Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K165. A man who wanted to experience fear, ATU 326.


The young man has never been afraid and wants to know what it is. Robbers and evil spirits don't scare him.

(Usually, at the end of an adventure, a young man is afraid of something harmless. This final episode is in ATU's plot definition 326, but Arab traditions, which have been verified from primary sources, as well as Serbian and Malgash, do not contain it. IN. Lyungman (Liungman 196:64) believed that the story was presented only in Europe. Records from the beginning of the 19th century are unknown (Delarue 1957:305).

Malgashi, Berbers of Morocco (south), Kabiles, Arabs of Egypt, Spaniards, Aragon, Catalans, Portuguese, Corsicans, Sardinians, Italians (Piedmont, Veneto, South Tyrol, Tuscany, Umbria, Lazio, Molise, Campania, Basilicata, Calabria, Puglia), Ladins, Germans (Schleswig-Holstein, Austria), Friesians, Dutch, British, Scots, French (Upper Brittany, Nivernay, Lorraine, Landes, Poitou, etc.), Bretons, Arabs of Syria, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Romanians, Hungarians, Greeks, Bulgarians, Russians (Novgorod, Moscow), Ukrainians (Transcarpathia, Galicia, Podolia, Pokutye, Yekaterinoslavskaya, Chernigov), Poles, Luzhitans, Czechs, Slovaks, Turks, Latvians, Norwegians, Swedes, Danes, Icelanders, Lithuanians, Livonians, Estonians, Finns, Maris, Kazan Tatars, Bashkirs.

Sudan - East Africa. Malgashi [option B (pp. 228-229); son tells his father he is looking for trouble; he offers to meet red bees; the guy brings honey, people are bitten, and he says it doesn't matter , but biting insects; stepped on a snake; it's not a problem, but just a snake bit; killed a wild boar, and the other wild boars followed the village; ordered the leader to give the guy a hundred cows and 10 slaves; he gave it away; took 8 bread and the son of God went to meet him: what are you carrying? instead of bread in a basket of goat heads, the guy is accused of stealing; the guy is forced to go home and give the silver jar; tells his father that this time it was really scary; (also other options]: Haring 1982, No. 326:327-231

North Africa. Moroccan Berbers: Stumme 1895, No. 19 [two boast of their courage; went on a journey; they picked up a lamb, and it was a werewolf woman; began to take on a monstrous form, man got scared, and the other: bring her here; she became a lamb again; she started to grow again, and he hit her and told her to be small; werewolf: Do you know who I am? man: I don't care, I'll eat you; dismounted, the man slaughtered and cut a ram, sent a friend to buy fuel; he found firewood in a fresh grave; dead man: why do you take it; the man was frightened; the other beat the dead man and took the firewood; when the meat was ready and ready to eat, the werewolf jumped out of the cauldron and flew away; the brave man brought his comrade to the city and asked him to be buried: he died of fear], 20 [], 21 []: 173-175, 175- 176, 176-177; Kabila [Said Ajirasin and Haji M'hammed are strongmen and friends; they argued who was bolder; HM went to the saint's grave, pulled out his bones and went to bed in the grave; S. came late in the evening, brought and a lamb screamed, made a fire on the grave and began to fry the liver; a hand leaned out of the grave (it was HM): give it to me! S.: What else is dead, and you still beg for it - okay, take a piece; when he cooked the meat, HM began to ask him for it again; S. gave it again, but not much; when he began to leave, taking the meat, HM began to beg to stay; S. became angry and began to tear up the grave with a knife; HM admitted it was him; both returned to the village]: Frobenius, No. 43:243-245; Egyptian Arabs: El-Shamy 2004 (1), No. 326:155-156.

Southern Europe. The Spanish [the young man did not know what fear was; went to find out; went to the old people to spend the night; there are two skulls on the table, one eat and drink from the other; he had dinner with everyone and slept peacefully until morning; went into an empty palace, began to cook; 7 dead monks come down, each holding a skull and a candle; the young man did not pay attention to them; at night he woke up screaming: fall or not? - Fall like that, but I don't care; the monk's head fell, then his right hand, his left hand, then his body; the dead man joined his cocks and stood by the young man's bed; the same with the rest of the monks; the young man doesn't care; came to to the king, who married him to his daughter; one day he was sleeping, his wife brought a vessel of water in which fish were swimming; spray fell on her husband's face, he screamed in horror]: Camarena, Chevalier 1995, No. 326:126-127; Aragon [a young man wants to know what fear is; he successfully overcomes various challenges, but in the end he gets scared when he sleeps, and his wife drops fish on him, splashes water]: González Sanz 1996, No. 326:77; Catalans (incl. Mallorca) [the young man is not afraid of anything and goes to look for fear; sleeps in a house where skulls and bones fall from the ceiling; someone threatens to cut off his ear; he fights with the Moor, etc.; the old woman gives him an ointment heal wounds; came to the giants, told them to cut off his head, and then it stuck again with an ointment; the giants suggest doing the same with them; but he puts their heads backwards in front of or confuses heads and bodies; giants run away, the king is grateful, gives the young man a daughter; the wife promises to scare him: when her husband fell asleep, she sprayed him with cold water]: Oriol, Pujol 2008, No. 326:76; Portuguese ( many records) [the young man is not afraid of anything and goes to find out what fear is; spends the night in a house where parts of the bodies of the dead fall in the chimney; helps the deceased dig up valuables and give them to those who deserve them; defeats ghost cats; helps a ghost priest celebrate mass without turning back to stop the bells from ringing all the time; he is terrified when pigeons suddenly fly out of the cage ]: Cardigos 2006, No. 326:76-77; Corsicans [the young man ate with the bride; a fairy came in and the girl was scared; young man: Are you afraid of a little old woman? the fairy said that the young man would not be able to marry before he was afraid; the young man complained to his uncle Curé; he told Sakristan to scare his nephew; Sakristan lit candles in the cemetery and hid, and the curé asked the young man to bring him rabbit grass from the cemetery; sakristan shouted why he was mowing his grass; the young man found him, pressed him and said that he should not frighten him; then the curé asked the manager hospital for four dead, placed them on the bell tower and asked his nephew to call; he threw out the dead, rang; went on a journey; in one village every week a girl is given to the devil; a young man exhibited the two dead sent by the devil, put the epitrachel himself on him; forced him to give a receipt that he would not come here again; the devil did come for the girl, but the young man put epitrachel on him again and took a second receipt; the young man is offered a girl as a wife; he says that he must be frightened first; during lunch, black birds fly out from under an inverted plate and the young man loses consciousness; safely married]: Massignol 1963, No. 48:116-119; Sardinians [Giovanni went on a journey to experience fear; sleeps in a chapel and in an enchanted castle, plays cards with devils, saves him from the dragon princess; gets scared for the first time when she wakes up to the touch of a swallow rushing in the air; when he returns home, he proves that he saved the princess and marries her]: Aprile 2000:349; Italians (Piedmont, Veneto, Tuscany, Umbria, Lazio, Molise, Campania, Basilicata, Calabria, Puglia): Cerise, Serafini 1975, No. 326:70-71; Italians (South Tyrol) [Giovanin is not afraid of anything; not violent crazy, no ghosts or skeletons in the castle where he spends the night; died of fear when he leaned over to the water and saw his back instead of his chest]: Busk 1871:335-355; Italians (Tuscany) [on the road Body parts fall to the castle; whoever sees is horrified, and Giovannino laughs; without fear of ghosts, takes possession of the castle; but the brave man died of fear when he saw his own shadow; (3 more versions are described below)]: D'Aronco 1953, No. 326:56; Ladins [Gion is not familiar with fear; the sexton promises to teach him fear, suggests going up to the bell tower at night; on the stairs to meet someone in white; without receiving the answer to the question, "Who are you?" , G. hit the ghost by bringing him down the stairs; went to look for fear; the innkeeper advises spending three nights in an empty castle; after the first night, G. complains about the noise; since he still does not fall asleep, let the owner give him planing and turning equipment and an anvil; on the second night, too, only noise and rumble; on the third night, a bundle of bones and a skull fall out of the fireplace; then 5 cats became play skittles with these bones, the skull instead of a ball; when the cats began to scratch, G. cut their claws with it and sharpened the skull on the machine to make it round; the coffin fell out of the fireplace, G. released and processed it dead man's machine; in the morning he told the owner that he had never learned fear; in another village, G. was offered to spend the night next to the recently hanged; G. made a fire, invited the hangmen to warm up too; they they just swing in the wind; he took them off, put them down by the fire, their clothes caught fire; G.: Can't you see that your clothes are burning; hung them back and returned to the inn; then the hostess poured them on him a vat of cold water with fish - G. was terribly frightened]: Brunold-Bigler, Widmer 2004, No. 60:308-312; (cf. ladins [the parents have three sons, the eldest Bucobello began to go to the girls; the father decided to ward him off, put on a bull's skin and went out to meet him; B. came back, asked the girls for a pitchfork and plunged them into their belly monsters, threw him into the water; when it all turned out, the local court told B. to wander until he was frightened and spend the night where the sunset caught him; one day B. spent the night under an oak tree, hears three big birds talking; in a village where there is no water, you have to hit a rock with a hammer, three streams will flow; the owner of the castle is afraid to enter there, because none of those who come back have come back; there is a giant sleeping since midnight before one o'clock in the morning; you have to go into a room with a sword on the wall, hack the giant with a sword; the kidnapped princess is in the White Sea; to return her, you have to go there invisible; B. got water, got a cart of gold, brought him to the godfather; the same for killing a giant; B. comes to a woman, she hides him in the basement; when her daughter Tuman comes, she senses a man, but her mother denies that there is no one; asks if the daughter knows where is the White Sea; she replies that the Winds know about it (two different winds - a cold north wind and a dry wind in the mountains); the north wind (the same episode with the mother of the wind) does not know; the dry wind tells me to show him man; says that tomorrow the princess is married and he flies there to dry his clothes; let B. take the mare (she is the last of 12 horses); the mare turned into an old woman, gave leaps and bounds of boots, a raincoat- invisible, magic tablecloth; B. opened to the princess, took her away unnoticed by others; returns with gold and the bride to him, then lives in the royal palace]: Uffer 1973, No. 36:140-154).

Western Europe. Scots, British, Friesians, Dutch, Germans (Schleswig-Holstein, Austria): Uther 2004 (1), No. 326:209-210; Germans [older brother is businesslike and smart, but afraid of the night, the cemetery, etc.; the younger one is not afraid of anything; wanted to learn fear; the sexton promised to do it; sent the guy to the bell tower to ring, and he stood on the stairs, pretending to be either dead or dead ghost; the guy threw him down, called him back and went to bed; a passerby invites him to spend the night under the gallows; the guy first pulled the dead down, seated him by the fire, then hung him again; the cab driver sent him to an enchanted castle; whoever spends three nights there, the king will give his daughter to him; but no one has returned yet; the guy asked for fire and a lathe; two black cats appeared, he tied them to a machine and killed them; fought off many cats; carried his bed, but he fell down with it and slept until morning; the next night, parts of the bodies of the dead, skulls, bones fall from the chimney; the guy sharpened on the machine, two skulls, to make them rounder, began to play skittles with the dead; on the third night they brought a dead man; the guy warmed him up, he tried to strangle him, but the guy stuffed him into the coffin again; the old man wants to kill him, the guy split the anvil and pinched his beard; beat him with a crowbar and then let him go; the old man showed three chests of gold: to him, the poor, to the king; the king married the guy to his daughter; the maid promised to teach the guy fear: she poured a tub of water with gudgeon on him sleeping; the guy to his wife: now I know what fear is]: Grimm, Grimm 2002, No. 4:11-18 (=Grimm, Grimm, Grimm 1987:14-22); French (Nivernay, Upper Brittany, Lorraine, Landes, Poitou, etc.; many entries; variant from Upper Brittany in Sébillot 1880, No. 11:72-81, 1994, No. 6, 7:172, 173) [Curé's godson Fearless Jean tells him he is not may marry because he was not afraid; he decided to scare J.; he placed several statues of saints by the bell, covered them with a white cloth, and cut the rope; sent J. to ring; the rope immediately broke; J. went upstairs and threw away the statues; then tied the rope and rang back; went looking for fear; the curé gave him the flag shaft as a staff; wanted to spend the night in the hut; he was told about the castle, but there it is better not to go in; in castle J. took out the cards; parts of the body began to fall out of the chimney, they formed and the devil offered to play; Jean dropped his card; he ordered it to be picked up, and when the devil bent down, began to beat him with his staff; the devil promised to leave these places; when he left, the devil showed him where gold and silver were; after taking them, J. came to the city, where the devil takes a man every day; J. came to the destiny to the devil to the woman and, when he appeared, began to beat him with a staff; the devil ran away; J. came to the capital, where every year they give the devil a girl, the turn of the king's daughter; J. hits the devil again with a staff; the king gives his daughter; invites him to dinner; a dove flew out from under an inverted plate; J. admitted that he was frightened; wedding]: Delarue 1957, No. 326:293-295; Bretons (several entries): Delarue 1957:300-301.

Western Asia. Arabs of Syria, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen: El-Shamy 2004 (1), No. 326:155-156

The Balkans. Bulgarians [a fearless young man leaves home; in some cases he kills his father or someone else who tried to scare him by posing as a ghost; sleeps under the gallows; in an inn did not pay a one-eyed owner; kills ghost cats (or dogs) in an abandoned palace; spends the night in a house where parts of the bodies of the dead fall from the chimney or walls, and then join into whole bodies; to him in The dead man is dragged into the room, and he puts him in his bed and makes him talk; all night someone invisible presses and strangles him; he wraps the giant's beard around the grindstone; he hears a noise from the wall money falls out; only when, after the wedding, his wife drenched him sleeping with water and fish or put fish behind his collar, did the man get scared]: Daskalova-Perkovska et al. 1994, No. 326:124; Serbs [son the widow is not afraid of anything; the mother asks the priest to scare him; he sends him to the bell tower in the evening to ring the bells; the pop put the dead man there, putting the bell rope in his hand; boy: well, you ring; the dead man did not say a word; the guy hit him, rang himself and returned to his ass; then the pop told him to come to him tomorrow; asks him to spend the night under the gallows, where the hanged man hangs many days ago; bones are knocking in the wind; the guy took off the dead, put the bones under his head and fell asleep; the hanged man was innocent; asks the guy what he would like to receive for removing him from the gallows; he asks for complete fearlessness; hangman: you're not afraid anyway; here's a golden shirt that you order to beat whoever you want; and a gold shirt that, if you put in the game, you'll always win; hell torments the townspeople, the guy takes it drive them away; wins all the gold from the devils at cards, and then tells their shirt to beat them; the devils promise not to return to the city; the local king gave the boy a daughter; if the guy is alive, he still reigns there]: Eschker 1992, No. 30:152-158; Slovenes, Croats, Hungarians, Romanians, Greeks: Uther 2004 (1), No. 326:209-210.

Central Europe. Russians (Novgorod), Ukrainians (Transcarpathia, Galicia, Podolia, Pokutye, Yekaterinoslavskaya, Chernigov) [Boy learns fear: ghosts on the bell tower, in the house, dead man on the gallows they do not inspire him any fear; the boy is afraid of cold water, acne, etc.]: SUS 1979, No. 326:118-119; Russians (Moscow) [Alyosha to his father: I want to be afraid; here the brothers went to Moscow, the dead hang there; the sexton invites you to the bell tower at 12 am; dressed up dead; A. hacked him down; went to look for fear; lies under the gallows, hears the conversation of the dead; sleeps soundly; to the fire devils are suitable; A.: warm up! The king promises a daughter to the one who stays in the palace for the night; there the old man offers to stab an iron stump; his beard is pinched, A. tells him to show the treasures; the king comes in the morning, A. laughs; the next night A. beat the devils, playing with his cards; on the third night he took the dead man to bed to warm him up; he began to strangle him, A. killed him completely; A. received a royal daughter; in old age everyone dreams of being afraid; wife with a maid pours cold water with fish and frogs out his gate; here he got scared]: Vedernikova, Samodelova 1998, No. 29:75-77; Russians (Tobolskaya, 1892) [the nobleman is not afraid of anything; tells the coachman to spend the night in the glacier, where the dead; at the robbers; the robbers cook; the nobleman tells the coachman to bring the cook, he is dead; the robbers ran away; drove up to the palace, around the guard; inside the princess, possessed by evil spirits; a nobleman broke the doors, reads a book by candlelight; hacked three girls, they were gone; the next night there was a pole in that room, a scary girl was chained to him, others were running around, she dead during the day, but alive at night; the nobleman reads prayers, brought her to life; the king gave it to him; the nobleman wants to go looking for fear again; the king found a healer; that night he let water in, his wife screamed , "Tonem"; the nobleman got scared and never left again]: Smirnov 1917, No. 311:263-265; Poles [an unafraid young man goes to find out what fear is; spends three nights in a secluded house, tavern or a castle; he is not afraid of anything, he makes money; but he is afraid when after the wedding he was drenched in cold water, an eel was let into bed, shot nearby, etc.]: Krzyżanowski 1962, No. 326:104; Luzhitans, Czechs, Slovaks: Uther 2004 (1), No. 326:209-210

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Turks (Mersin, Ankara, Istanbul, Kars) [the young man is not afraid of anything; he comes to the dead who cook halva, helps them; sails on a ship, it stops; he goes under water, sees and kills the girl who held the ship; wants to sell the ring he has obtained; he is told to bring the same ones; comes to the giantess, puts on her chest; she is the mother of the spirit he fought with; gets rings and returns immediately; fights against the spirit to which a person was sacrificed every year; gets a princess for it; gets scared when a pigeon flies out of a closed bowl while eating]: Eberhard, Boratav 1953, No. 284:330-331

Baltoscandia. Latvians [a person seeks fear; spends nights in church, fights the dead, is not afraid of legs and arms falling from the ceiling; (also: fights devils in an enchanted castle); frightened of fish that his wife water splashes on him when he sleeps]: Aris, Medne 1977, No. 326:276; Estonians (Abja; options all over Estonia; option from Otepää to Mālk et al. 1967, No. 53:133-137) [person not knows what fear is; promises to give money to someone who teaches him fear; one brings him under a gallows with seven hangers; at night one of them complains that it is cold; the man took him off, planted him by the fire, went to bed himself; the dead man began to move; man: if you do not know how to behave, you will hang again; the devils kicked the king out of the castle; whoever spends the night in the castle will get a princess; at midnight to the room where he waits man, the devil comes down; the man tore it in half and threw it away; he went down again; the man clutched him in a vice, cut his claws and horns; the same with the other devils; having received the princess, the man never recognized fear; then the wife, when her husband fell asleep, poured a bucket of water filled with ice and fish on him; this is where he got scared]: Järv et al. 2009, No. 46:176; Norwegians (many records) [the young man goes wandering to find out what fear is; playing cards with the devil, filing his nails, spending the night with the dead in the church yard, under the gallows, in a haunted cell; terribly scared when he sleeps, and they pour cold water over him or throw eels on him]: Hodme 1984, No. 326:78; the Swedes [the young man spends the night in the castle, in the church, in the shed where the dead are put; eventually finds a treasure or gets married; gets scared of birds that have flown out or when his wife pours a glass of water on him; {what is in Swedish fairy tales and what is in others is unclear}]: Liungman 1961, No. 326:64; Danes [one of two princes do not understand what fear means; the king agreed to send him to find out; when swimming across a river or strait, the prince lost his horse; the poor couple said that there was a castle nearby, where two come for the night a giant; their two sisters live permanently in the castle; they hid the young man in the cellar for the night; their brothers exterminate enemies all day long, and in the morning the same number; the sisters had to confess that the giants greeted prince; the next day he went with them and saw them kill the 100 soldiers who came to them; remained on guard; at midnight an old woman got out of the well, began to revive the dead with ointment; the prince hacked her down; the giants offered him a sister and wealth, but he said he should look for fear; he came to the king, who left the castle because it was a ghost; he allowed him to spend the night in the castle, giving two criminals; if they will survive, he will have mercy on them; waiting for midnight, the prince sent the criminals to buy firewood, they did not return; from the chimney there was a scream "I'm falling!" , then parts of the body began to fall out; they united into an overweight man; he says he was king; one chest contains unrighteous taxes on children, the other also unrighteous, and the third legal; chests in the basement; if they are picked up, the deceased will calm down and leave the castle; unrighteous money should be given to the poor; the prince found the criminals dead with firewood in his hands, revived with ointment; the king He promised to give two chests of money to the poor, wanted to give the prince his daughter and half his kingdom, but he went on in search of fear; he came to a city where mourning; the dragon takes people, it is the royal daughter's turn; the princess climbed the mountain, the prince gave her ointment to lubricate her chest so that the dragon would not hurt her; the dragon flew in, the prince stabbed him; cut 9 tongues out of 9 heads; the princess gave him her ring; the coachman Søren cut off the heads, declared himself victorious; the prince came to court and asked why dragon heads were hanging on the wall; when answered, he showed his tongues and a ring; was declared the true winner, and Sorena took into custody; the king gave the prince his daughter and throne, and the coachman was placed in a barrel of nails tied to two horses; on his way to his father's kingdom, the prince fell asleep in a clearing and dreamed that the dragon had stolen from he is a princess; this is where he got scared for the first time, which means he has achieved his goal; he returned to the kingdom that his father-in-law gave him]: Bødker 1964, No. 30:195-213; Icelanders, Lithuanians, Livons , Finns: Uther 2004 (1), No. 326:209-210.

Volga - Perm. Marie [a man learns fear: under the gallows, on the bell tower, in a haunted prison; a maid manages to scare him with live cold fish]: Sabitov 1989, No. 326:25; Kazan Tatars (Western 1916, there is a Bashkir version) [Mullah Abbas's son did not know what fear was; the guest promised to teach Mullah fear; said he forgot his staff on the minaret; the guest hid there and began to tug A. for his clothes, he threw him out the window, the guest crashed to death; the mullah expelled A.; spent the night under the gallows, took off the hanged, fell asleep among them to make it warmer; the sorcerer sends to the king; his house has no roof: if you stay in it for three days, the king will give a daughter and half a kingdom; at night, arms, legs, heads fall from above, fold into people; devils and witches roll their heads on the floor; A. cut off their noses to make them rounder ; on the third night, devils and witches began to roll the bed, and A. only fell asleep more soundly; A. got a princess; when he fell asleep, she poured a vat of cold water with fish on him; A. was frightened]: Zamaletdinov 2009, No. 120:424- 426.