world; I. sees a man, the other hits him on the head with a hammer, the man asks him to redeem him; after third time (the price is first 100, then 200, 300 rubles, I. bought and brought him to the ground; he promises to bring him to the ground; led to the sea, a whale sailed, he limited it with his hand, became a ship; sailed, the servant does not sleep driving; three birds flew in; first: I. went to the earth horde, took a beautiful wife and a prudent woman; second: what is happy, his own mother died, his father married a baba yaga, his stepmother will give wine, he will drink and tear it apart; third: and whoever hears and retell, will petrify knee-deep; the next night the same (stepmother brings up her shirt; waist-deep will petrify); on the third night: the stepmother will bring a silver a spoon, I. will take a sip and tear it apart; he who told everything will be petrified; they sailed; the servant threw wine on the dog, he disappeared; threw his shirt on the goat, he disappeared; and threw the spoon out the window; having told everything, petrified; old man: a son will be born, releasing blood from under his throat on a stone, the servant will come to life; his son has also come to life, only the scar remains]: Balashov 1970, No. 40:126-133 (=1991:86-101); Russians (place of recording not specified ) [Tsar Khotei has three sons, the youngest is Sila Tsarevich; they ask their father to let them see the world; S.'s ship is the last to sail, only he picked up the coffin floating on the waves, brought them ashore, buried them; leaving the ship waited for him for three years, went on foot; Ivashka caught up with a white shirt, he was in that coffin; promised to help; at the royal palisade, on every stamen on the head, these are all those who married; the king gave his daughter to Sila; I.: on her wedding night, the bride will put a heavy hand — you have to jump up and beat her with a stick until she loses her feelings; a six-headed serpent, the royal's lover, will arrive, I. will fight him himself; that's it it turned out, I. cut off two heads of the snake; the next two nights, two more; a year later S. and his wife went to see his parents; on the way I. cut off Sila's wife, there were reptiles inside her, I. burned them, joined the parts of the body, revived him with live water; after that I. said that S. would not see him again; S. began to live well with his wife]: Afanasiev 1958 (3), No. 575:368-370; Russians (Olonetskaya) [the old man wants to test his three sons; Everyone is given a hundred rubles and tells them to buy a mind; the eldest bought a dog, the middle one - a bird (they fall asleep because of its singing), the youngest paid the dead man's debt and buried the body; the older brother and the dog hunt, the middle brother and the dog hunt, the middle brother and the dog shows an outlandish bird for money; then all three went to the world and left; the elder sees an inscription on the pole: there is soon, but no way back; yet he goes on; the old man hides him from Baba Yaga, turning him, the horse and the dog into stones; I killed the old man, threw stones on him, rushed off; my middle brother sees the inscription: you will take happiness, and you will die with him; in the lake a snake demands a girl for food every day, the princess's turn; the middle one let the bird sing, the snake fell asleep, he killed the snake, married the princess; she leaned to the water for a drink, the snake slipped into her mouth, she soon died; the bird also died; middle brother came to the place where the elder was petrified; Baba Yaga turned him and his horse into stones; on his younger brother's road there is an inscription: you will see a lot of wealth, but only take the dead; a man catches up, suggests dividing everything equally; they drove up to the iron wall, the companion gnawed at her teeth; the same was the locked door; the chains with which the old man was bound; he says that the sorceress chained him 40 years ago; they took the gems went; the sorceress is catching up; the companion gnawed her throat, took two bottles; they come to the city where the princess married by her middle brother should be buried; the youngest has three nights in church to guard; the companion tells me to take the book, the rooster and the harp; the rooster sang, the princess lay down again in the coffin, the younger brother plays the harp; the same on the second night; on the third, the younger brother hides not under the throne, but in the coffin ; the princess lay down beside her, the sting leaned out of her mouth, her younger brother pulled the snake out of her mouth, as her companion taught her; princess: how long have I slept; they came to the petrified brothers, revived them and the old man with water from bottles; the companion splashed from another to Baba Yaga, who became a snake, then a frog, a pebble, the companion put it in a bottle; the brothers returned to their father; he told how the youngest's companion, that is, the dead man, brought him gems; everything is fine]: Onchukov 2008, No. 251:447-425; Russians (Vologda) [after the death of his father I. received 300 rubles from his uncle, went on a journey; the infidel was caught and his veins were pulled; I. he bought it for 300 rubles; he was baptized and died of his wounds; the merchants sketched money for the ceremony, but I. took nothing, went on; some man offers to go together; asks to call him uncle, obey and divide everything in half; the non-Russian king has a daughter, she has already handed over 6 husbands, but his uncle advises I. to try; when I. lay down with his wife, his uncle is at the doorstep; at night a snake flew in, his uncle cut off his head, threw him away at sea, washed everything; I. wants to see his relatives, his uncle indicates which horses to choose; stayed at the old man's house; the robbers returned at night; I. and his wife sleep, the uncle cuts off the heads of those who enter one by one, the rest fled; the gold went to Ivan; at the bridge where I. met his uncle, he offered to part and divide his wife; cut her in half, the snakes went out of her; the uncle washed everything, revived the princess; everything is fine]: Burtsev 1895, No. 3:9-13; Russians (Vologda) [a man borrowed money from a Jew, an icon of Nicholas the Wonderworker as a guarantor; a man does not give money, a Jew beats an icon, Ivan bought the icon; a gray-haired old man came, went to sell with him on ships; the Tsar's daughter died, 20 days in church, you have to be on duty for 3 nights, and everyone is found torn to pieces; each time the old man teaches him to read a book to a certain page and buy what the first to be offered; this is var, cheese, candle; the one who gets up from the coffin rushes every time for the abandoned; after the third night she came to life and healed, the Tsar gave it to Ivan; the old man orders to share what he had acquired together; cuts the princess in pieces, washed it, put it together, the princess came to life; the old man disappeared]: Smirnov 1917, No. 39:208-211; Eastern Ukrainians (Kherson) [the poor man borrowed money, and took St. Nicholas; died; the lender carries the body and the icon to be scolded, beats both; one guy paid the debt, buried the dead man, took an icon; the merchants gathered for the goods, but the guy has no money; the old man volunteered to help built a ship; in another country, the king orders to spend three nights in the crypt; an old man (who confessed that he is St. Nikolai) teaches you to draw a line around you by greasing honey and pouring poppy seeds, but not to look at the princess rising from her coffin; on the third night she will dismantle the roof and try to attack from above - you have to lie in her coffin; in the morning both went out, the old man blessed, the tsar neither, but did not go out to his daughter, he was frightened; brought goods with him; on the way, the princess flew into the forest and brought 4 apples; Nicholas tells me not to eat, say what she will eat after; cut apples, and they are teeming with reptiles; princess: how well I slept! the old man left, the guy started selling the imported goods]: Yastrebov 1894, No. 5:126-129.

Caucasus — Asia Minor. The Kalmyks [rich Altan örgözhik (“full of gold”) lived to be 555 years old, and his old woman to 445, but no children; A. went to travel, went to a yurt, where a mánzhi boy ( the lowest level of Buddhist monasticism) is 10 years old; he asks if the one who came to know A.; he says no; Manzhi was surprised, but asked to tell A.: if he wants to have a son, let him give gifts to the poor, he will put a golden sum (idol), sacrifice to the fire and pray; his son was named Mánjin Zarlik (“the word Manzhi”), by the age of three he grew up strong and intelligent; went to trade; sees how another a man beats the body of a deceased debtor; M. paid the debt; M. returned, took the money again and went to trade again; another boy a little older than him was hired by him; M. told him to cook meat, invited him to eat; that happily began to eat; M. gave him all the meat and drove him away; the same with another boy: he refused to eat while the master was eating; M. took it; they came to A., he was happy {obviously with what his son now has reliable servant}, gave them a black dog as their companions; tells them not to spend the night near a black hill, on white sand and on a black salt marsh; then go to trade in the nomads of Kökshin Bural (“elderly with gray and gray” Khan; but they stopped just at a black hill; a black old man appeared and called to him; while M. was sleeping, the boy took his sword, went to the yurt, looked into the hole; 7 old men sharpen their daggers; each goes out to see what rustles; the boy killed them one at a time; human meat is hung in the yurt, gold, silver, and jewelry are piled up; the boy buried them, burned the rest; spent the night on white sand; an old woman hosh khubarak on goat legs with a copper snout approaches the boy, calls him to spend the night; the same: 7 old women sharpen their swords, the boy killed them one at a time; a girl fits on a black salt marsh; the same: 7 girls sharpen their swords, the boy killed them one at a time; a girl fits on a black salt marsh; the same: daggers, the boy killed them one at a time; they came to K. Khan; his son and M. became friends; one day a big cat came to eat leftovers; boys' dog: are you not enough of your own? cat: when your master marries, I will become a poisonous snake, I will bite; dog: you can't; but your bile will be a cure for your khan's daughter, who is dry; a boy killed a cat, took bile, ordered M. to offer to cure the khan's daughter; the girl recovered; the khan gave her daughter and half of the people; on the way back, they took the buried treasures of the killed demons; they began to lower the bucket into the well — every time a bucket comes off; the boy told him to let him down; there's a witch (mous emagan), a boy and a girl in front of her; that boy: is thought or wind faster? boy coming down: the wind is moving in one direction, and the thought is in four at once; that boy: the old woman kidnapped him and the girl, they are the children of Hormusta Tengria; when the water in the well is completely gone, their old woman will kill; the boy who came down killed the old woman, they all began to rise; as the body of the murdered old woman rose, the water also rose to the very top; the heavenly boy became a swan and flew to heaven, leaving his younger sister as his wife to the savior; he gave her to M.; on the wedding night, a snake crawls to bed, a boy worker killed her, blood dripped on the bride's cheek, he erased it; the girl to her husband: he kissed me on cheek; he tells M. that he is the ransom dead man; leaves; M. came to Erlik Khan for him; both of them were asked to walk on an iron wire as thick as their hair; they went and they were both released into the world alive; the boy worker took his daughter K.]: Pozdneev 1889:348-364; Abkhazians [the prince lets go of the goldfish, the tsar expels him; he meets another young man, they come to the king, each of the 300 whose daughter's suitors died the first night; a friend hid under the ottoman; at midnight three snakes crawled out of his wife's mouth one after another, each cut off their heads, hid them; the prince sees a friend with a sword, thinks that he was going to kill him; a friend demands that he separate the woman; swings his sword, three decapitated snakes crawl out of her mouth; the friend again turns into a goldfish; the prince and his wife return to father, he arranges a wedding]: Bgazhba 2002:159-161; Abazins [father went blind, the witch ordered to catch fish and anoint her eyes with liquid from her eyes; they caught the fish, the son felt sorry for it, let it go, drove him away; he cannot wake up a sleeping man with a dagger, he woke up from a fallen tear; he is also Hasan, let the young man be called Hasan Little (XM) and he is Hasan Bolshoy (HB); HB married XM to Kara's son; at night a rustle, it's a hung up in the attic; HM let him go, he grabbed his wife and disappeared; HM and HB caught up with him, cut off his head, brought the woman back; at night there was light in the window, the wife confesses that it came from the girl Lacharkh; XM and HB come there, stay with an old woman, build a palace for her; L.: let them hide, and if I find it, I'll cut off my head; 1) HB has become a fish, XM in his mouth; 2) (storyteller's pass); 3) HB is a button, XM is the button on L.'s dress; this time L. didn't find them, she married XM; XM with two wives and HB come to their father; witch: HB is that fish, you have to squeeze out her eyes; HB teaches XM's wife what to do when he they will squeeze out his eyes and throw him into the river; XM brought his father to the river, swung his dagger three times, HB came out of the river, the bird brought a leaf, HB saw the light from it, became goldfish again and disappeared into the river]: Tugov 1985, No. 38: 100-104; Karachays: Rumyantseva 1981:11-21 [Khan has a daughter Fatima and stepson Jankir; Khan's legs were lost, you need to wrap them in the skin of a deer living at the bottom of the sea with golden horns; D. and F. caught the deer, but D. cut the net and let him go; F. told his father; the khan ordered D. to be executed, F. warned, D. rode off, horseman Boshasan joined him on the way, left Karakyz in the forest house of the woman, he went on himself, met the mowers; they say that a ram with 12 horns will come, if they do not mow the hay, he will kill them; D. grabbed the ram, he turned into a girl, D. took her to Karakyz for D.; the next since B. came to a house where there is no clean water, 9-headed emegen locked the river; a woman wants to burn her clothes to bake bread, emegen does not let her into the forest; B. defeated emegen, he turned into a girl, B. brought her to K., and the first girl disappeared somewhere during this time; the second one disappeared; D. says that he met the girl himself, asks B. to help her marry; girl: I have to hide from me three times, otherwise I will turn it into stones; 1) B. — kite, D. — sparrow; 2) B. — boa constrictor, D. — hare he swallowed; both times the girl found them; third time B. — loop, D. — button around the girl's neck; did not find, wedding; D. wants to come back to his father; B. took out sea grass, father D. recovered; B. tells him to build 9 iron fences around his house, where he lives with his wife; the khan called him to hunt, gave him salty cake, ordered him to jump off the cliff for a sip of water, then pushed him off a cliff; the horse told Boshasan, D.'s wife saw that her husband was dying in the gorge, B. gave him sea water, D. recovered; the khan was trying to break the fences around his wife D.'s house, D. managed in time, killed the khan; B. tells D. not to ask him to enter the water; D. insists that B. goes into the water and says that he is the same deer; then the spell has fallen off him, and now he is a deer again and no longer will return], 67-72 [the father promises to be the first to marry the one of the three sons who will do a good deed for people; the elders spent the money, the youngest bought the dead man whose body the lender is about to drag around the village; the father tells his son to accompany a man who will eat a hominy cauldron in one sitting; this is the little man Chuyunkak (“hominy cauldron”); the father sends his son for the bride, telling him not to stay spend the night where there are three hills; they stop; every time C. defeats a woman, follows her into the hill, puts her wealth in a chest; they come to the girl, her suitors have always been found in the morning dead; C. kills three snakes that crawled out of the girl's mouth at night; Khan married his daughter to a young man; on the way back they took the treasure chests; C. disappeared; the father explains: C. is a good doer]; Balkarians: Malkonduev 2017:381-386 (Western 1958) [the poor man wants to marry his son; tells him to bring a friend; he finds a companion, the father asks him to share the food, the guest divides him into equal parts; the father sends him away; the same with the second candidate; the third time the young man sees two people wanting to dig up a dead man who owes them money; a young man pays the money himself; meets a young man named Ak; he gives the best parts of watermelon and bread to the young man's father; the father tells him not spend the night in the gorge; but the young man did not listen to advice; Ak does not sleep; Emegen came up, shot, missed, How did he hit him, came in the footsteps to the cave; there is dead emegen and treasures; in the village, the daughter of a rich man gives grooms hide three times; if they find, cut off their heads, 99 people have already been decapitated; Ak replaces the young man, the fox agrees to help; hid the groom in a hole under a stone; the girl searched three times (even in heaven and at home in her hair), but did not find it; agreed to marry a young man; the dead came to life, she began; on the way back, Ak gave the young man the treasures of emegen; pretends that the girl should be divided; when he swung a knife, she has A mirror and a snake fell out of her mouth; the girl recognized what was happening on the surface of the earth with a mirror, and what was underground with a snake; Ak returned to the grave; wedding, feast], 394-395 (zap. 1965 g.) [khan fell ill; witch: we must catch goldfish; the prince caught it, but regretted it and let go of the fish; the servant reported this to the khan; the khan expelled his son; the man met him, they went together; another khan: all my suitors daughters died the first night; the khan's son married a girl, and the companion hid under the bed; saw a snake crawl out of the girl's mouth and began to crawl into the guy's mouth; the servant prevented it; so three nights; son Khan got a girl; when parting, her companion tells her to divide; a snake crawled out; companion: both good and the girl are yours; I was that fish; and your father died]; Avars [young merchant buys from a moneylender debtor; soon an unknown young man joins the caravan; at night, while others are sleeping, he kills the witch Hart, drives Azhdaha away; marries the khan's daughter for the merchant; kills a three-headed monster that attacked the grooms on their wedding night; before parting, he admits that he is a redeemed debtor; shares the treasures found; hits the merchant's wife three times, three ajdahs jump out of her mouth; now the wife safe]: Atayev 1972, No. 74:85-89; Avars [Khan has a son Ismail; when he is 18 years old, the teacher warns him not to give him meat and bone; when he is 20 years old, they gave him a piece of bone, he threw it out the window, was surprised sunlight, got sick; the widow said that I. exchanged rings with the girl, would go look for her; I. defeats the enemies of the seven brothers, they give him a sister, he puts a sword on the bed, explains that he will meet with his wife not until he finds that girl; goes on, meets the hero Arabuzan, marries her, but also puts a sword on bed; A. goes with him, they give the ring to the girl they marry, the girl recognizes his ring (found in I.'s); I. returns to his father with three wives; A. knows that his father wants to destroy I., gives his ring, which neutralizes poison, I. eats, remains unharmed; Khan tells the viziers kill I. in the forest; they gouge out his eyes, tie him to a tree, but bring Khan clothes moistened with the blood of birds; the dove throws his feather on I., tells him to run over his eyes, I. heals; his eyes change , but the voice is the same; the khan did not recognize him, the wives recognized him; A. kills the khan, she is elected khansha, I. lives with three wives]: Ganiyeva 2011b, No. 23:253-257; Tabasarans [the padishah is ill, his blood will cure him marine inhabitant; son Ilyas goes in search; the vizier advises goodbye: do not argue with the truth, do not listen to minors, do not regret what you have already lost; mother advises: take as friends someone who will divide the apple in half, rather than take the larger (miser) or smaller (hypocrite) part of himself; I. sees how the old man caught the girl with the fish tail; she asks her to let go, I. lets go; the father expels him; the daughter The padishah is numb; a friend sends I. to cure her, teaches her how; she has a mirror, a carpet, a necklace; I. tells the tragic story of these objects (lovers commit suicide), the girl screams; throws off the necklace, talks a little; this necklace is an old viper; I. marries, a friend demands to separate the bride, swings, the girl regurgitates the snake, then speaks normally; the friend was that siren whom I. let go; I. brings medicine to his father; feast]: Ganiyeva 2011b, No. 25:264-266; Rutultsy [padishah is blind, elder sons, then the youngest went to look for a cure; the old man sends the youngest to to three alimams, those to another old man, he explains that it is necessary to burn the padishah of fish, anoint his father's eyes with ash; the blind padishah tells everyone to fish, the padishah of the fish is caught, the young man felt sorry for him, let him go, his father kicked him out a son from home; an old man becomes a companion; brings him to a place where a good story is rewarded; a young man is given money, an old man is given a girl; she agrees to go with him if he finds her sister; leaving the young man an old man comes to a man next to him with an owl and another bird; a man's story: he watched his wife come to three people, secretly decapitated people, put one head under his wife's pillow, wife and head became birds; the old man restored the birds to their human appearance, explained that those three people were holy elders; turned into an owl is the sister they are looking for; the old man brings her ring to her father and sister, everyone is happy; the old man gives the girl he received to the son of a blind padishah; they have two children; the young man decides to return to his father; the old man stays at the spring, tells him to divide the children and his wife, swings a dagger, from the girl's mouth a snake crawls out; the old man explains that it is now possible to live peacefully with his wife; gives medicine to cure a blind father; {the old man was a fish padishah}]: Ganiyeva 2011b, No. 30:295-298; Tsakhurs [king to old age He was blind; only the blood of a “red fish” with a horn on his head will cure him; the prince caught a fish, but it was so beautiful that he let it go; once he offended a black slave, who told the king everything, and the king expelled his son; the mother tells the prince how to recognize a stranger as a faithful friend; the stranger turned out to be him (he guarded the prince's peace at night, etc.); the tsar has a dumb daughter, he will pass her off as someone who can get her to talk; In the presence of the princess, the companion tells how the tailor, the carpenter and the mullah spent the night on the road, taking turns awake; the carpenter carved the girl, dressed her tailor, the mullah revived her; who will get the girl? Everyone is silent, the princess says that the mullet; the prince gets a wife; the companion tells not to lock the bedroom door; at night she enters, kills a snake crawling into the bedroom; everyone goes to the prince's homeland; where he met companion, who tells me to divide everything in half, including his wife; the companion pretends to cut the girl, snakes crawl out of her mouth; he explains that a snake fell in love with the princess, slept with her at night; from in his breath, she became pregnant and numb; to cure her father's blindness, you must smear his eyes with earth from under the hooves of his companion's horse; the companion himself is that fish; the prince returned with his wife and property, cured his father ]: Dirr 1922, No. 18:93-96; the Udins [the king gives money to three sons to be cleverly disposed of; the older money has been spent, the youngest sees a man hitting the grave with a stick: the deceased owes money to him; the prince gives this amount, orders him to leave the deceased alone; the king scolds his elder sons, praises the youngest; advises to hire a servant who refuses the offer to share the meal; The prince goes to the bazaar, the third candidate refuses to eat with him — he will eat what remains; advises the caravan with goods to take a short route, although none of those who went back; at night, the servant awake, hears someone asking the dog to remain silent: the owner will soon kill it, let him take possession of the goods; the dog continues to bark; the prince sold the goods profitably, the servant ordered him to return the same way ; again the dog barks, the servant runs to his voice, someone runs away, hides underground; the servant tells the prince to lower him down on a rope; there are three princesses kidnapped by seven divas; the servant cut the divas into pieces, He put his severed ears in his bag; the prince lifted the women, treasures and the servant upstairs, the caravan moved to the house; there the king father went blind from grief, his sister went crazy: everyone thinks that the prince is dead; the servant kills that the dog itself, moistens his bag with blood; says that each of the princes marries one of the rescued princesses; brings him to a fresh grave; it is just the size of it; gives the money that the prince gives paid the grave defiler; orders his father's eyes to be healed by smear them with dog blood, and his sister's mind by giving them a decoction from the dives' ears; let the king give the prince the throne; then the grave closed]: Dirr 1922, No. 17: 88-93 (=1920, No. 17:88-93); Georgians (Tbilisi) [the merchant sends his eldest son to trade, he is afraid of losing, brings gold back; the same with the average; the youngest buys the dead man with with a severed ear beaten by his lenders; erects a monument to the one-eyed man, spending all the money and asking his father for more; the father is happy, tells his son to take an assistant who will keep a dry crust and give him back crumb; only a one-eared Arab fulfills the condition; agrees to divide the proceeds in half and meet its three conditions; goes ahead of the caravan through the forest, exterminating predators; the first condition is to ask the king permission to sit with the caravan in the yard in the shack; tells the young man not to look out of the shack, goes to buy a magic bird himself; the young man looked out and saw the princess; the king will pass her off as someone who can do it get to talk, execute those who failed; the Arab put the bird under the pot, asks if it is being cleaned; the pot (i.e. the bird) replies that they are not cleaning, the princess is indignant out loud; the king kills the vizier, believing that he is in it's everyone's fault; the Arab hid the bird in the curtains (same: they don't clean me; princess: what's it like?) ; the third time the same (the bird answers on behalf of the throne); Arab to the king: I want a princess not for myself, but for a rich young man; the Arab tells the young man to celebrate only his engagement and until he returns to his father to his betrothed approach; on the way back, the Arab orders to separate the bird (tears it in half) and the princess; waves his sword, a snake crawls out of the princess's mouth; the Arab says that he is the dead man whom the young man bought; all good]: Kurdovanidze 1988 (2), No. 81:59-71; (cf. Georgians [the prince buys a beautiful handkerchief, goes to look for a craftswoman; buys and feeds a shackled maiden, whom people mercilessly beat; he brings it to the craftswoman's castle, tames the devas who the prince was almost killed; the craftswoman becomes the prince's wife; supplies water to the shackled maiden, who shackles and carries her away; she finds out that his life is in a deer, in a box, in three chicks; a dev-assistant The prince catches chicks, kills them; the prince and his wife return to their father; feast; dev sees that an army is coming to the prince, smashing him; leaves, but promises to always help]: Kurdovanidze 1988 (1), No. 63:266-274 ); Armenians: Harutyunyan 1986 [the ruler of Mysra has gone blind; Dr. Ginjjin, who was discharged from Inglisia, orders to catch golden-headed fish in order to prepare medicine; the prince releases it, flees from his father's anger; he is hired by an Arab; the ruler of the island promises a daughter to the one who kills the dragon; an Arab kills, says that the prince killed, he marries; the Arab advises to put another on the throne, to go to marry the ruler's daughter francs; her suitors died; an Arab hides in the marriage rooms, kills a snake crawling out of his young wife's mouth at night; after the death of his father, the prince and his two wives return home; the Arab asks for payment separate wives; hangs the daughter of the ruler of the Franks, swings her sword, a snake crawls out of her mouth, an Arab kills her; explains that he is the fish saved by the prince]: 44-47 (=Khachatryants 1933:73-77); Tumanyan 1984 [=Harutyunyan 1986:127-129; a fisherman's worker let go of the fish, he drove him away; a monster meets him; promises to give a cow for three years that will provide the worker and his family with food, but then he will come will ask questions if they answer badly, take it with him; before the monster arrives, a guest appears, is called to answer instead of the hosts; a dialogue between the monster and the guest: where are you from? — From the other side of the sea. — What did you drive? — Saddled a lame flea. — Is the sea small? — You can't fly an eagle. — Is an eagle a chick? — The shadow of its wings will cover the city. — Is the city small? — Can't run across a hare. — Is the hare tiny? You can cut a sheepskin coat, hat and a pair of mittens out of the skin. — Will a dwarf wear them? - Put a rooster on his knee, he won't hear the crow. - Is he deaf? — He can hear a deer stinging grass in the mountains. The monster is gone. The guest said that he was the saved fish]: 101-106; Ioannisian 1968 (Ararat Valley) [the poor man and his wife were giving birth to the city of Turtamba, but it was too late and the gatekeeper did not let them in; the wife gave birth to a boy; the king had a dream: the one born at the city wall would tear his head off; the king ordered to buy and kill the baby, but the servant moistened the diapers with the bird's blood, left the boy under the bush; the doe fed him; he became incredibly strong; the king's servants hardly managed to capture him; his name is Jeyran-ogly; he quickly learned science; the prince is not allowed into the 40th room, he entered, there is a portrait of a beautiful woman, he went in search, D. with him; the devas are amazed at D.'s strength, unquestioningly gave their sister to the prince; while she was sleeping, the prince took the keys tied to her braids, unlocked the rooms; in one white deva, pilaf and water in front of him, but could not reach ; the prince tied the chain, the dev pulled up the cauldrons, ate and drank everything, broke the chains and took the prince's fiancée; D. went to take her away, and the devas chained the prince to a pole and put a lamp on his head; D. cut off the white maiden's head, brought the girl, cut off the heads of five devas, spared two; the king realized that D. was the boy he dreamed of; ordered the servant who had spared the boy to be beheaded; D. hears a conversation of three pigeons; the king will send a horse for D. to sit on, you will burn; he will be locked in a room with a snake; if a drop of her blood touches his body, D. will petrify; D. tells the groom to sit on the horse; D. killed the snake, but petrified; the prince's wife dreamed that it was necessary to kill her two children and moisten the stone with their blood; she did so, D. came to life; cut off the king's legs first and then his head]: 136-145; megrels: Mingrelian tales of 1890, No. 3 [the young man caught a beautiful fish, regretted it, let him go; for this his father kicked him out; he met a shoemaker, a doctor; they decided to divide everything they had obtained equally; the king will give his sick daughter for that , who would cure her; the doctor came to the king, swung his sword over the girl and told the snake to go out; the serpent left the sick, the king passed her off as a doctor, he handed her over to the fisherman: I was the fish released; disappeared]: 325-326; Stepanov 1898, No. 14 [the merchant's son squandered the money twice; the third time he bought the deceased, who was beaten by lenders; he went on a journey again, a boy went with him; he cured the princess, her and the dowry was given to the merchant's son; the boy offers to share the girl with all her property; when he swung his sword, a reptile jumped out of her mouth — the cause of her illness; the boy explained that he the dead man whose debts were paid by the merchant's son]: 43-46; Azerbaijanis: Bagriy 1930 (1): 27-30 (Nukha District, 1899) [=Bagriy, Zeynally 1935:133-137; the king is ill, the dervish orders to get white blood snakes; the servants do not dare to kill the snake, it is too beautiful; so does the prince, the king expels him; he is joined by a young man who says he heals silence; another king will give his daughter for someone to force speak her; the prince takes a talking parrot with him, the king hears the dialogue, believes that his daughter has spoken, gives her for the prince; on the way home, the young man demands that the princess be divided, pretends to cut her in half, she regurgitates the snake that caused her silence; the young man tells the prince's father to drink blood to this snake, who will recover; says that he himself is the snake he regretted], 39-41 (Nukha District, 1899) [after the death of his father, the eldest son reigns, the youngest becomes the ruler of the city; the elder believes that the youngest has planned a rebellion; the youngest runs; saved the frog from the snake's mouth; fed the snake by cutting off a piece their own flesh; the frog turns into a young man to help the prince; they live with another king; he loses his ring in the sea, his friend pulls it out; sucks poison from the princess's wound bitten by a snake; the king marries the prince on his daughter; a friend explains who he is, leaves]; Nabiev 1988 [the Shah will see the light from the blood lotions of spotted fish from the White Sea; his son is fishing, she asks to let her go; the young man lets go, tells the fishermen to remain silent; the informer reports that the son threw the fish on purpose; the Shah expels the son; he takes a doctor as his sister; another shah promises a daughter to someone who will cure her from silence; the doctor turns to her golden candlestick, asks me who is more important - the carpenter who made the girl's figure, dressed her as a tailor, the doctor who revived her; the dumb says she is a doctor; she pretended to be dumb, letting dinner be silent after mother's death; the doctor gets the girl, gives it to the son of the Shah; says that he was that fish; gives his blood; the shah's son brings it to his father, he sees the light]: 33-37; Stamboliev 1896, No. 6 [Jamal-Eddin caught in the Nile fish; his father is going to give it to the son of the Caliph, but DE let her go out of pity; his father drove him away; the young man Ibrahim offered to go with the Chin State; there the emperor will give her daughter off as someone who her will cure silence; losers are executed; in the presence of Princess I. speaks to a parrot; three princes marry Mariam; one has learned to find out what happened in a remote place, the other has obtained a flying carpet, the third has learned to revive the dead; the princess is dying, who should I give her to? parrot: to the one who brought all three to her; princess: revived; the emperor demands that the princess speak again; the mullah, carpenter and tailor spend the night in the forest; one made the figure of a girl, the other dressed her , the third one revived; who should I give the girl? parrot: tailor; princess: mullet; I. received the princess and treasures; on the way back he offered J to divide everything; swung his sword at the princess, a lizard fell out of her mouth - the cause of the disease; I. gives all DE , says that he is the fish he saved]: 51-56 (about the same No. 7 [Tsarevich, his companion Ahmed; a snake crawls out of the princess's mouth]: 57-60); talyshi [the king has bad eyes, the dervish advises to lubricate them with the blood of a fish; the king sends Ibrahim's son with an army; he is fishing, but the rest of the fish are going to sink the ship; I. releases fish, the king finds out about it, wants to execute I., the vizier persuades him just expel; some dervish becomes a travel companion; looks for water for I., receives seven devas from a servant, tells him to put sleeping pills in the devas pilaf, kills devas; they fought with peri, she is grateful, gives a ring from which four servants come out, a flying carpet, a magic tablecloth; I. and a dervish send an old woman to marry the king's daughter; he requires 1) a hundred camels loaded with jewelry, otherwise she will kill old woman; 2) a palace made of gold and silver bricks; the servants from the ring bring everything, build everything; I. gets a wife, the dervish leaves, promising to return in 6 months; once his wife asked to explain how I. completed her father's tasks; in response, he scolds and beats her; then softened, showed magic objects; the slave overheard, took possession of the ring, the servants from the ring threw I. into the well, the palace with the royal daughter moved to the top of the mountain; the king heard moans, I. pulled it out, the dervish came, cured him; found the palace, ordered I.'s wife to give the slave sleeping pills; {the story ends}]: Miller 1930:126-142; Kurds [ the fisherman's son Ali felt sorry and released the fish his father had caught; he hit him in the face, the young man left; the young man, who called himself Ahmed, volunteered to be his companion; the shopkeeper hired Ali's son as a salesman, and A. sent him to work to a shopkeeper named Musa; M. became rich, and the son's owner Ali went bankrupt; A. told his son Ali that it was time to return; by the river he gave him everything he had earned, said that he was the fish, disappeared into the water]: Farizov, Rudenko 1959:79-81.

Iran — Central Asia. Persians: Ottomans 1987:230-235 [a young fisherman asks an old man to help pull out the net; but the fish is too heavy; the fisherman went to call someone else; at this time the fish leaned out of the water and laughed ; the man let her go; the fisherman drove him away; met a young man named Mota; and he himself was Moti; Mota began to get meat, and Moti sold it; Mota ordered him to go to the Sultan and promise him to talk to his dumb daughter; teaches how to put the padishah's daughter behind a curtain and ask flowers to talk on the carpet; 1) the first story of flowers; instead of money, the gardener asks the vizier to promise that when his daughter marries, let her first will come to him in the garden; her husband let her go, the gardener too; on the way back she met robbers; when she found out what was going on, the robber also let her go; who is nobler? Sultan's daughter: husband; 2) second story; the sons of three viziers want to marry the Sultan's daughter; one bought a bowl, the water from which revives the dead, the second — a flying carpet, the third — an all-seeing mirror; when he saw that the princess is dead, the young men flew in and brought her back to life; who should she be? princess: the owner of the mirror; Moti got the Shah's daughter; Mota tells me not to touch her for three nights; then say he should have the wedding at home; drove to the place where Moti first saw Motu; mota took out his sword and told him to share everything he had acquired equally; Moti swung his sword, and a worm fell out of his wife's mouth; Mota: take everything for yourself; if the worm stayed in your wife, you would fall ill; I'm that fish released; Mota disappeared], 365- 368 []; Christensen 1971, No. 2 []: 12-26; Tajiks [bai gave his son 40 coins to buy a slave; with this money he buys and buries the deceased debtor; the father again gives 40 coins, the son buys the slave, he takes he promises to let him go when he helps him out of trouble; the son goes with a caravan, a woman comes to bed, gives everyone a drink, the slave does not drink, watches the woman, kills giants in the cave, who served by a woman; on a new night, she overhears a conversation between a dog and a dragon (the dragon's skin will cure the padishah's daughter; the dog's eyes can be inserted bayu if he goes blind); a slave kills a dragon, heals a daughter padishah, tells him to give her for his master; bai at first does not believe that his son has returned with his wife and wealth; blind from tears, lamenting his beloved dog, sees the light thanks to dog eyes; the slave tells him to bury, he was the same dead]: Amonov 1980:199-202; Sistan's Tajiks [the barber shaved the king, but one hair remains; the tsar wants to execute him; the vizier advises giving him life, or better to get a brown whale, its meat is getting younger; the king sent his son for the whale; people caught a black, white whale; when he saw that the brown whale was crying, the prince let him go; fled from his father's anger; drives up to the fire, near a diva sits on fire, one lip on the ground, the other in heaven; he took on a human form, tells him to be called not a brother, but a slave; the princess makes riddles and sets conditions for marriage, those who have not fulfilled are executed; easy lowers the camel into the well and then throws it on a tree, destroys and restores the rock, the prince must do the same, eat a huge amount of food; the divas does everything; tells the prince after weddings do not touch his wife below the navel; the prince puts his sword on the bed, says he must bring home a virgin; on the way home, the divas demands to separate the princess, swings his sword, from the girl's mouth The dragon crawls out, the divas kills him; after that, the princess loses her inhuman power; the diva was that brown whale; gave his blood; after drinking it, the prince's father became young]: Grunberg, Steblin-Kamensky 1981, No. 1:14-24; Bukhara Arabs [{the plot is simplified; the hero himself offers the redeemed person to become an assistant; given the fragmentation of the tradition, one can assume that there were more typical options in the past}; The prince dreamed of a girl; he went to look for her; bought the thief and invited him to be an older brother; the thief slept for 40 days; then ordered the prince to burn a fire, stole that girl and brought it to the prince; the prince returned home; wedding, feast]: Vinnikov 1969, No. 64:350-351; Uzbeks: Afzalov et al. 1972 (1): 243-247 [the old man caught a goldfish, went to tell the khan, his son let her go, the khan accused them of lying, ordered tie up the young man, let him go to sea in a boat; the boat was nailed to the island, another young man freed the bound man, he looks like him in everything; the old shepherd says that the distant khan has a dumb daughter, who will cure her, will take her to wives who fail are executed; the young man from the island goes first, says: the elder brother carved the wooden bird as if it were alive, the middle brother decorated it with rare feathers, the younger one revived who owns the bird; the girl kept silent, the young man swung his sword, the girl belched the snake, the young man killed her; the girl spoke, gave a ring; the young man gave it to the fisherman, said that he was that fish; returned to sea; khan against his will married his daughter to a fisherman; the fish sent the young men to their father, holding them in their mouths], 532-542 [=Konovalov, Stepanov 1986:234-246; elderly parents have a son Sakhibjan; releases caught fish along with the network; father is upset; S. goes on a journey; rejects two people he meets, who offer themselves as travel companions, accepts Ahmadjan, who is a year younger than him (they are 15 and 16); they become brothers, agree to divide everything in half; they have become famous as good workers; Padishah Karahan orders to kill the dragon that his daughter should eat, another who eats figs that give youth, conduct a channel; S. and A. perform this, S. gets the daughter of a padishah; A. hears the conversation of three crows, one will turn into a horse, throw S., he will die; the other into a colorful bird (S. will take her, die), the third in the dragon, comes out of the hearth, swallows S. and his wife; whoever tells will petrify; A. breaks the horse's back, tears off the bird's head, kills the dragon; bends down to wipe a drop of dragon blood from the face of S.'s wife, that thinks that A. wants his wife; A. tells everything, becomes stony; the old man revives him; his brothers and woman go home to S.; on the way, A. demands to divide the woman; out of fear, she regurgitates a clot of poisonous dragon saliva, she is safe now; A. says he was that rescued fish, leaves; S.'s parents are happy]; Uzbeks [Shah ordered to throw the net, but not pull the fish out; when everyone is gone, son Kasym pulled out the vizier: his head was golden and his body was silver; let go of the fish, put a millstone in the net; the Shah wants to execute him, the teacher begged K. to be expelled into the desert; his mother teaches him to choose the one who will stretch hand behind small pieces of cake, and he will be left with large ones; K. rejected one man and the other took small pieces, his name is Kalandar, he is a released fish; a black diva kidnapped the Shah's daughter; the sister brothers came to the witch, killed her, freed the girl from the chest; she told him to wait under the bridge for the yellow diva; they drove him waist-deep into the ground, cut off his head, took his beak, unlocked the palace, and the yellow cat's keys to 40 rooms; the girl killed her, they unlocked the rooms; one had chained women, the other had children, the third was old, the fourth was men; everyone was released; they met a green diva, killed; waiting under the bridge for a black diva; that knows about them; they have been fighting for 40 days, his captive threw millet under his feet, he fell, his brothers cut off his head, but the divas lived; found the key from a black cat, opened a gold chest, in it one in the other 40 boxes, in the last blue and black pigeons, they were strangled, the divas died; the Shah married his daughter to Kasym; at the night, the parrot sprayed the girl's face with poison: whoever tells will petrify; Kalandar began to wash the poison, Kasym decided that he wants his wife, he said he was petrified; the girl smeared the stone with blood from her little finger, Kalandar came to life, became that fish and went into the water]: Afzalov et al. 1972 (2): 65-71; Turkmens [fisherman catches a golden carp; his son Tair regrets and lets go of the carp; the khan comes to see the miracle, does not believe T., tells him to let him go to sea in the boat; T. sails to the island; he is met by a young man like him (this is a carp); the daughter of Khan dumb from birth, many unsuccessfully tried to cure her, their heads were cut off; T. asks the girl for advice: the elder brother slaughtered the bird, the second decorated it with feathers, the third revived it, dipping it into a spring - to whom a bird must belong; a girl points to her mouth, T. wants to hack her, she belches a snake, is speechless; T. marries her; wants to go home; Carp sends a fish that takes T. and his wife in her mouth, sails to his father]: Bulatova 1985:527-531; Vakhans [when Khoja is 70, he wants to hand over the trade to his 10-year-old son; together with his cousins, the boy went with a caravan; paid off the debt a dead man who was refused to be buried and beaten; the father was dissatisfied, but a year later he decided to try again; explained to his son that he needed a servant who would work himself, and not send a master (etc.; described the right qualities); the son met a young man who offered to become a servant; the father allowed him to go with the caravan; the merchant's son wants to shelter the dog; the servant watches her, overhears the conversation of three peri: this the dog is a dangerous werewolf; he kills her, makes her meat a cure for all diseases; the king promises his daughter to the one who will cure her; the servant cured her, gave the girl to the son of the merchant; left, saying that he was the one bought dead]: Grunberg, Steblin-Kamensky 1976, No. 45:383-389; Baluchi [Tsarevich Nigal pays the fisherman to let go of the fish; the king drives his son away; a young man joins N.; they were hired by to another king; his fate goes away, for in the evening the king will be bitten by a snake; N. hides under the bed, kills the snake, a drop of blood falls on the sleeping queen, N. washes her, the queen wakes up; in the morning the king goes to kill N., but the companion N. asks him to listen; tells how the falcon knocked out the king's goblet, into which he began to collect water while hunting; the king killed the falcon, and then saw that poison from the snake's mouth dripped into the goblet from the tree; another The king killed a parrot that brought him fruit from the tree of life, but the snake managed to inject poison into the fruit; when he found the corpse of a snake under the bed, the king gave him his daughter as N.; on the way home, the companion demanded that the woman be separated; swung with a sword, two snakes came out of her mouth; N. left the companion, saying that he was the fish N. saved]: Porozhnyakov 1989:40-45.

Baltoscandia. Norwegians [a young man dreams of a princess, goes to look for her; pays for the burial of a man executed for diluting wine and leaving him in a block of ice; someone catches up with him, becomes companion and assistant; opens the rock, invites the trollich to sit down, she sticks to the bench; takes the sword she wields with her two sisters, for which she frees the trollich; the second the trollich has a ball of gold thread; the third has an invisible hat; a ball thrown across the fjord turns into a bridge; on the other side they wind it up, the stalker trolls drown; in the palace, the princess suggests 1) hide the scissors from her and return it at noon the next day, otherwise she executes her; slowly picks them up; the companion threatens the ram in which the princess rides to her troll lover with a sword, when she comes; wearing an invisible hat, the companion flies with the princess on the same ram; when she gives the scissors to the troll, the companion picks them up quietly; in the morning the young man returns them to the princess; 2) the same with her with a golden ball; 3) bring what she thinks; the companion flies with the princess to the troll; the troll flies back with her on his ram; the companion kills the troll, tells the princess to give his head in the morning - she thought about a troll; a companion teaches a young man to pretend to be asleep on his wedding night, and when his wife takes out the knife, cut off his head, beat her and rip off her troll skin; they fly home on the troll's rams, taking everything wealth; the companion promises to come in five years; comes and demands to divide everything, including the young man's son; he brings his sword, his companion stops him; says that when the young man freed him from blocks of ice, he was as happy as he is now when he stopped his hand with his sword brought]: Asbjíørsen, Moe 1960:84-96; the Danes [dying, his father gave Johannes 7 marks; that they bought a dead man with them, whom the lenders threw out of the grave; a man went with him in the forest, asking him to be called Friend; the old woman carried brushwood, broke her leg, the Friend cured her with wonderful oil; the eagle and the falcon began to fight, fell dead; The friend took eagle wings and falcon legs with him; the princess demands to guess three times what she thinks, the unlucky applicants hang in her garden; while I. sleeps, Friend turned into a falcon, flies after the princess, hits her with brushwood, she thinks it's hail; after flying out of the palace, she flies to the mountain, knocks, opens a terrible troll; in the hall on the throne, a troll and a princess, animals and the reptiles are dancing; the troll advises the princess to think about her gloves, the friend hears it; says I., who answers the princess; next time about her shoes; the third time the troll flew after the princess, told think about his head, a friend cut it off, hid it in a bag, gave it to I.; I. opened the bag, in it the head that the princess thought about; gets a wife; A friend tells me to put a tub of water by the bed; I. dips in she is a princess, she turned into a duck, a swan, I. did not let go, she became human, the spell dissipated; A friend says he is that dead man, disappears]: Suritz 1991:54-58; Finns [after serving, Imanti went to Riga because he dreamed that a fried hazel grouse jumped into his mouth from the window; he found this house, hired a merchant, became a captain; one day a storm brought the ship to an unfamiliar harbor; I. I saw how the coffin was taken to the square and everyone hit it with chopsticks; this is the debtor, I. paid his debts and buried him; when the ship went to sea, two cauldrons of gold clung to the anchor; in another city, I. fell in love with the princess, lured him to the ship and took him away; the princess agreed to exchange rings with him; I. was tied up with his henchmen, put on a boat and let him go to sea; the princess was brought to her father, the helmsman said that he had saved her; I. sailed to the island; from there the dead man carried him back to the princess in his coffin; she recognized her ring; the king asked how to execute the man who left the other at sea; the helmsman: tie to a board and throw it into the sea; they did; I. married a princess]: Concca 1993:51-59; the Finns [having squandered wealth and youth, the king went on horseback to another country; it is a custom throw away the bodies of those who did not leave an inheritance (to pay for the funeral); for the remaining three stamps, the king buried one of the dead; to meet the guy, asks to take him as a servant; we will agree on a salary then; arranges everything in the inn, prepares a proper dinner for the king; asks the owner to give him an old hat; the same at the next inn; takes a rusty sword; on the third, an old purse; the city is in mourning, the monster demands the royal daughter as his wife; she is ready to marry the king who has arrived if he brings her a ring thrown under the table and then tells her who she kissed in the evening; the servant puts the ring in the king's pocket; wearing an invisible hat, he saw that the princess did not go to kiss her parents, but met a monster in the garden; cut off the monster's head with a rusty saber and hid it in her purse; in the morning, the bridegroom king showed his head; the princess is happy, because she did not kiss voluntarily; wedding, a son was born; the servant demands payment: the life of the son; cut off the boy's head, but he is alive and well again; the servant was the spirit of that buried vagrants]: Concca 1991:228-238; Karelians (Kalevala District) [poor brother asked the rich man to buy a horse for 6 rubles; promised that if he did not repay the debt, Saint Miikkula would repay; after returning three rubles, he died ; at the funeral, the rich began to beat the dead and the image of the SV; the son of the third, also deceased brother, paid off his debt; met an old man who asked for a laborer, although the poor did not have jobs for a farmhand; ordered to buy nails, turned the bottom of the old boat into a golden ship; went with the young man to sell goods, agreed to divide everything in half; the rich brother sent three ships; sailed to the king's shore; the king says that his daughter needs one person in church every night to eat; if you send, you can trade; rich brother invites the guy to go; the old man tells the rich to demand one ship with goods; the old man tells you to sit on the choir, draw a book around three lines, three iron fences will appear; the girl gnaws on the fences with iron teeth; the rooster sang and she disappeared into the basement; the second night after the second the ship is the same; the third is for the third ship; old man: when the fences are gnawed, you have to hit the girl in the forehead, iron teeth will fall out; the disgraced girl explains that she refused the prince from a filthy country and his mother bewitched her; the king gives her daughter and nine ships of dowry; the old man demanded half of his wife; split her body in half, washed it, combined it, she became more beautiful than before; the old man said that he was SM, disappeared; the young man brought home 13 ships and his wife]: Onegin 2010, No. 14:160-166; Estonians: Järv et al. 2009, No. 22 (Jüri) [mother gives her son money, sends him to the bazaar, he gives everything to the poor; so three times; the old man invites him to be hired as an employee for a year; with a load of bricks, they sail to another city; all those who come bring gifts to the king; the young man brings two bricks, but the king is happy; from every ship that sails, someone must spend the night in a church, where a princess is at the mercy of evil forces behind the altar; the young man spends three nights for himself and others, does not pay attention to evil spirits; two in the morning, a puppy comes up to him, caressing him, the princess comes out on the third; the king gives her to him as his wife; they sail back on the ship; the owner demands half of his wife for help; cuts her in half, pulls her out from the inside snakes, frogs and lizards, makes him whole and healthy again; gives the ship, disappears himself; bricks turn into gold], 24 (Codavere) [the merchant sees man beating God's image, for his debtor took him to guarantors, but he died; the merchant pays the debt, takes the image to the church; the old man tells the merchant where to get the ship, loads broken bricks and firewood there; but in the city where the ship sailed, all this was sold for big money; the rich man's daughter died, told her to spend three nights in church at her coffin before her death, then she will come to life; no one comes back alive; the old man teaches the merchant what to do, spends three circles, then nine laps around the coffin; on the third night she gives the merchant iron nuts; when the dead woman crosses the seventh line, the merchant throws nuts, she starts picking them up, morning comes, she does not go to the coffin; comes to life; her father gives a merchant's daughter as a wife; on the ship, the old man tells him to divide his wife, cuts him in half, cleans snakes and lizards, revives him again; says that he was God's way]: 104-107, 110-112; Latvians: Arys, Copper 1977, № 507C [The guy buys a dead man, escapes the storm and stays with a fisherman. He marries a princess whose suitors all died after the first night. At midnight, a fisherman comes and wants to cut the princess in half. A snake crawls out of her mouth. A fisherman — a dead man — kills a snake and disappears], *507D [The merchant buys the dead man. A dead man helps him in matchmaking to the witch's three daughters. A merchant should spend the night with everyone. A dead man replaces him, takes half the life of his witch daughters. The merchant gets his youngest wife. On the way home, the wife turns into a squirrel; she is thrown into the fire, and various creeping creatures appear. The dead man tells the merchant to keep his handkerchief on fire, a moth appears on him, he turns into a girl. A merchant marries her]: 294.

Volga — Perm. Chuvashi [while hunting, the king wanted to shoot the fox, but saw that it was pregnant; he thought of his pregnant wife and decided to spare the fox; on the other side of the mountain, the king met the same fox the close associate also did not shoot, thinking about his pregnant wife; when they met, the king and his entourage agreed that if they had children of different sexes, they would marry them, and if alone, let they will be friends; both had sons; the young men grew up; the prince saw a portrait of the princess in the book, fell in love; the tsar says that 40 years ago he tried unsuccessfully to achieve this princess; gives the prince an army; it murmurs, the prince sends him home; sees 40 people beat one, and he laughs, buys the man lying for 40 camels loaded with gold; that man, Garambur, promises to get the princess; Light fires all night so that he, G., takes out the princess and finds the prince; in the morning the prince sleeps, the last fire goes out; G. scolds him but continues to serve; the princess in the chest; G. orders the prince to tie and kicked himself to her hair until she went down to the ground, promised to become a wife and gave up hair from her right armpit; the same from her left armpit; from her pubis (“from her chest”); they came to the house; the prince came in, there 12 robbers were feasting, the prince was thrown into the cellar; G. slowly took 12 swords out of the house, put the point up, rolled the millstones over them; 11 swords bent, and the 12th cut the millstones in half; G. took this sword hacked down the robbers; the prince and his wife and G. began to live in the house; they forbade the prince's wife to unlock the barn; she unlocked it, two wolves, white and gray, came out, took her away; G. became a fly, flew to the wolves, they did the prince's wife is a maid; G. tells her to find out where the souls of the wolves are; they first say that there is a jamb under the window; the princess decorated the joint; in the broom the same thing; the white wolf: there is a red bull in the sky, a ram in the bull, in the ram a hare, a duck in a hare, there are two eggs in the duck; to get eggs, you have to whistle through the royal ring; G. prince: you have a ring on your finger; G. whistled into the ring, a bull came down from the sky; wolves ask them not to destroy them; G. tells them to create a palace next to the royal and take the prince and his wife there to the bed to wake up in their bed; the wolves did everything; the feast]: Chuvash tales 1937:255-264; Bashkirs [on their way to Abdullah bazaar finds the dead man and buries him; meets a man named Baigush, they agree to divide everything they have obtained in half; taking the guise of A., B. performs the king's tasks and receives a princess; after the wedding A. leaves; he turned out to be that buried dead]: Khusainova 2014:57.

Turkestan. Kazakhs [a wealthy Crimean merchant Arza suffers losses because he has to trust caravans to other merchants; sends his 12-year-old son Makhmut with a caravan; a stranger joins them on the way; at night while everyone is sleeping, he 1) kills, burns a dragon, collects ashes in a bag; 2) kills seven giants who kidnapped the daughter of a vizier from Merin; 3) returns the dragon with ashes to a crippled dragon arms and legs to the residents of the city; gives Mahmut the gold he received from them and the saved beauty; explains that his name is Zholdas (“fellow traveler”); due to the dishonesty of his merchant brothers, M. fled with his younger wife A. to the Golden Horde; now he has compensated for the damage caused]: Tursunov 1983:250-252; Karakalpaks [a fisherman catches three carps every day; the son caught them and a ruff, released a ruff, the old man drove him away for this; the young man began to work for the old woman; the khan will give his dumb daughter for someone to talk to her; the young man goes to the khan, takes another young man as his companion; he tells how three lived under the princess brother, the elder fed the bull, the middle one cleaned, the younger one cleaned the manure, you have to walk 6 days from head to tail, the brothers met every 3 days; the bull drank the lake at the watering hole, but the catfish living in the lake swallowed it; the black bird took the catfish, began to eat, the fox crept up and ate the bird; the hunters killed the fox, sewed hats from half the skin for all the inhabitants of the village, and the other half was taken by a shepherd, but only half a hat was enough; people began to think who was bigger; princess: shepherd; khan gave his daughter to the young man's companion; on the way back, he offered to divide her, held his sword, a snake jumped out of the girl's mouth, she was killed, and she prevented her from speaking; companion said that he was that ruff, gave the girl to a young man, disappeared]: Volkov, Mayorov 1959:53-55; Kyrgyz: Brudny 1954 [the poor man's wife gave birth to a son under a plane tree, called Chinarbay; plane tree and boy quickly they grow; a winged horse flies to the top, a girl on it; C. and his friend Ashik go to look for her; the dwarf tells predators to feed horses, the road will open, grab the girl by the braids; C. married a peri; she washed her hair, one hair got entangled in the blades of the mill wheel, the khan saw him, wanted a girl; the witch reached the source of the river, offered Peri to get on the boat and took him away; C. and A. came when the khan arranged wedding; peri told them to hold on to her braids and flew away with them; the first khan tells them to pour poison on the saddles prepared for the young yurt and fetters of a hunting bird; A. found out about this in a dream, asked C. to give him three things he asked for; burned poisoned saddles, fetters, clothes; in a poisoned yurt he saw poison dripping on C.'s wife's face, began to lick him, C. decided that A. was kissing his wife; offended A. left, and C. soon died; A. brought his body to a dwarf, who revived him; Peri locked herself from the khan in an iron house; C. killed the khan, took his place]: 73-81 (=Brudny, Eshmambetov 1981:84-89); Kebekov, Tokombaev 2007 (p. Budzhum, Batken District, Batken Region) [Bekjan is the khan of the city; elderly spouses live on the river bank, their son Izmail; the old man caught a goldfish; ran to tell the khan; I. released it, put a stone on the net; Khan came with horsemen; for deception promised to hang the old man with his family; the mother tells her son to run, teaches him to check those he chooses as companions; do not take someone who takes more than half of the cake broken in half; along the way pretend to be relieved; if he waits, then a friend, if not, do not go with him; I. tested everyone, no one fits; a young man caught up with him near another city; he is 16, called Israel, fulfilled the conditions set by Ishmael's mother; at the bazaar, the locals mock those who came; Israel maimed them; they complained to the khan, the khan ordered the ragged men to be brought; Israel cut off the heads of five soldiers, the other 5 ran away; the vizier advises not to attack the young men, but to recruit them; only 40 horses managed to pull the wagon in which the young men boarded; every year the dragon is given one sheep and one girl, it is the turn of the khan's daughter Guljamal; Israel cut the dragon, lost consciousness himself; Ishmael washed him and he came to life; the khan gave his daughter to Ishmael; between a lake of milk and a lake of butter, he built an ak-yorgyo wedding yurt, healed well, Forgetting Israel, he appeared dressed as a dervish and cursed: “Are there any among you who have forgotten their homeland, their parents, and have settled among strangers? If so, know that they know neither conscience nor shame, they are completely lost”; G. understood everything, Israel agreed that it was time to visit their parents; Israel and G. went on a journey, spent the night in a yurt by the spring under the plane tree; Israel hears pigeons talking — these are dragon spirits; if a pigeon key touches the sleepers, they will die, and whoever tells will become petrified; Israel ran into the yurt; the pigeon's beak managed to touch G. , Israel began to lick the poison, Ishmael thought that he was kissing his wife; Israel told everything, petrified; G. caught up with one pigeon on a white tulpar, washed his blood on a stone, Israel came to life; began to destroy the soldiers Khan B., who handed him the throne; Israel proposes to divide all property, including G.; when he swung his sword, G. fell, and something like a mouse jumped out of his nostrils; Israel chopped her, it was her soul dragon; he said he was that fish released]: 50-59; Sabyr uulu 2008 (p. Kara-Tekir, Toktol District, Azhalal-Abad Region) [The hero Duishebay has only son, Oskonbay; D. fell ill, lay for seven to eight years; one day a man came: if you eat goldfish, you will be cured; to catch, you have to sit by the river for 7 days; O. sat caught a fish; she promises to cure D., and O. himself to give a long life and marry Khan's daughter; O. let go of the fish; that man came again and said that O. let go of the fish; D. wants to hang his son, his mother tells him to run; teaches him who to travel with; make friends with someone who will hold his horse while yours urinates, who will come to say hello on the left side when you meet, who will help you ride your horse and will get hooked in the saddle who, when attacked by an enemy, will swing a stick at him before you; when O. crossed the bridge, towards Akzholta's horseman of his age, by all indications the one with whom his mother advised him to make friends; in Two khan's tulpars were lost in the city; A.: they were kidnapped by the khan of Thermiz; the owner of the Tulpars: whoever returns them, I will give his daughter to him; A. bribed the watchman, brought the Tulpars to the owner, O. married the khan's daughter; O. came to D.: the disease will be cured by white camel milk and white snake venom; at this time caravans are coming, a camel died, they ask for milk; D.'s wife milked, gave him milk, he was cured; A. brought O. to his father: he is that fish that had been released and he also cured D.; having said this, he flew towards the qibla]: 226-228; the Kyrgyz [rich blind Sokurbay (“blind bai”) sent his son to the bazaar, giving him a thousand gold; he met people who beat the dead man — he owed him; the young man paid the debt and buried the dead man, giving all his money; S. told his son to find a good companion; he brought 12 the man, S., felt their hands, drove them away; the young man brought another one; S.: “This one fits”; S. sent his son with a caravan; ordered them not to drink from a spring in the desert; the bashi caravan-bashi is that companion; he stopped at the spring; An old woman came up and gave her food for her children; but secretly followed her; when he entered the cave, the old woman said to her five children: “The sons of the same bay I once dazzled have arrived and settled on overnight stay at the spring. I'll cook poisons for them”; the caravan-bashi changed his wineskins; when the old woman came and gave her own wineskin with poison, she and her children went blind; the bashi caravan-bashi took the old woman's treasures from the cave and closed the exit; There is a yurt nearby, where 40 girls and 40 sheep are tied to be eaten by a dragon; a caravan-bashi killed a dragon with a sword; he tied a dragon skin around the waist of the khan's daughter; the khan wants to give her for a savior, but he promises to take her on the way back; seven robbers are rampant in another city; the caravan-bashi tells them that he is also a robber, promises to help rob the khan's treasury; calling robbers to alone, kills everyone; the khan is looking for a hero; many come, but only the caravan-bashi brought the robbers' ears cut off; promises to take the khan's daughter on the way back; in another city, caravan-bashi 12 times sends his son S. to the saddler, each time he must ask him to make a new saddle even better than the previous one; after the 12th saddle, the saddler cannot do better; he goes across the river, the caravan-bashi watches him; he comes to the yurt where the girls are; S.'s son fell asleep, the khan's daughter put a mark on his cheek; the caravan-bashi tells his son S. to ask the girl for her fur coat; the khan sees the caravan-bashi in this fur coat; he assures that it is not a fur coat Khan's daughter, and he has 40 of them; the khan gave him his daughter; on the way back, son S. and his companion took those two girls and the old woman's property from the spring; he saw the light; rejoiced; the satellite says he is the one dead and leaves]: Kebekov, Tokombaev 2007:169-175; Uighurs: Kabirov 1963 [Mulukdar gets married; soon learns that deceivers and parasites live in the city in the east; goes there; on the way saves a fish; a young man becomes his companion; during the night, M. sleeps, the satellite grabs something that fell from the sky (it was lightning that would kill M.), kills the yalmauz, the dragon (he sucks everything in, the young man cuts it from the inside); in both cases frees the prisoner; parasites marrying a girl in the city pay dowry, die on the wedding night; the old woman explains that she crawls out of the girl's mouth snake; M. puts sleeping pills in the wine, kills the snake; returns with his companion; the companion explains that he was the rescued fish that guarded M.; M. takes the girls to their parents, stays with the first wife]: 249-256; Aliyev, Kabirov 1989 [the fisherman dreams of catching a goldfish; his son caught it and released it; the father wants to kill him, the young man leaves; the mother tells him to take as a companion someone who agrees to wait; young man weans, the companion leaves; so twice; the third comrade is loyal; friends did not pay for food, they want to kill them first, then the vizier offers to send them for the khan's daughter, who was kidnapped by the seven-headed Yalmauz; she draws in the air, the companion's sword cuts through her with a sword; then the companion kills her two sons; the young man is married to the freed khan's daughter; they come back, the companion says he is that goldfish hiding in the river]: 55-61.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Tuvans [old man Aganak lived at the mouth of Kara-Khem; he had a son, Ak Tung, who had nine knowledge; Karaty Khan lived in the south by the Kara-Dalai Sea; he ordered AT to move with him to teach his son; One day, Khan's son hears his parents agree to kill AT; he talks about it at, they run away together; there are people fighting over an invisible hat; friends invite them to run race, run away invisible; meet those fighting over a boot that carries any distance; the same; the old man puts his friends on a golden horse, brings them to the golden palace; there is a beautiful hansha, who was already 90 husbands, but everyone died; son K. decided to marry her; at night, AT sees a one-eyed shulbus descend from the sky, grabbed a hansha and flew back; AT put on an invisible hat and boot- speedboat, followed them; khansha tells shulbus that her new husband is a youngster like everyone else, but he has an adviser; the next day, khansha sits down to play chess with her husband, invisible at says the khan wins three times; at night the same as the previous night; AT hears that the shulbus is going to go down the smoke hole and punch the khan's head with a nail; he tells the khan to cook a pot with with boiling water, framed him, the nail melted; on the third night, the shulbus promises the khansha to become a falcon and tear the khan's throat when he leaves the yurt; the khan did not leave, and AT threw the falcon that had flown into the boiling oil; that night the horse flew without a rider; the khansha flew to heaven, at next; saw how the burnt shulbus died; leaving the khan to rule, AT returned to his parents; there K. broke his father's arms and gouged out his mother's eye; AT hit K., her head came off; his wife asked if she wanted blood and flesh or horses of four colors; she wanted horses; he tied her to the tails of four horses, they carried her to steppe; AT found medicinal herbs and cured parents]: Taube 1978, No. 41:218-223.