Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K102a1. Imaginary grave. 12.-.

To hide the truth, a person buries an animal or inanimate object and says that another's wife (bride, mother, daughter, sister, children) is allegedly buried in the grave.

Hausa, Arabs of Sudan, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Berbers of Morocco, Kabilas, Italians (Tuscany), Palestinians, Arameans, Arameans, Arabs of Jordan, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Mehri, Armenians, Baluchis, Uzbeks.

West Africa. Hausa [the witch doctor tells the beauty's parents to pass her off as an orphan; other girls envy her beauty; persuade her to eat the collected nuts, do not eat their own; the girl remains alone in the field pick nuts, gin takes her away; parents bury a pest in the grave; the old woman explains to the orphan that the grave is false, the bride has been taken away by gin; the young man comes there, hides, tries to kill in vain at night gin with a weapon; tells the girl to ask where his soul is; in the horns of a white antelope coming to a watering place; a young man kills an antelope, a gin dies, a young man brings his wife home]: Johnston 1966. No. 28:62-66.

Sudan - East Africa. Shilluk [the evil Raven Mother sold her daughter to the water spirit; the daughter went to fetch water, the spirit took her to the floating island downstream; the girl has been calling for a long time, preparing to die; the father hears her, saves her; goes to his wife, who shows him a fresh grave, says that his daughter is dead; father finds sheep bones in the grave; wants to kill his wife, has mercy on his daughter's request]: Hofmayr 1925:369; Sudanese Arabs: El-Shamy 2004, No. 1600A: 872-873.

North Africa. Arabs of Libya [Jamil is going to marry his cousin Jemila (perfect Arab marriage); went to buy what she needed for the wedding; Jemilya went with her friends to the woods for brushwood; found an iron mortar; put it on the collected brushwood, but the mortar falls all the time; in the evening, the friends went home, but Jemilya refused to go with them until she could take the mortar; when the friends left, a mortar turned into a ghoul; he took Dzhemila and settled her in the castle, saying that he would not harm her; she called him father; his mother and men went to look for Dzhemila, found only abandoned brushwood; the men realized that Someone stole Jemila, otherwise they would have found the body; in order to justify themselves to Jamila's fiancé, her parents stabbed a goat, buried her head and told Jamil, who returned, that the bride was dead; he was six months old Every day she comes to the grave; at this time, a person accidentally came to the castle where Dzhemila lived; she told him where to find water and asked him to say hello to Jemil and say that the grave was only the head of a goat; a grateful man found Jemil, told everything, he dug up the grave and found a goat's head; Jamila's parents told a story about an iron mortar; that man told me where Dzhemil was; Cemil came, Jemilya hid him under the bed; the ghoul came, felt the man's spirit, Jemilya calmed him down, he went to bed; she cooks human and lamb, pieces of meat were talking, the man speaks that there is a man under the bed; ghoul hears something through sleep, but Jemilya explains that the conversation was about salt and pepper; Dzhemilya asks what her "father"'s eyes look like, if he is fast asleep, they shine red light; Dzhemila: Here's a needle (Nähnadel), what is it? will turn into an iron mountain; and the other one (Stopfbnadel)? will become the sea; chopper? will become prickly thickets; Cemil and Dzhemilya ran away when the ogre's eyes shone red, taking magic objects; the dog wakes up the gulya and tells him about the escape, but he hit the dog and falls asleep again; in the morning he chased with his dog; Jemil throws magic objects, they turn into obstacles: an iron needle - thorny thickets; an awl - an iron mountain; a chopper - the sea; the dog began to drink, burst ; the ghoul drank the sea and ordered Jamila's head to become a donkey and her hair wet; Jamil left the bride and left alone, but regretted it and returned; the wolves already wanted to attack her; Dzhemilya advised At night, secretly bring her to Cemil's house; his mother is convinced that it is really Dzhemilya after seeing dog bite marks and burn marks received by Jemilya as a child; three months have passed, Jamil is offered to marry another; at this time, a Jewish merchant found himself at Gulya's castle; he gave him a mirror and a comb: if Jemilya looked in the mirror and combed her hair with a comb, she would be the same; if the Jew did not fulfill errand, ghoul will eat it; Jemilya became the same; the wedding was celebrated at her parents' house and stayed there]: Stumme 1898, No. 6:130-148 (=Bushnaq 1987:158-165; instead of "mortar - "pestle"; mistake either in German or English translation from Arabic; Russian translation in Lebedev 1990, No. 14:60-73)); Tunisian Arabs [after his father's death, Hassan squandered his savings, and then opened a shop; came the wizard Imbragim, turned iron into gold, stayed overnight, put H. sleeping pills and carried it away in a chest; ordered the assistant spirit to deliver three camels; H. and I. came to the foot of the mountain; I. ordered H. to climb into the skin of a dead camel; the vultures carried him to the mountain; there he found a sign; refused to give it to I. until he brought him home; I. left; H. weaved a rope out of the grass, went down; came to the castle of the seven daughters of the Lord of the Spirit, became their brother; the sisters leave for a month, the youngest tells them not to go into the same room; H. broke the ban, there are flowers and a pond, 10 doves went down, dropped their feathers, became girls; H. fell in love with the youngest, they flew away, he returned to the palace; the returning fairies taught me how to hide the turtle feathers; the fairies persuaded the captive to marry H.; 3 years later I. again brought a young man; the fairy gave H. a magic sword, with which H. cut off I.'s head; telling the helper spirit to give three camels, returned with his wife to his mother, and then moved from Basra to Baghdad; the wife gave birth to sons named Nasr and Mansour; H. went to visit the fairy sisters for six months; showed his mother where he hid his wife's feather outfit, told her not to give it to her or let her daughter-in-law out of the house; she persuaded her to let her go to the bathhouse ; the ruler's wife saw her, called her to her; all women show them dancing; H.'s wife says she would dance better if she got her feather outfit; the eunuch brought a chest of dress; wife H. put on feathers, took both children, flew away, shouting: Let H. look for her on Wakwak Island; mother H. dug three graves, told the returning H. that his wife and children were dead; but H. dug up the graves, the mother was forced Tell me everything; H. returned to the fairy sisters; the youngest advised them to ask their father's brother; he took H., flew to the mountain on a flying elephant; then ride a horse to the cave; if there's a man in red, return, if you get a wife in white; a man in white leads him on; after his adventures, H. finds himself in the queen of the heavenly virgins; his sons recognize his father; the queen orders his wife X. to be beaten and thrown into prison, and he himself finds himself in the desert; the wizard's two sons are fighting for his father's inheritance: a magic wand and an invisible hat; H. threw a stone: whoever brings it faster will give him wonderful items; takes them himself ; frees his wife and sons, flies with them on winged horses; his army defeated the Queen's Soysky; H.'s wife forgave the queen; H. and his family returned to Baghdad, Harun Arrashid appointed him a vizier]: Stumme 1893, No. 2:13-39; the Berbers of Morocco [two merchants agreed to marry children if a boy and a girl are born; Fadhel and Attoche are inseparable; Fadhel's father died in a foreign land, F. went to get the rest property; at this time, the Sultan saw A. and demanded his wife; the parents had to agree; dug a grave, buried a ram and celebrated a wake for his daughter; F., who returned, believed, but the old woman told him the truth; at home, F. threatened to put his mother's hand in hot soup, who had to tell the whole truth; F. got a job in the palace to replace the deceased gatekeeper; threw her ring into A.'s food; in response she threw her own; the Sultan found them and summoned F. to a duel; on the way, the sultal admires the red rose; F.: A.'s cheek is rosy; then white orange blossoms, black grapes, slender bamboo (skin, hair, Waist A.); F. was killed in a duel on spears; A. rushed to F.'s body and died; the Sultan ordered them to be buried side by side; myrtle grew on both graves, the trees bent towards each other; the sultan ordered them to be cut down; grew up the sultan ordered the basil to be cut off; then two palm trees grew, combining the leaves]: El Fasi, Dermenghem 1928:41-47; kabila [the man went to Hajj, leaving his neighbor a daughter and a pot of salt to save; on top there was salt, gold below; once it rained for a long time, the neighbors did not leave the house, began to use the salt given for preservation, found the gold, took it away; (the girl was hidden - this is clear from the context); when the merchant returned, a neighbor showed him his daughter's grave and gave him salt; the judge sent the merchant - he had no evidence; a grief-stricken merchant met boys playing; among them the Sultan's son Harun al-Rashid and his cousin brother is the son of a vizier; XP says that the neighbor took the gold and the log in the grave; sent people - it turned out; called experts: one determined that there was salt in the upper part of the pot, the other what was in the lower part of the pot gold; the neighbor was beaten on the heels; he returned the gold and the girl; the sultan wanted to immediately hand over power to his son, but he replied that he was still young; then they decided that one would rule the first and the other in afternoon]: Dermenghem 1945, No. 17:115-118; Egyptian Arabs: El-Shamy 2004, No. 1600A: 872-873.

Southern Europe. Italians (Tuscany) [a Jew's wife died during childbirth; he gave his daughter to a Christian peasant on the condition that if he did not return for her after 10 years, he could consider his daughter his own ; when the girl was 14 and the Jew did not return, she was dubbed Olivia; but then the Jew returned and sued O. for himself; threatened that if she read the gospel given by her adoptive mother, he would first will throw the book into the fire and then cut off O.'s hands; so it happened; O. came to the royal garden, the pears tilt the branches so that she could eat them; O. found that the young king married her; went to war, and O. gave birth to two children; the Queen Mother ordered the servants to take O. to the place where the king found her; make three wax figures and bury them - as if O. had died with her children; O. met the woman, asked for her drink; the woman told them to lean over to the water, the babies slipped out from under her arms, O. held out her arms behind them and her arms grew back; she came to a house where everything was ready for life; the king returned and accidentally came across this house; O. persuaded the children to ask her to tell a story; describes what happened; the king recognized his wife; O. begged her not to punish the Queen Mother; she went to the monastery]: Calvino 1980, No. 71:255-261.

Western Asia. Iraq [Hamad is father, his daughter is Wudayya ("white shell"); when he dies, his wife asks H. not to bring her stepmother into the house until V. can reach the parcel hanging from the ceiling; when V. is 7 years old, a seamstress puts her on a chair for V. to reach; H. marries a seamstress; V. is getting more and more beautiful, her stepmother wants to get rid of her; when H. went on Hajj and was expected back, V.'s stepmother took V. into the desert to meet his father; threw it there, killed her father and buried her in the garden - V. allegedly died; V. climbed a tree at the sight of the wolf, and then her father was returning; he put his daughter in a chest with gifts for his wife, gave a needle and ordered her to be pricked stepmother when she opened the chest; so happened; looking into the chest, the stepmother saw V.; H. told her to dig up an imaginary grave; the audience wanted to put her stepmother to death, but H. simply divorced her and drove her away] : Stevens 2006, No. 35:183-187; Yemenis [a man hung a sword from the ceiling: which of his sons could grab a sword; the sons of two wives failed, the concubine's son grabbed; the elder wife poisoned the food, handed over the son of another wife to the son of a concubine; the bird, the dog tried, died; the son of the concubine and the son of the second wife leave; they come to the city where Afrit kidnapped the princess and gives water in exchange for the girls; the son of a concubine forces Afrit to bring him to where his lair is; kills him; frees 14 princesses kidnapped and hanged by the hair; after the king's death, people choose the first person they meet as new; son the concubines leave his younger brother there as king, leaves himself; the Hindu invites him to go to India; there he leads to the mountain, tells him to climb into the killed camel; the eagle will lift the carcass up the mountain, we must throw it from there dry brushwood; once on the mountain, the young man sees three dead and half alive; he explains that the Hindu told them to throw off the firewood, but in fact the gold lying everywhere; he did not let it go back; the young man jumped from rocks in the sea, sailed to the island; there is the palace of the seven daughters of the king of the genies of the West; they make him a brother; when they fly away, they tell him not to go into the garden; he comes in, there is a pond, seven doves swim in it, taking off their clothes daughters of the king of the genies of the East; he hides the youngest's clothes; the daughters of the king of the genies of the West return, telling this girl to marry the young man; they transfer him to the city where the young man's brother is king; then he goes to visit father, but everyone died there and only his mother is alive; he is building a palace, telling his mother not to show his wife her pigeon clothes; the king next door kidnaps the young man's wife, tells her to dance; she says that if her her mother-in-law will bring her pigeon clothes, the dance will be better; the servants bring the clothes; the maiden flies away with the children, asks her mother-in-law to tell her husband to look for her on Waq Al Waq Island; the son's mother first He lies that his wife and children are dead, but he opens the graves - it is empty; a young man meets two Afrit sons arguing over an invisible Kufia, a sword and a staff (summons genies helpers); a young man throws a stick - whoever brings it first will receive a kufia and a staff; puts on the kufia, becomes invisible, calls the genies to move it to Wak Al-Wak Island; there he applies to the old genniha's chest; she tells you to turn to the queen of the island - she knows all the women there; he does not find a wife among the gathered; the queen put her in prison because she married a mortal; using kufia, the young man enters the prison; he is seen by his sons, his wife agrees to return to him; genies defeat the queen's warriors; a young man with his family returns home, kills a Hindu, burns pigeon clothes]: Daum 1992, No. 13:130-145; Mehri: Hein, Müller 1909, No. 47 [A man has a wife and sons, and his brother's sister is with him {i.e. his sister?} named Leylenot; when he left, he left her in the care of his wife; she asked L. to look into the pit {cave?} , left it there, closing the exit; when her husband returned, his wife said that L. was missing; they went to look for her; the couple were arguing whose ram should be sacrificed; in the morning they slaughter a ram; L. smells, asks," My father's brother {?} , give me meat and dates too, I'm in a cave, your wife locked me here"; two came up, one of them, Maheimiden, married L.; the second, Maheimood, asked where L. was, and he was shown her grave; but he read over She has the Koran; it turned out that a goat's head was buried in the grave; when L. and Mohaimiden died, two trees grew on their grave: one with fragrant fruits and the other giving henna]: 126-129; Stroomer 1999, No. 37 [when the dates are almost ripe, someone ripped them off; soothsayer to the owner: these are three Ginny girls, they come to swim, we must hide their clothes; the man hides them, returns two, takes the third, takes them away, takes them as wives; gives three sisters to marry three genies who came for them; leaves, leaving his wife in the care of her mother; it was a holiday, people asked this man's wife to dance too; she says that this is why she she needed her clothes; people persuaded her mother-in-law to give clothes; the woman danced and flew away; people buried the lamb, told the returning husband that his wife was dead; but he opened the grave, forced his mother to do everything tell; soothsayer: feed brown, black, white camels for three years; then don't let them eat; the one who jumped over the fence will take them; jumped over the brown one; ride it to the sunrise until she gets out exhausted; then three days on foot; stays with his sisters every day, three genies give a hair to help; he sees his wife, she opens it to his father after he has promised not to cause harm; the wife's father demands: drink a stream, run from a bowl of water to the mountain and back without splashing, eat two camels; genies perform everything, man gets a wife]: 99-104; Arameans [witch doctor gave the woman was a fertility remedy, told her to swim before the appointment; she left the product in a niche and left the house; her husband accidentally ate it; his thigh was swollen; after 9 months he went to the field, cut his thigh, took it out and left the girl; the gazelles fed her; the prince and the minister's son hunted, the prince found the girl, brought her mother to raise his wife; left; shortly before his return, the prince's mother came to the river, threw her handkerchief into the water and asked the girl to reach out; she held out her hand, the prince's mother pushed her into the water and the river carried her away; she got ashore; someone came up and asked to hide him from the pursuer; when the stalker came, the girl killed him by hitting him on the head with a stone; rescued: demand what you want; girl: castle and servants; everything appeared; at this time, the prince's mother stabbed and buried the sheep; put on the girl's clothes and her returning son pretended to be her; and her mother seemed to have died - showed the grave; the prince, unaware of this, married his mother; she became pregnant; when she learned that a castle had appeared nearby, a woman sent the maid to ask her neighbor for grapes; but the girl cut off that tongue; so with 10 maids; the prince asked if his wife wanted to go for grapes herself; she did not want to, he offered to go himself, then she agreed to go together; they sat on the sofa, but no one brought grapes; they wanted to get up, but the girl told them to stick pillows to their backs; she said: My mother wanted me, my father was me pregnant, brought me to the field, the gazelles fed me, found the Sultan's son, hid it under his clothes, his mother became pregnant with him and should I still give them grapes? Prince: If this is my thing, where is the girl? girl: it's me; then she told everything; the prince told everyone to bring firewood, burned her mother, married a girl]: Bergsträsser 1915, No. 2:2-5; Palestinians [a woman gave birth to a girl and left under in a tree; the birds wrapped her and fed her; she grew up, climbed a tree; the Sultan's son came under the tree to drink a horse in the pond, but he was frightened; the young man found the girl, married her; went on Hajj; his the mother is jealous of her daughter-in-law, drove her away; dug the grave, buried the sheep, tried to look young herself, as if she were the wife of the Sultan's son; when he returned, she showed him the grave in which, allegedly, his mother was buried; after becoming pregnant with her son, she asked for sour grapes; a maid was sent to a neighbor for grapes, whose real wife of the Sultan got a job as a maid; the maid wife said everything the maid who came and told the scissors to cut off her tongue; when she returned, she only mumbled; the same with the servant of the Sultan's son; when he came by himself, the scissors began to circle around him, but did not cut off her tongue; the son of the Sultan dug up a grave, found a sheep, told him to make a fire {and apparently burned his mother}]: Muhawi, Kanaana 1989, No. 2:59-62; Jordan, Qatar: El-Shamy 2004, No. 1600A: 872-873.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Armenians [the grave in which the ram was buried instead of the girl was dug by young men]: Gullakian 1983:207.

Iran - Central Asia. Baluchi [peers bathe, Prince Sha-Kalandar hollows out a log, hides in it, hides the clothes of Peri Shan-Sharu, who put her clothes on a log; agrees to give her wings for marriage, but does not gives; in the absence of her husband, the wife says that she can go to the wedding with her husband's sisters only wearing wings; mother and sister give them, peary flies away; mother cuts and buries a red goat, and says to her returning son that his wife is dead; he hears another woman talking, finds out that Peary has flown away; comes to the well, where the maid Shar-Sharu takes water; she refuses to give him water three times, he turns water into blood, pus, dirt; The ball tells the maid to give him water, leave some of it at the bottom of his wineskin, he drinks, throws his ring into his wineskin; S. recognizes him, turns her husband into a needle, hiding pearies from other, flies with him to him home]: Zarubin 1932, No. 8:97-104; Uzbeks: Afzalov 1972 (1) [the country's padishah Yanuman has a daughter Gulshah, and his vizier has a son Varka; they grew up together and fell in love, but the vizier died, padishah refused Varka and sent Padishah Rum to his uncle; if V. helps him defeat enemies, he will get G.; V. defeated enemies, received wealth and went home, but Yaman's padishah managed to pass G. off as Padishah of the country Farang; ordered the ram to be slaughtered and the carcass buried; said V. that G. had died; G. managed to hand over the ring to V.; V. dug the grave, found a ram, went to F.; Padishah F. did not involuntarily G. called him sister; V. met G., but died of grief because she was already engaged; G. also died of grief; Padishah F. left them in the mausoleum and also began to cry; when they heard what was going on, the elders revived V. and G.; wedding and feast]: 129-133; Sheverdin 1967 [the old man finds one, then the second precious egg of the bird Murcumomo, receives an award for them from the padishah, gets rich, builds a city, becomes a shah in it; catches M.; leaves to Mecca; his wife takes a lover, he demands to cook M.; the scallop (whoever eats will become a padishah) is accidentally eaten by the old man's sons Majid and Hamid; the lover orders the boys to be killed, the hangman lets them go, H.'s head sits down by a bird of happiness, he is chosen king; M. separates three fighting, takes them away with an invisible hat, a staff that treats the blind, and a flying carpet; takes away the padishah's daughter; two years later she and her children Sits on the carpet, flies to his father; M. in an invisible hat gets there, picks up the children, flies on the carpet to brother H.; meanwhile, the stepmother made two false graves of H. and M., visited them as if she was grieving for the dead; The boys' father went blind from grief; H. and M. cured him, took him home; the mother remained to mourn her shame]: 266-271.