Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K15. With no one but this beggar .

The woman swears that she did not get along with anyone but (her husband and) a dirty beggar. Others do not know that her lover has taken the form of a beggar.

The French (Tristan and Isolda), the Arabs of Iraq, the Kashmiris, the Kannada, the Baluchis, the Grettier Saga, the Khalha Mongols.

Western Europe. The French [Upon learning of her husband's death, Tristan Blanchefleur's mother died after the birth of a son. Tristan is raised by a loyal vassal, then kidnapped by Norwegian merchants. The storm crashes the ship, the waves throw the young man ashore, where his mother's brother King Mark rules. T. doesn't know about this and pretends to be a merchant. Tristan's teacher finds him, tells him and Mark about their relationship. T. conquers his country from his enemies, gives it to his tutor, and returns to Mark himself. Each year, Mark must send 300 young men and women as a tribute to the King of Ireland, who is married to the giant Morolt's sister (M.). M. arrives and challenges a brave man to fight. T. goes with M. to a lonely island, kills M. At the same time, it breaks the sword against his skull and leaves a point in it. The people welcome the winner, but T.'s wounds don't heal and give off a stench. T. asks to put him on a lonely ship, give him a harp and let him go to sea. The ship is coming to Ireland. The Queen's daughter Isolde, golden-haired, has healed him. Realizing that he is in Ireland, T. runs home. Mark is going to appoint T. as his heir, but his enemies demand that Mark marry and appoint his future son as heir. Golden hair falls on Mark from the swallow's beak, and Mark expresses a desire to marry its owner. T. remembers golden-haired I., goes after her. At this time, Ireland is devastated by a dragon, the king promises to marry I. to whoever defeats the monster. T. does this, but the evil and ugly court pretends to be the winner. I. finds out the truth, heals T. again from his wounds, but when he sees his broken sword, he realizes that he killed her Uncle M., rushes at T. He explains that he wants to marry her not for himself, but for Mark. I. agrees. Y.'s mother gives her daughter a love drink goodbye, which she must drink with Mark. On the ship, I. mistakenly drinks a drink with T. Arriving at the king, I. sends Brangien's maid to Mark's chambers instead. Fearing that the fraud will be revealed, she hires thieves to kill B. That makes me feel sorry for her. When I. begins to repent of his evil act, they bring B. alive. Meetings between T. and I. take place near a pine tree on the bank of the stream (T. throws objects that serve as symbols for I. into the waters of the stream). The evil hunchback informs Mark about I. He is going to burn his lovers at the stake. T. runs by jumping from a high tower. Lepers ask Mark not to burn I., but to marry her. Mark agrees, but T. beats and leads I. T. and I. live in the forest, and T. can imitate the voices of birds. Lovers are found first by dog T., and then by King Mark. Mark leaves his gloves next to them and puts them between the sleepers. Then T. and I. decide to break up. T. gives I. a dog, and that dog gives him a ring with a jewel. I. returns to Mark and must prove his purity at God's judgment. T. takes the form of an old beggar and carries her across the river in front of everyone's eyes. I. swears that no one but this beggar and Mark held her in his arms. The veracity of her words is confirmed by a hot iron test that does not harm her. Her meetings with T. continue. By summoning I., T. imitates the voices of birds. T. goes to Gaul. After defeating the giant, he receives from the local king a magical dog that helps him forget all sorrows. He travels, conquers a country and is rewarded with a woman who is also named I., but with the epithet Belarusian (IS). But he doesn't live with her. When hunting, information security wades across the river and tells her brother that the water that soaked her legs is bolder than T. The brother is insulted and wants to fight with T., but he asks permission to see I. T. comes to her disguised as a beggar, but I., who believes that T. has cheated on her, orders him to be expelled. T. goes crazy out of grief, changes his voice and appearance again, and comes to I. She can't recognize him anymore. But his old dog will recognize him. I. believes that T. is in front of her when he shows her ring. Their meetings continue, then T. goes back to information security and slowly dies there. He sends I. She leaves Mark, sails on a white sail ship. BI tells T. that the sail is black, which means that the golden-haired I. cheated on him. I. finds T. dead and dies of grief herself. Mark wants them to be buried side by side. From T.'s grave, blooming blackthorns grow, spreading to I. It is cut off three times, then Mark forbids you to touch it anymore]: Freidenberg 1932:8-11.

Western Asia. Iraqi Arabs [husband suspects his wife of infidelity and decides to lead her to the Chain of Truth hanging from the sky on Mount Kaf; whoever touches her and lies will be struck by a thousand lightning; the wife has agreed with lover: when the husband comes to buy donkeys, let him offer the lowest price; the husband, wife and driver went to Mount Kaf; on the way, the wife fell off her donkey, her dress rose to the waist and all the shame was visible; the woman began to scold her husband; and when she took up the chain, she said that no one but her husband and the driver saw her naked; then the Lord removed the chain, because women still know how to avoid punishments]: Bushnaq 1987:348-350.

South Asia. Kashmiris [the jeweler's wife always gives the princess gold jewelry made by her husband; once the princess asked her husband to bring it himself; they fell in love; the wife understood everything; told her husband to practice first by throwing stones and clay balls, and then go under the princess's window and throwing her two gold balls; in response, the princess showed the jeweler a mirror and splashed water from the window, threw the flower and hair, scratched the windowsill with a stiletto; the merchant's wife explained: the mirror is someone else in the house, water - come to the gutter, the flowers are in the garden, the stiletto - grab the file cut the grill, hair - she is now combing her hair; the merchant came, lay down on the bed, fell asleep; the princess left two gold beads in his pocket; when he woke up, the merchant decided that the princess did not come, but his wife she found beads at home and showed him; stuck 10 pins in his palm, one of them deep; when he went to the princess, let him rub salt and pepper into these places; the merchant did so, felt acute pain, but when the princess arrived, he forgot everything; in the morning, the Constable found her sleeping lovers and sent them to prison; the jeweler asked the man passing by the window to go to the place where they sell jewelry, and shouting "The royal donkey went into the saffron garden and who knows if his tail or head will be cut off"; the wife heard and understood everything; baked two rolls, went to prison and began to say that she was handing out bread at six prisons and wants to be distributed at the seventh; she was missed; she changed clothes with the princess; the princess left, and the wife explained that she and her husband came back late, went to the garden and fell asleep, but the Constable accepted her for the princess; then the Constable demanded that the princess swear by the name Viginah Nag (the mistress of the forest) that she was innocent; the person who took a false oath would die immediately; the wife told the jeweler to dress as a fakir, smear yourself with ash, and when the princess is brought to take an oath, rush to her, grab her skirt and demand alms; the princess honestly said that only this madman touched her skirt; princess returned home and put the Constable on a stake; but at home the jeweler was still dying of love; his wife dressed him as a dancer, dressed herself as ascetics, brought the "girl" to the palace and said that it was his brother's wife, but still a virgin; let her be in the care of the princess; then the jeweler quietly returned home, and the imaginary ascetic demanded his dancer; in return, the king gave her the princess, whom his wife brought to her to her husband; and said: both of you must understand (what women's tricks are)]: Stein, Grierson 1923, No. 5:21-31; kannada [Kamakshi's husband ignores her but lives with the harlot; the old woman gave her a love remedy; it is red, K. was frightened and poured the product into the snake hole; the five-headed king of snakes drank it and fell in love with K.; came to her in the guise of her husband; opened up and promised to make sure that her husband would return and his the mistress will become K.'s maid; K. is pregnant, her husband and others accuse her of debauchery; she invites her to test: in the temple she will hug a five-headed cobra; in front of everyone's eyes, the cobra is wrapped around her; people they called K. an exemplary wife; the boy born is beautiful; the husband became attached to him and his wife, left his lover; she asks the boy to come to her; K. sets the condition: the boy will be weighed and if any the jewelry will be lost, the mistress will become her maid; she took nothing, but the snake hid some jewelry, the mistress became a maid; the serpent died of jealousy at the couple's bedside; K. said that their happiness thanks to the snake; the serpent is buried as a brahman]: Ramanujan 1997, No. 56:155-158.

Iran - Central Asia. Baluchi [the fakir gave the childless king two fig fruits, let him eat one, the other wife; a son was born; the king decided to raise a boy born on the same day with him; this is the son of a shepherd; they grew up, both went to live with a shepherd; the prince did not want to return; the old woman promised to settle the matter; called the shepherd's son to her, but said that she did not want to say anything - tomorrow she would tell a story; The prince believed her, decided that the shepherd's son was hiding something from him; so three times; then he told the prince that the shepherd's son wanted to make the prince's sister his concubine; the prince returned to his father and told him kill the shepherd's son, bring him his eyes; but the king ordered the vizier to bring the kid's eyes; the prince regretted what had happened, the shepherd's son returned; the prince saw a beautiful woman; she gave signs with her hands, but he does not understand; the shepherd's son explained: she says where she lives, which caste, her name is Naina Bai; the prince and the NB met in the temple; the city ruler was also in love with the NB; the predictor told him that now she is in the temple with a man; the temple is surrounded; the shepherd's son entered there wearing women's clothes, gave it to the NB, she went out, and the shepherd's son and prince remained in the temple; the ruler wants to execute the soothsayer, but he asks test the NB: let him walk through hot coals; the shepherd's son disguised the prince as a fakir, told me to rush to the NB and hug her as if he were crazy; NB: no one touched me but my husband and this fakir; withstood test; the shepherd's son disguised the prince as a woman, left him in the NB house in the care of her father-in-law; her husband returned, fell in love with an imaginary NB girlfriend; the prince killed him and fled; the shepherd's son told the NB father-in-law that his the son ran away with that woman; the father-in-law told me to remain silent; the prince (now in men's clothes) and the shepherd's son came to pick up that woman; the father-in-law gave the NB instead of her and more money for silence; in a dream, the shepherd's son finds out that the prince will be bitten by a snake; he will be poisoned by milk; he will die from a snake bite the first night after returning home; and whoever says will be petrified, but will be reborn if he is sprinkled with the blood of a newborn kid a year later ; a shepherd's son kills a snake, breaks a jug of milk, kills a snake in an alcove; a drop falls on the NB; the shepherd's son told everything and petrified; a year later he is alive]: Porozhnyakov 1989:49-58.

Baltoscandia. The Grettier Saga [(set in the late 9th - early 10th centuries); Miclagard (Constantinople) was inhabited by a noble citizen Spes, her husband, rich Sigurd, they did not love each other; a man named Thorstein is imprisoned for murder; S. saw him behind bars; T. said he killed him in avenging his brother, but there is no one to confirm this and hardly anyone will buy him; S. bought him and his comrade; T. began to live with S. , went camping with the Varangians; one day S. and his servants began to break into the room where S. and T. were, she hid T. in a chest; S. did not find him, but I am sure that his wife was not faithful because she heard someone sing; in the next time S. managed to hide T. under the floor, he secretly left the house; they agreed that S. should take an oath: she has no lover and did not waste her husband's property; on the way to the church there is a puddle around beggars; one undertakes to carry S.; she pretends not to want to and doubts his strength; he can hardly bear it, falls into a puddle himself, touches her bare thigh; S. gives him money; swears that in addition to her husband and this beggar, no one touched her and she did not give money to anyone; S. was accused of defamation, divorced them as a bishop; impoverished S. left the country]: Smirnitskaya, Steblin-Kamensky 1976, chapters 87-89:138-144.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Mongols (Dzain Khure; parrot tales) [Khan Tsokto-Elguksyn has a daughter Naryn-Gyryl; the khan gouged out his eyes to the man who saw her; N. asked her father to show her the city; Ts ordered to remove from he was all men, but to put interesting goods, rare animals, etc. on the streets; the princess revived only after she noticed that a young man Saryn-gyryl-tushmyl was watching her from the tower; she filed signs to him; he was horrified to think that N. ordered him to be executed, but his wife explained: she made an appointment; his wife told him to go, otherwise the princess ordered him to be executed; he fell asleep; N. admired and left a handful next to him salt; the wife tells me to go again, rub herself with salt so as not to fall asleep; in the morning the servant found a couple, they were taken to prison; N. began to ask if S.'s wife had given him anything; S. remembered: gave the precious stone; N. gave the stone to a passerby and told S. to knock on the door of S.'s wife; she understood everything; brought fruit to prison and said that it was a vow sacrifice to the gods; she was missed; she changed her dress with N. and she went out; the khan ordered the prisoners to be brought in, and it turned out that it was S. with his wife, not with the khan's daughter; the minister demanded that everyone take an oath on uhyr-arbay grains, who, in case of a false oath grew up like a cow the size of a cow; S.'s wife poured something smelly on her husband and dressed her in rags; he began to make his way through the crowd, made noise and cursed; princess: I did not spend the night with anyone except that stinky; grains did not increase; the servant was executed; the princess married the neighboring prince; S. continued to live with his wife]: Benningsen 1912:98-102.