Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K144. Predicted death from an animal, ATU 934A, 934B.


When the animal, object, or person that should have caused the character's death has already died or is far away, it is theirs who are responsible for the character's death remains or images.

Somalis, Sakho, Socotra, Garo, Lao, Oraons, Marathi, Telugu, Kannada, Simalur, Lisu, Koreans, Ancient Greece, Slovenes, (Gagauz), Russian written tradition, (Avars), Persians, Bakhtiyars, Scandinavians (Oddra Strela saga).

Sudan - East Africa. Somalis [a person dies of thirst in the desert; a werewolf hyena gives him a wand to turn into a hyena and again into a human being, teaches his language, making a promise of nothing tell, brings him to the village; at night, a person hears hyenas agree to enter the fence and explain everything to people; a werewolf hyena is killed along with others; in the desert, a man stepped on the hyena's sharp bone, the leg is swollen, he's dead]: Hanghe 1988:197-198; sakho [the predictor tells the rich man that he will die from a thorn; the person moves to a country where there are no thorns; buying a sheep, a fat tail feels with his hand; pricked on a thorn in his hair and died]: Reinisch 1889, No. 32:285.

Western Asia. Socotra [an orphan boy lives in his uncle's house, who oppresses him, squanders his inheritance; so is the old man's sons, only one of them is kind to the boy; to take revenge, boy pretends to be crazy; the uncle believed in his nephew's madness when he refused to be circumcised; the boy kills his cousins and then his uncle, although he dies himself; the young man who was kind to orphan, remains alive, but soon dies too; as he passed by the place where an orphan died, he hit his bones with a stick, a shrapnel hit his eye and he died; this motif is in The Tale of the Dead Ether Tribe, Mü ller 1905:119]: Naumkin, Kogan 2013, No. 28:188-189.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Garo [at night in the forest, a man named Deng stopped under a large tree; before dawn he woke up to voices above; spirits from all elements and creatures were on their way to his native village determine the fate of the newborn; asked the tree under which D. lay why it does not go with everyone else; tree: I have a guest; asked another tree: let him throw his "web of fate" instead of him; when the perfume returned, the tree under which D. lay asked whose web the newborn would fall into; they replied that the tiger's web when the boy began to become a teenager; when they heard the name of the woman in labor, Chelsea, D. realized that this was about his niece; she gave birth to a son; when he returned, D. did not say anything, but began to watch the boy to try to save him; in the forest, the tiger rushed at the boy, but D. hacked tiger; began to dance and told the boy to repeat his movements; the boy's leg slipped into the mouth of the game, the fang pierced deeply and the boy soon died of bleeding]: Rongmuthu 1960:115-118.

Burma - Indochina. Lao [the king was told that when his daughter grew up, she would die from a tiger; the king placed his daughter in a house on a pole; once a hunter killed and brought a tiger; the girl went down and pulled his mustache; a mustache they poisoned her with poison and she died; the king ordered that from now on, the mustaches of the killed tigers be pulled out and burned]: Fleeson 1899:29-30.

South Asia. Oraons [the king had a son, the wise men predicted that he would be carried away by a tiger on his wedding day; the young man was not allowed to go anywhere; after the wedding, his wife advised him not to be a coward; he said that he was not I saw tigers and then the wife made the tiger out of dough; the figure came to life, the tiger took the young man away and ate him]: Hahn 1906, No. 32:61-62; Marathi [Raja had a son; the goddess of fate Vidatha came to draw a line for him life, but a pen and pen accidentally fell out of her hand; when Raja's son is 18 years old, a lion will tear him to pieces on his wedding day; the king surrounded the guards of the palace, but the lion came off the image on the jug and killed the young man ; the king ordered his body to be preserved for six months; a snake saved him from fire in the forest; the serpent's wife offered to fulfill any wish of the Raja; brought Amrita, he revived his son]: Kudinova, Kudinova 1995:148-150; Telugu [y the king finally had an heir; astrologers predicted that when the young man reached marriageable age he would die from a tiger; the king keeps his son in a glass palace; during the wedding ceremony, a young man took the tiger away; it turned out that the tiger painted on the palace wall had become real]: Venkataswami 1923, No. 66:134-135; kannada [to have a son, the king has been standing in the water for 12 years with a stone on his head; this is puts pressure on Shiva and he agrees to give the king a son; but asks his wife if she wants an intelligent son who will live only 12 years, or a fool for a hundred years; she chooses a smart one; Shiva warned that when the boy will be 12 years old, he will die from a tiger; even images of tigers have been hidden in the palace; when the prince is 12, the boys tell him that he is a prince and should not play ball, but hunt; he goes to the forest, kills 7 tigers, sends carcasses on a cart home; on the way home he goes to the temple; his uncle curtained images of tigers, but the young man pulled back the curtains and the tigers from the paintings rushed at him, he immediately died; the prince's mother wanted to marry him - even if he was dead, sent him to look for a bride; Chennavva, the 12-year-old daughter of a poor brahmana, agreed to lift the family out of poverty; her mother prepared her for the wedding and wished she should be like Savitri; at the funeral, C. and the dead young man remained; C. sculpted Shiva's bull out of clay, who came to life, went up to S. and asked him to revive the young man; S. sent a tiger; C. asked him to eat it, not a dead young man; the tiger also began to ask Shiva; the same with lions, griffins, rakshasi; finally Shiva came down by himself and revived the young man; wedding]: Ramanujan 1997, No. 4:15-20.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Simalur [a childless rich man asks God to grant a son, promising that he will not touch the ground; the wife gave birth to a boy, the soothsayer announced that he was destined to die by buffalo; the son grew up and married, but I never set foot on the ground; once a buffalo head was brought into the house. "So this is what a buffalo he is, from which, according to the great soothsayer, I must die! the young man kicked his head with his foot, injured his foot, the wound fester and he died]: Kähler 1952:98-99 (Russian translation in Koehler 1964:87-88).

China - Korea. The fox [the young man spent the night in the forest and heard the spirits talking; one says he cannot go with others to name the newborn - he has a guest, he has a horse and will stay overnight; this means that the young man took off his sandals; in the morning, the remaining spirit asks the returnees; they say that they were mistaken for thieves: the owner lost the knife behind the house and accused them; the tiger was the first to name the child; when the boy grows up and will be able to hollow a trough out of a tree trunk, he will take it; a young man comes to those people; says what danger awaits the boy in the future; in support of his words, shows where the lost knife is; a boy grew up; a tiger came, his father killed him with a poisoned arrow; the boy climbed a dead tiger, played his mustache; they are believed to be poisonous; he was scratched and died immediately; since then, mother or father Before the rooster sings, the newborn puts soot on his forehead and says, "This child is for me"; if it is a boy, he is given a name on the first day, if the girl on the second; but no later than the third day]: Dessaint, Ngwâma 1994:264-266; Koreans [a person is predicted that after the birth of his seventh son he will be killed by a tiger; he builds fences and trap pits around the village; tells him to carve a wooden an image of a tiger to know what it looked like; when I saw it, I got scared, pushed a heavy figure, she fell on him and killed him]: Engel 1926:6f in Brednich 1964:90.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece: Gasparov 1968, No. 162 [Perry 1952, No. 162; fortune tellers predict a woman the death of a child from a crow; a woman makes a casket; puts her son in a casket to protect her from death; one day a boy sticks out of the chest; the door hook (raven) falls to his crown, kills him], 339 [Perry 1952, No. 363; the old man dreams that his son was torn to pieces hunting by a lion; the old man is building a palace and imprisones his son in him; animals are depicted on the walls of the palace; the young man hit the image of a lion in anger; a splinter has dug into the skin; the infection has spread throughout the body; it is impossible to escape from rock (=1991, No. 138 (Babriy ): 398)]: 111, 162; Slovenes [(two similar options); man is predicted to die by a horse; he no longer fits horses; but one day an equestrian statue of St. George and killed him]: Brednich 1964:84; (cf. Gagauz [lokhus (= blufusnitsy): when the now born prince grows up and marries, he will die after the wedding from a snake bite; two newborn daughters of the poor man were predicted that one would fall into a well and will drown, and the other will live to be 80 years old and will not see grief; the king heard this, ordered the wells to be locked; that girl tried to open it, lay down at the well and died; the king married her son to a girl who was destined for a long time live; told his son not to lie down against the wall; a snake came out, squeezed the girl's head and died herself; the prince was saved by the bride's happiness]: Moshkov 1904, No. 21:33).

Central Europe. Russian written tradition: Likhachev 1996 ["The Tale of Bygone Years" based on the Laurentian Chronicle (1377): "And Oleg, Prince, lived in Kiev, having peace with all countries. And autumn came, and Oleg remembered his horse, whom he had previously set to feed, deciding never to sit on it. For he asked the magicians and magicians: "What am I going to die from?" And one magician said to him: "Prince! From your beloved's horse, which you ride, you'll die from it!" These words fell into Oleg's soul, and he said: "I will never sit on him and see him again." And he ordered him to be fed and not taken to him, and he lived for several years without seeing him until he went to the Greeks. And when he returned to Kiev and four years passed, he remembered his horse in his fifth year, from which the Magi predicted his death. And he called the elder of the grooms and said: "Where is my horse, whom I ordered to feed and protect?" The same man said, "He's dead." Oleg laughed and reproached the magician, saying: "The Magi say wrong, but it's all a lie: the horse is dead and I'm alive." And he ordered his horse to ride: "May I see his bones." And he came to the place where his bare bones and his skull was naked, got off his horse, laughed and said: "Should I die from this skull?" And he stepped his foot on his skull, and a serpent crawled out of his skull and stung him in the leg. And that's why he got sick and died"]: 20, 156; Tarkovsky, Tarkovskaya 2005, No. 113 ["Jesop" by Simbirsk captain Pyotr Kashinsky (1675, of the two surviving lists, one dates back to 1684, and the other first third of the 18th century), which consists of three books and is a free translation of fables from the collection "Przypowieśći Aezopowe, z Łacińskiego na Polskie z pilnośćiů przeł ozone. Przydane sů k temu przypowieśći z Gabryela Greka y Laurenthego Abstemiusa", published in Krakow around 1600: a man dreamed that his son was killed by a lion; a man built a house and hid it in he had a son; various animals, including a lion, were painted on the walls; the son, looking at the picture, became angry with the lion and hit him with his palm; as a result, he hurt himself against an iron nail and died (Book 1: "Parable Jesop Franzky")]: 398.

(Wed. Caucasus - Asia Minor. Avars [the boy asks his father to sell him, because he understands people, horses and precious stones; the khan buys it; he advises the khan not to buy a foal, because it will cause his death; yet the khan bought a foal; advises the khan's daughter not to buy the gem; he smashed it - a worm in stone; tells the khan that he is not of Khan origin; the khan's mother admits that her son is dead and she replaced him with a servant's son; the khan made the boy a vizier, married his daughter; one day his horse stumbled, the khan fell and died]: Aliyeva 2013, No. 42:200-202).

Iran - Central Asia. Persians [after the birth of his son, the king learns that the wolf will tear him to pieces when the young man marries; the king arranges the son's wedding in a securely isolated room; however, the clay in it the image of a wolf comes to life (Farce, Markazi)]: Marzolph 1984, № 934B: 174; the Bakhtiyars [when the son was born, Akhund predicted to his father that his son was destined to be torn by a wolf; the father encloses the son in the underground peace, tells Akhunda to teach him; marries her son to his brother's daughter; after the wedding, the wife turned into a wolf, tore the young man to pieces, then took on a human image again]: Lorimer, Lorimer 1919, No. 43:291-292; ( cf. Bakhtiyars [a childless king has a son; one astrologer predicts that at the age of 14 he will be bitten by a snake; the other that he will break when he falls from a height; the third that he will drown; the king takes a receipt from everyone: if I am wrong, let them behead me; the king forbids me to let my son out of the garden; he climbs to the sparrow's nest; the snake sitting there bites him, he falls from a tree and drowns in water]: Lorimer, Lorimer 1919, No. 56:333-334 ).

Baltoscandia. Scandinavians (Örvar-Oddr saga, The Oddre-Arrow Saga, second half of the 13th century) [when Oddr was born, Velva predicted that he would die from his Faxi horse at the very place where he was born, at the age of 300; O. killed and buried the horse and left the house; his father gave him magic arrows, with which he traveled a lot and always won; the Swede Hjalmar was equal to him and they fraternized; H. was killed; O. fought in the Mediterranean, was baptized, became king of Sweden; returned to his birthplace, saw his horse's skull, a snake crawled out from there and bit him to death]: Brednich 1964:83 {more on Wikipedia}.