Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K14B. The charge of stealing a knife .17.29.30. (.33.)

A person is advised not to do anything until he is urged to do so. He unwisely offers to use his knife and is charged with a crime as a result.

Iraqi Arabs, Adygs, Ingush, Kumyks, Georgians, Megrelians, Svans, Armenians, Kurds, Vakhans, Pashtuns.

Western Asia. Iraqi Arabs [Gazman helped the old man for three days; received three advice; 1) don't say "You are ugly" to anyone; 2) remember that everything is your master; 3) if you are angry, count to a hundred and then accept solution; on the way back, the monster took him into the cave, fed him and asked him if it was beautiful; G.: I never saw you more gracefully; the monster became a young man, and the frog sitting next to him was a girl; Olney were bewitched a witch; the young man gave G. a jug of gold; G. went with other travelers, who began to grab a horse with a golden saddle that had come running; G.: don't take it, your master; a man with a dagger came and took the saddle, took those who took him to prison; at home G. saw his wife with someone else; it turned out to be her sister; everything is fine]: Yaremenko 1990, No. 7:47-50; (cf. {primary sources needed}: Palestinians, Syria, Jordan, Qatar: El-Shami 2004, No. 910B, 910B1:570-571; Lebanon: Uther 2004 (4), No. 910A: 530; Saudi Arabia, Bahrain: El-Shami 2004, No. 311:579-580).

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Adygi [an old man with a young guest goes to a feast; on the way he gives advice: not to reach his knife at the table; the young man ignores the advice, he is accused of murder (one of those present says that this knife belonged to his murdered father); on the advice of the same owner, the young man escapes, telling prosecutors: I was looking for the owner of the knife that killed my father]: Tkhamokova 2014, No. 910B*: 182-183; Ingush [ the poor man is married to a beautiful woman; he found two growing watermelons, brought one to his wife; she advises selling it to a mullah; the mullah gave a lot of bread; when he found out that there was another watermelon, he made a condition: he would give it anyone an object that the poor man would touch, but if he did not bring a watermelon, he would give away what the mullah would touch; the mullah sent the disciple to overhear the couple's conversation and steal that watermelon; not finding it, the poor man began to wander out of grief; a rich and generous man invited him to his place; gives him good clothes and an expensive knife, leads him to the khan; tells him not to let go of the knife and not give up his seat next to the khan ; but the poor man gave him to more and more guests, was on the edge; gave his knife for others to look at him; the khan said that his knife was stolen along with his money; the man who took the poor man ensured that his They gave him bail on the condition that he would not teach him what to do; the owner does not turn to the poor man, but to the cat; let the poor man wear the best outfit and come to the prince on the best horse, demanding compensation for the brothers allegedly killed with the Khan's knife; the prince paid off with money, the poor man became rich; the owner taught his guest: when he returns home, let him put all his property and his wife on the upper floor, and give the mullah the staircase he will touch when he climbs upstairs; the mullah got a ladder]: Sadulayev 2004, No. 124:332-336; Kumyks: Aliyeva 2013, No. 27 [Jamava's wife loves the village foreman; D. decided to get rich , to become a foreman himself, then his wife will love him; went to sell pears; the old man gives 3 tips for 3 pears: 1) wherever you go, find the right place, sit there; 2) if you are not asked, no one give your thing; 3) do not trust your wife's secrets; the old man is invited to the Khan at the Majlis, brings D. there; he consistently gives way to everyone, is at the very bottom; he himself offers the vizier a knife to cut pears, the vizier says that the knife is stolen; D. is released until tomorrow for promising the owner not to talk to him; the owner turns to the fireplace and is responsible for it himself; shows that D. did not follow those bought for the pears advice; teaches tomorrow not to insist that the knife is his own, but to accuse the vizier of murder - he allegedly found the knife at the scene of the murder; D. is released and receives money from the vizier; on the way he sees a cucumber whip in the snow; tells his wife that tomorrow she will bet the money he brought on an argument with the foreman that there is a green cucumber whip in the snow; the wife tells the foreman everything, that night she takes the whip, D. loses money; The petty officer must get what his hand touches first; that old man teaches him to send his wife to clean the grain on the roof, put a ladder; the foreman grabs the stairs to climb to the roof; D.: take it stairs and go away; he had to do so]: 121-125; Khalilov, Osmanov 1989 [the man asked the old man to give him four minds; he tells 1) not to reveal secrets to his wife; 2) give nothing if they don't ask; 3) ask the name of everyone you meet; 4) do not sit in someone else's seat; the man told his wife that he saw watermelon whips on the way; she told the woman, and they told their husbands; one of the husbands loved the woman the first man; saw that there were no lashes, tore them off at night; the loser asked for three days: then you can touch whatever you want with your hand; he thinks he will touch his wife; the man did not immediately find the old man, because he asked his name; the old man advised him to sit his wife on the top floor and put the stairs; the winner climbed it; the owner told him to pick up three steps of the stairs and leave; together with He came to visit an old man; gave way to everyone and was at the door; offered his knife to cut a watermelon; the young man said that the knife was his; the old man swore to the young man that he would not give advice to a fool agreed to take the case to court; began to beat the cat, saying: "My father was stabbed to death with this knife, so you are a criminal"; the young man got scared and gave the knife to the owner]: 200-201; Georgians: Dirr 1920, No. 67 ( Imereti) [Solomon asks the employee if he wants money or good advice; he chooses advice; 1) don't trust anyone with secrets; 2) don't offer anything yourself if you haven't asked; 3) here's the road; wrap it in snakeskin, which you find on the way, and stick it in the ground in your yard; a tree with golden fruits grew out of the staff; the man hid it in a chest, became rich, married; one day, when my husband was gone, three Armenians came and asked him to spend the night; when they saw a golden tree, they decided to steal it; they promised his wife money if he found out where he got this tree from; he did not reveal the secret for a long time, but in the end he told and his wife told the Armenians; they demanded a tree from him, he agreed to give it back if they told me where it came from (otherwise they would pay him themselves), lost the bet; he went to Solomon again ; he ordered a new bet with the Armenians: from which side the sun would rise; they replied that it was from the east, but this time the sun came from the west (if they said that from the west, S. would have raised it from the east); the man returned his tree; continued to visit S.; the king called S. to him twice through the vizier, he had to go, the servant was with him; at lunch the king needed a knife, S.'s servant offered his own; the king said that his knife, the man was imprisoned, S. was forbidden to see him; S. hit the cat, he meowed, S. began to bake him in a loud voice so that the servant behind the wall could hear him; let him say that he took the knife out of the body of his murdered father, and the royal knife, then the king is the murderer; the tsar did not know what to answer and let the man go]: 254-256; Chikovani 1954, No. 63 [the employee agrees to take from the merchant not 20 rubles, but two lucky nickels instead of paying; the merchant promises to take them to the worker's wife himself, who stays for another year; the merchant bought a cat for nickels; in another place where rats could not live, he sold it for pearls and precious stones, and took them to his wife employee; in the second year - the same (the merchant bought a mirror on his nickels, sold it to the king, who never saw mirrors); after the third year, the merchant gives advice to the farmhand: whatever you find on the road, pick it up and bury it from doorstep; whoever asks, don't tell me you know where it comes from; don't open your heart to anyone; the poor man found a snake's tail on the road, buried it at the doorstep; found out how generously the merchant paid him, but to no one about it did not speak; in one night a poplar grew at the doorstep with jewelry on the branches; the prince envied man's happiness; held a feast, ordered not a single knife on the table; the man was also invited, offered his knife ; the prince said that the knife was stolen from his father; they decided that if the prince found out what the poplar grew out of, then the dagger and everything he would lay his hand on were him; the prince sent a sorceress to the man's wife, she persuaded her husband share a secret; the merchant found out about the trouble, came; the prince forbade them to live together, so he turns to the cat so that the person can hear in the next room; say about the knife that it was found in the body of a man's father , who was killed by the robbers; when the prince climbs the ladder, cut off three steps, let him take it; the prince returned his dagger and ran away with shame]: 311-315; Megrelians [the poor young man went travel; the man hired him for three years, paid with three tips; 1) throw what you see outside the yard; 2) do not give anything else until you are urged; 3) do not trust the secret to a woman ; dodging with a dolma, the young man fenced off the yard and threw everything outside into the yard from behind the fence; once he picked up and threw a red snake; it began to lay not eggs, but gems; he made a nest for her in room; got rich, married; wife persuaded her to reveal a secret; after that, the snake stopped bringing gems, the man became poorer; the stranger asked for a knife and the man gave it; he was a robber who robbed the house, killed the owner, and this knife remained in the victim's body; the man was captured and detained; he should have listened to advice]: Wardrop 1894, No. 1:107-112; Swans [the person was hired to serve Solomon; when letting him go, he advised 1) finding a rarity on the road, pick him up, take him home; 2) not to reveal secrets to his wife; 3) not to give anything to anyone without request; the man picked up, brought snake skin into the yard; in the morning there is a tree with jewels on its branches; he did not tell his wife about the skin; the merchants want to buy wood; the man sets the condition: to guess what it came from in 3 days; they did not guess, he took them property, including a precious knife; one merchant persuaded the man's wife to find out what the tree had grown from; he said, his wife shouted loudly, the merchant took the tree in the morning; Solomon took the man to to the king next door; he did not have a knife, the man offered his own, the owner said that it was his decorated knife, the man was thrown into prison; but Solomon taught him what to answer in court; allegedly he is the son of a merchant, his his father was stabbed, the knife was in his throat; if the owner of the knife was a tsar, then he was a murderer; the case was dismissed]: Virsaladze 1973, No. 187:252-254; Armenians: Bagriy 1930 (2) []: 77-80; Bogoyavlensky 1894c, No. 4 ( Baraleti is a village with an Armenian population in southern Georgia) [the poor man hired Solomon, received three tips as a reward; 1) finding a rarity on the road, take her home; 2) not to reveal secrets to his wife; 3) nothing to anyone do not give without request; the man found the skin of a snake, brought it to the yard, it grew into a tree of sparkling colorful stones; the man began to negotiate with rich people: if they guess what the tree is made of grew up, they will receive it, and if not, all the goods will be given to the man; the man won and became rich; the young merchant asked the man's wife to help; she found out the secret, deliberately said loudly what she grew out of the tree, the hiding priest heard, took the tree; the man came to S., who reproached him for not listening to advice; took it with him to one king; the man offered his knife he had won from the merchants to cut meat; Tsar: the knife was stolen from me; S. taught the man at the trial to answer that his father was killed with this knife and, if the knife was royal, then the tsar and the murderer; the judges released him]: 148-151; Kurds: Rudenko 1970, No. 45 [Ahmad I came to Aleppo to look for a job, worked for a rich man for 7 years, bought 7 tips from the owner with the money I earned: 1) everything requires patience; 2) the most beautiful person who falls in love with your heart; 3) don't give anything while you have they will not ask; 4) do not reveal the truth to your wife; 5) if you are sitting in a place of honor, do not talk to the one on the opposite end; 6) grab everything softer than a stone on the way home; 7) don't get up, on who sat down; A. hired a caravan man; he asked him to go down to the well to get water; when A. sent buckets of water upstairs, a door opened in the wall, the young man dragged him into the room, where there was a beauty and a frog, the young man asks who is more beautiful; A.: who his heart loved; the young man gave A. seven grants; the caravan gave A. gold; A. asked to take gold and grenades to his wife Seyran; seven-year-old son S. Ismail opened one grenade, and jewelry fell from there; S. bought ordinary pomegranates for her son, bought a palace and a garden for jewelry, got servants; when A. went to the house, A. noticed a dead snake on the road and, remembering the council picked her up, covered the house with earth by the porch; when he saw a young man next to his wife, he grabbed a dagger, but realized that it was his son; where the snake was buried, a tree grew; if anyone said it was a pear, on a tree apples appeared if the apple tree was covered with peaches, etc.; the guessing A. promises to give all the property, and not the guessing player would give him his own; everyone lost, A. became immensely rich; the huckster persuaded the old woman gain confidence, convince S. that A. should tell her a secret, leave a chest in the bedroom; he hid himself in the chest and found out about the snake tree; agreed with A. that he would give him three things if he will answer correctly; when he called the snake tree, it broke out and disappeared; A. asked for three days, came to his first owner, who took him to a feast with the padishah, told him to sit next to him; but A. everyone the one who entered gave way and was on the very edge; the padishah is looking for a knife to cut a watermelon, A. offers his own, the padishah liked it; the vizier said that this knife was stolen from the royal treasury; the owner asks to let go A. promises not to say anything to him for the night; tying his donkey, beats him and talks to him as if about the advice that A. had broken; tells him to say that his father was attacked by robbers, he pulled the knife out of his chest, let the padishah will now pay for blood; padishah: this is what the vizier said; the vizier was executed; the owner Ahmed: the three things that the huckster wants are A.'s life, wife and property; orders to put a high staircase near the house and get to the balcony with his wife; the huckster will take three steps - these are three things he touched, let him take the stairs; everything is fine]: 116-126; Farizov, Rudenko 1959 [sage Balul takes the young man to Caliph, advises 1) when entering the sofa, take a modest seat and not get up from it; 2) sit lower and not ask questions to those who are taller; do not give anything to anyone or offer anything himself; the young man sits down in a high place; offers the Caliph a diamond-decorated knife to cut a watermelon; the caliph says that the knife was stolen from his treasury; B. asks the young man to spend the last night in his house, promising not will talk to him; in order not to break his promise, B. talks to his cat; it must be answered that his father was killed with this knife when he was leading the caravan; if the knife belongs to the Caliph, then he is the murderer; The Caliph had to pay a ransom]: 123-126.

Iran - Central Asia. The Vakhans [the prince does not want to stay at home, goes to drive Tsar Mashrek away; reluctantly agrees to take the old man as his companion; he offers to carry his bag, the young man cannot lift it; the old man gives three tips: if they don't ask, don't tell, don't go if they don't call me; the king asks for a knife, the young man offers his diamonds; king: this knife has been stolen from my treasury; the old man asks to let the young man go to him for the night, teaches him to answer: his father was killed with this knife, let the tsar pay compensation; the tsar gives 20 horses loaded with gold]: Grunberg, Steblin-Kamensky 1976, No. 51 : 423-426; Pashtuns [for 5 cakes a person buys 5 tips from a fakir; 1) find out the name of a fellow traveler; 2) when you come to the village, sit on the ground until they offer a chair; 3) do not show until asked what you have; 4) do not argue; 5) do not tell your wife what others do not need to know; the person immediately acts against advice: he does not ask the name of the fakir; sits on a chair, he is beaten; shows his gun, he is accused of stealing; fakir: say that your father was killed with this gun, say that the owner is a murderer; the man tells his wife he will argue who will bring the watermelon first; wife to lover: argue who What he touches first is him; the lover brings a watermelon; the man asks the fakir for help; he advises to impose rags on the stairs; the lover wants to touch his wife, takes up the stairs to go up to her, her husband tells him to pick up the rags]: Lebedev 1971, No. 21:189-192.

(Wed. Turkestan. Kazakhs [bai consistently sends three sons to search for the missing herd; turns into six wolves who go out to meet the young man; the eldest, then the middle sons flee; The father comes out to meet the youngest in the guise of six tigers, but he is not afraid; his father tells him to spend the night near the graves; the young man sees a fresh grave, says "suilam" 15 times; a young man comes out of the grave, they become friends; the dead man tells us who he was killed; tells them to go to his village, there are missing horses; gives them a knife, tells them to rip two horses, but not show them - the sister will find out and will be bad; young man He kills horses, he is beaten, they see a knife, they prepare to beat him to death; he leads the relatives of the dead to his grave, he goes out; his sister dropped a tear at him and he disappeared; people believed the young man, gave him horses; he hardly summoned the dead: his sister's tear turned into a sea through which he was supposed to sail; teaches him to go hiking, kill his murderer; kill a young woman in a yurt newlyweds and two girls; one of them the young man kissed; during the storm, others lose what they had earned during the raid, and the young man fastened a bag of droppings and a poplar with a rod, cattle came out of the bag, the poplar turned into gold and silver; the young man sees a dead friend those women whom he stabbed; the one he kissed left a dark spot; the dead gave her to him; then Azrail-Jebrail comes for the young man, but the dead man did not give him; he complained to God, but God left the young man alive]: Valikhanov 1985:65-70).