Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K1F. The conflict is over a woman.


One person leaves another trapped, driven by jealousy or a desire to own a rival's wife. See motif K1A, K1E, K2A.

Batanga, Guerrero, Hausa, Songhai, Nubians, Malgashi, Tuaregs, Libyan Arabs, Basques, Sicilians, Corsicans, Italians (Liguria, Ticino, Tuscany), Ladins, Maltese, Germans (Pomerania) , French (Dauphine), Walloons, Scots,... Serbs,... Russians (Terek Coast, Arkhangelsk, Olonetskaya, Vologda, Moscow, Tambov, Kursk),

Bantu-speaking Africa. Batanga; Herero.

West Africa. Hausa [Kwallabe is ugly; her mother sent her to the king's palace, but the prince drove her away, she was too ugly; then her mother swallowed her and belched her, her daughter became beautiful, came back to the palace, the prince married her; the king wanted her; went with his son to go on a campaign; his wife put a date stone in his hair; the king asked his son to go down to the well to collect water for the horses; ordered throw soil at the well; returned to the city, told his daughter-in-law that her husband had died, she had refused to eat; a bone in the prince's hair sprouted, the tree rose to the ground, the prince climbed out; his maid His wife saw him, he threw the ring into her jug of milk, told her to give it to the mistress; she identified the ring, came to her husband, ordered it to be shaved and washed; the prince hacked his father and became king]: Tremearne 1913, No. 55: 304-306; Songhai [a woman gave birth to a daughter who became a donkey; one day her mother was going to wash her; she knocked over the water, ran to a pond called the Chief's Mirror, took off her donkey skin and became to swim; Chief Abu Malak's son saw her from the window; when she noticed his shadow, she sang: "Abu Malak, you see arms and legs that are more beautiful than your mother's arms and legs"; AM told the slave to see where the donkey lives; he said that in a poor house; AM told him to marry a donkey; during the wedding she kicked, people laughed; at night she became a girl; AM told the slave to steal donkey skin while his wife was swimming, cut her into and threw the pieces into the anthill; the woman was terribly angry; Father AM wanted to take it for himself; sent his son to drink the camel to the well where the dodo (spirit) lived, told the slaves to lower him on a rope and there leave; before that, the wife woven dates into AM's hair; after that, all female pets stopped giving milk; goats refused to eat; hunger began; AM shared dates with the dodo; planted a bone and a palm tree grew; the dodo told him, when AM got outside, to bring him a handful of food; he did not eat it himself out of love for him; when he got out, AM began to collect alms, leaving half for the dodo; he went to his wife , she did not recognize him; said that she could give nothing, nothing; if he could milk the cows, let him drink milk and bring it to her; AM drank milk; he brought a jar of milk to his wife and slaves and took it dodo's milk wineskin; (opening up to his wife), AM prepared the feast, rode his camel in formal clothes; when his father raised his hands in prayer, AM pierced him with a spear]: Calame-Griaule 2002:222-225.

Sudan-East Africa. Nubians; Malgashi [the youngest of three brothers, Ramanungawatu ("The One Who Turns Stones"); they decided to marry Iranunametsuetsu, the leader of the underworld; he killed those who came to see men to him, made a wall of their skulls; there was room for one skull; the elder brother began to descend into the crevice along the vine - frightened; the middle brother was the same; R. defeated the underground army, the leader gave to him I.; I. came out of the crevice with servants and wealth; after that, the brothers cut off the vines, took his wife and good R.; the birds stopped singing, the country fell into disrepair, R.'s dog howled at the crevice; demanded Zanahari (supreme god) to revive R.; he did it; smeared with black fat, R. came unrecognized; then washed off the fat; the brothers fled]: Rodman 1965:157-161.

North Africa. Tuaregs (northern Niger); Libyan Arabs (Tripoli) [the old man gave the judge 12 apples for his childless wife to eat and give birth to 12 children; she eats 11 and half of the last, giving them to the other sister; gives birth to 11 normal sons and one half-boy; they go to marry 12 daughters of their father's brother; the half warns that they came not to an uncle, but to an ogre; he covers his wife with red, but daughters with a white veil; Half put red on daughters and white on his brothers; also changed the hats of the cannibal's brothers and daughters; at night, the ogre's wife kills her daughters instead of brothers, only the last wakes up and talks to his mother about it; brothers run away, come to their real uncle; brothers get a bride, Half is the youngest and most beautiful; brothers, out of envy, tell him to go down to the well and cut off the rope; the fish gives him scales to call her for help; on the way home, the Half meets the ogre's wife, who brings him to her place; he advises the ogre to fatten him first; then asks him to be invited to a feast other cannibals, it remains to cut wood to bake it; asks the cannibal's daughter to help, kills her with an ax, runs away, hides in an iron tower; tells the cannibal who has run up to gather all the cannibals - let they will bring firewood, cover the tower, it will burn in it; when the tower was hot, the cannibals themselves burned down; and the Half above is unharmed; he began to pick up the cannibal on a rope, cut it off, the cannibal fell, crashed; along the way home Half met another cannibal; she said that today his wife is being remarried; says she will help for promising to give her first child; put her on her back, moved her elder to the wedding brother and his wife, Half; became a scorpion and bit her brother to death; the father tells Polovinka that his brothers said that he was killed; the boy grew up, the cannibal met him, asked him to remind him his promise to his father; the boy forgot; then she put a ring on his finger; his mother asked where it came from, he told him everything, his parents sent him to the cannibal; a year later the father went to visit his son; he says that she has found a better father and mother; the cannibal promises that she will not take away any new children from Half]: Stumme 1898, No. 3:93-104.

Southern Europe. See K2A motif. Basques; Sicilians; Corsicans: Massignon 1984, No. 71:157-159; Italians: Andrews 1895, No. 63 (Liguria) [the princess is gone; the king promises her to whoever finds her; soldier by named Copper Mustache (MU) undertook to do this; took friends named Iron Heart and Dismember the Bones with him; there is a castle in the forest; an old woman: they do not leave it alive; those who come cook one by one; an old woman comes, asks to let her warm up by the fire, hits the one who lets her in; MU cuts off her fingers, pursues her; in the garden she raised the millstone and disappeared into the hole; the companions try to go down on a rope, but only MU is not afraid; the princess gives him his handkerchief; a sorcerer appears, MU killed him in a saber duel, sent the princess upstairs; the companions quarrel - who will get it; they cut off the rope; but MU expected it and tied not himself, but a stone; Moo finds that old woman, threatens to kill him if she doesn't lift him to the ground; she puts him on her back and flies to the ground; gives him boots by leaps and bounds to make it to the princess's wedding with one of her companions; MU shows his handkerchief and marries the princess himself]: 309-318; Calvino 1984, No. 78 (Tuscany: Pisa) [the king has three daughters, the eldest has an affair with a baker; the baker persuaded the secretary to ask the king for marriage; in answer the king put all three daughters on bread and water for six months; then allowed them to walk; the carriage was enveloped in fog, the sorcerer took the girls away; the king promises a daughter to be married to the savior; the baker goes in search, with him two friends; they come to an empty house, cook one by one; a golden ball appears, a dwarf with a club comes out of it, beats the cook; the cook tells his comrades that he is dead; the same with the second companion; when he stays baker, he doesn't kick the ball like others; the dwarf is friendly; the baker asks for firewood, cuts off the dwarf's head at a convenient moment and throws it and his body into the well; the companions don't believe; the baker suggests lowering him down - he will bring his head; below there are three kidnapped princesses; the baker sends the remains of a dwarf upstairs, descends again, kills the sleeping kidnapper sorcerer with a sword; sends treasures upstairs and princesses; they give him chestnut, almonds and nuts; suspected of deception, the baker ties a rope to the body of the murdered sorcerer, the companions cut off the rope; the baker broke nuts, wearing clothes for the prince, the carriage and the regiment soldier; a baker came to the ground in a carriage, soldiers shot impostors, a baker married an older princess, received the throne]: 284-288; Keller 1981 (Ticino) [father sent his son to study to be a blacksmith; he so strong to break an anvil; forged an iron staff for himself, went on a journey; took as his companions a man who broke trees with a wooden staff and threw millstones into the sea; they were told about the castle, from where he did not they come back; they go there, cook one by one; the master comes, the cook beats him, but the food burns; everyone tells his comrades that he suffered from his stomach; when the blacksmith's apprentice remains, he beats the person who came like this it is strong that he shows a well; if you go down, you can save the three princesses below; the blacksmith's apprentice goes down, frees the princess from the chains, sends her upstairs in the basket; she left a silver apple to the savior; the same with the second princess (gives a golden apple), with the third (a diamond apple); the blacksmith's apprentice is left below; princesses are brought to the king; weddings in a year and one day; both elders they demand a silver and golden apple from the groom, they show only rough copies; the blacksmith's apprentice went out, went to earth; the king gave him the younger princess, punished the deceivers]: 224-228; ladins [three young men went in search of the princess kidnapped by dragons; reached a deep crevice; the youngest asked him to be brought down on a rope; there was a princess; dragons appeared successively with one, two, seven heads, the young man cut off their heads; the princess gave her ring; the companions picked it up; decided to throw the young man down, but he guessed their intentions, tied a stone; when the companions the rope was cut off, the stone fell and shattered; a gray fox appeared, told her to hold on to its tail, brought it to the ground; the young man came to the palace, where the princess's wedding with the imaginary savior was being prepared; persuaded him to leave him in the kitchen; threw a ring into the princess's food; she told him to call the young man, the wedding opened; each of the companions was torn apart by four horses]: Uffer 1973, No. 1:5-7; the Maltese [only a blacksmith's apprentice was able to pick up an iron stick, got it as payment for his work; with two companions, the guy came to the forest, they started cooking; a lion attacked him; they chased him, failed, boy went down; in the lead room, a princess and a 7-headed serpent, the guy killed him; in the silver room, the princess who was there indicates which sword to take, for the other is clay; the last girl in the golden room, the same; the princesses suggest that the guy get up first, but he sends them upstairs; after that, the companions start throwing stones at him, taking the princesses, posing as liberators , showed the king snake heads, the king promised to marry them to princesses; the guy brought princess capes and showed snake tongues; asked his companions to be cooked in oil]: Stumme 1904, No. 24:68-69.

Western Europe. See K2A motif. Germans (Baden-Württemberg); French (Dauphine); Walloons; Scots.

Western Asia. The Palestinians; the Arabs of Iraq.

Australia. Jauan; cariera; dieri; bagunji.

Melanesia. Inanwatan Berau; Tumleo; Vatut; Mono (Shortland Islands); Banks Islands; (cf. Wipiv (next to Malekula) [when it rains, the girl asks for shelter; only the youngest of ten brothers let her in, they lit a fire, and the other brothers do not have fire; they are sorry that the youngest got it wife; they take him to sea, dive, pretending to stick their tongue into the tridacna shell; the youngest really slips through, the doors slam shut, the brothers sail away, discuss who will get the girl; at low tide, the tridacna opened the doors, the younger's corpse surfaced, his wife revived him; when they saw the youngest, the elders ran away]: Anonymous 2004:30-32); chimbu [brothers Mondo and Gande were hunting birds; arrow G . hit a bird and it flew away with it; old Mukatakera took the arrow; fed the brothers and left them to spend the night; G. sees that beautiful girls come to the old woman at night; the old woman gave her brothers a pandanus fruit ; they turned into girls; G.'s girlfriend with worn skin, because M. dropped his fruit; he wants to take M.'s wife; to do this, he adjusts M. to go down to the cave to hunt bats and circumcises stairs; an ant helps M. escape; he killed G. by firing two arrows at him and burned down the house]: Sterly 1977:50.

Micronesia-Polynesia. Yap; Truk Islands; Maori [older brother wants Hina, the youngest's wife; swims with him to fish; asks to dive to get an anchor, cuts off the rope and swims away; the youngest asks various birds take him ashore, but everyone refuses; in the end, the whale will take him; H. walks along the shore and asks the birds and fish if they have seen her husband; the whale shows where he is; the younger brother kills erased]: Richer-Gravier 2019 (2), No. 107:71

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans (Amdo); rai; garo; ao; lushi [a man split bamboo to make a basket, stabbed his hand, a girl Kungori was born from this place, became beautiful; everything the guys wanted her; Keimi took her footprint, put it by the fire, she got sick; her father promised her to whoever cured her; Keimi did it, got a wife; turned into a tiger, told her to hold on to his tail; now the father promises his daughter to someone who will free her from the tiger; two friends Photir (F.) and Hrangchal (H.) promised to do this; came to Kungori when her husband was hunting, hid; Keimi came back, smelled it man, his wife said he was from her; when he left again, the old man told him to run away, taking with him the seed of fire, the seed of thorns and the seed of water; they threw the seed of fire, the tiger waits until the forest was burned; the seed of water was a river; the tiger was waiting until the water runs off; the seed of the thorns is thickets; the tiger broke through, F. killed him with his dao (machete); friends take turns guarding at night; Kuavang came, F. boldly answered him; when H.'s turn, he answered, but afraid that Kuawang took Kungori away; she threw cotton threads on the road; F. and H. followed him, went underground, took Kungori back; she forgot her comb; F. followed him, and H. closed the hole with a stone; married Kungori and F. married Kuamang's daughter; planted a vine and it grew up to the ground; cooked pebbles for his daughter Quamang's son, and while he was eating them, he got to the ground, came to H., cut him off head; Kungori and F. began to live happily and happily]: Houghton 1893a: 78-80; thado [A Collection of Twenty Folk Tales in Manipuri) authored by Kh. Ibeton Devi; Moldhin Chan is the most beautiful girl; she went with her friends for brushwood before dawn; stopped to rest on the way back; a terrible man appeared; each says that one of them who cannot put a basket of brushwood on her back should ask that person for help; the MCH basket became unbearably heavy; the friends left, and MCH turned to that person; he had with her a musical instrument made of human skulls and fingers; he ordered not to tell anyone about it, otherwise he would take it away; but the young people convinced them to talk about everything; immediately everyone lost consciousness for a while, and this time that spirit took away MCH; the parents decided to find someone who would return their daughter: let him throw up a heavy stone and swallow 7 servings of food and 7 servings of wine before the stone fell; the savior would receive MCH as his wife; the condition was met by two poor brothers; the eldest was Yanchan, the youngest was Purul; when he saw that the kidnapper's traces were becoming larger, P. was frightened and Y. went alone, leaving P. in the cave; the kidnapper was not it turned out; the other spirits were afraid of the strength of Y.; he jumped over the house, but the spirit that came could not; decided not to pursue I.; other spirits decided to save people and killed the kidnapper; when I. and MCH reached the place where P. remained, speechless and pointed to the cave in horror; the underground spirits took his tongue away; I went down the rope; there the spirits were quarreling over the stolen tongue; I picked up one and threw it far ; others got scared, gave up their tongue; I threw it up for P.; he decided to take possession of MCH himself and cut off the vine; in the lower world, I met a girl and married her; they have a son and daughter; I raised a vine that grew to the ground; but the wife persuaded the children to rock the vine as soon as their father began to climb it; the old woman advised them to take ground grain with them; I threw flour in the children's eyes and went up to the ground ; there a man eats chicken; says he stole it from P.'s house; he has so many chickens that he won't notice; Y. beat my brother, made him an employee, married MCH and started raising P.'s children as his own]: Oinam et al. s.a.; kachins; (cf. aka (chrusso) [Ossin's older brother and younger Awa find a woman in the forest, fight over her, O. kills A., his corpse burns in a forest fire, the mongoose covers the bones with clay, revives A.; so three times; O. finds A. climbing the swing; he says he is watching the fish dancing from above; O. wants it too, A. throws the swing with his brother into the river; O. hits the top of the Month, replies that the Sun is shining brighter, the Month throws him back into the river; at the top of the Sun, O. tells her that the Sun is brighter; she promises to pick him up on the way back; the first morning O. overslept, the next Sun picked him up at dawn for hair; at home, O. killed his brother, brought his wife back; A. came to life again, but left, found his wife elsewhere; he is the ancestor of aka, and O. is a bangny]: Elwin 1958b, No. 10:181-184).

Burma - Indochina. Vieta [hardworking poor That San learns from a magician; merchant Lee Thong invites him to his place, makes him a younger brother, uses his labor; LT's turn to sacrifice Boa, TS is coming instead of him, Boa kills; LT says that the Boa belonged to the king, advises the TS to flee, brings Boa's head himself, the king makes him prince; Princess Quin Nga is carried away by a three-headed eagle; TS sees in the mountains he is wounded with an arrow, reports LT; he lies to the king that he wounded the eagle; leads the army to the abyss; the TS descends, finds the princess, sends her upstairs; LT sends her home, throws stones down; TS kills an eagle leaves a cave in the Land of the Sea, kills a monster; the local king rewards him, but he returns to his native village; the dead shadows of the Eagle and Boa put the gold stolen from the palace in the vehicle; TS they grab it, but he tells the king everything; LT is expelled, killed by lightning; TS marries KN, defeats enemies, inherits the throne]: Karpov, Tkachev 1958:28-39 (=Nikulin 1970a: 42-47).

South Asia. Muria; Tamils.

Malaysia-Indonesia. Bali [a childless woman asks for a child in front of the Durga statue; ate two mushrooms, dark brown; gave birth to an elder son, Chupak (dark, stupid, and boastful), and a younger son, Grantang (bright, modest, and brave) ; the mother died, the brothers went on a journey; volunteered to kill the giant who dragged Raja's daughter; G. killed him, the princess gave him a ring, C. attributes victory to himself; the giantess's wife dragged him away again princess; G. went down to the cave for her, killed the giantess, sent the princess upstairs along the rope; when she got out, C. cut off the rope; prepares a wedding with the princess, she tries to postpone her; C. orders to kill the spirit of a giant, if he appears as a leaning man (i.e. G.); G. made a ladder out of the giant's bones and got out; he was seen and thrown into the sea; the fisherman and his wife caught him and left; he sends from the fisherman's wife has flowers and a ring for the princess; she realizes that G. lives with the fisherwoman; tells her to gather handsome young men for a competition before the wedding; G. beat C., married a princess; C. became a groom]: Hoikas-van Leuven Bomkamp 1983, No. 20:120-129

China - Korea. Chinese: Riftin 1972 [Min Zhu, the daughter of rich Zhang, is Shi-yi's fiancée; Wu-gen is Sh.; MCH takes her away by the Black Eagle, sits on a pine tree; S. slept under her, wounded the Eagle, finds the Eagle's Cave, the entrance to which he blocks with a heavy stone; W. tells everything; for MCH, her father promised a reward; W. helps his brother move the stone, lowers S. into the cave; he kills the sleeping wounded Eagle; W. raises MCH, cuts off the rope; in the cave, S. frees Carp, nailed by the Eagle to the wall; this is the son of the dragon king; the Carp brings S. to the sea, the Dragon King offers him a daughter, he refuses; then transfers him to land, gives a gorlyanka pumpkin, it turns into a horse; W. prepares the wedding, S. chases him away, marries MCH]: 66-74; Wilhelm 1921, No. 7 [the nine-headed bird takes the princess, the king promises her savior; the young man notices a failure where the bird has disappeared; it is lowered on a rope, the princess bandages the bird's wounds (the tenth head was bitten off by a heavenly dog); the bird fell asleep, the young man cut off its heads; the princess advises that he got up first; the young man refuses; she gives him half a hairpin, half a handkerchief; the companion leaves the young man in the dungeon; he frees the fish nailed to the wall, this is the son of the dragon king; the dragon takes him to land; he finds a turtle shell full of pearls; these pearls open a passage in water and fire; he goes to the bottom of the sea; the rescued son of a dragon tells his father to ask his father for a calebasa who fulfills wishes; a young man returns on the princess's wedding day; marries, false groom punished]: 13-16; Chinese (Qinghai) [the couple has two sons: native and adopted; the foster man is busy with work; going for firewood, throws an ax at a whirlwind sweeps, a bunch of women's hair and a drop of blood fall; on the trail of blood he fails; the emperor announces that his daughter has taken the whirlwind, he will give his daughter to whoever saves her; both brothers are going to fail, the son descends the foster room, he finds the demon sleeping, sends the princess upstairs, the son refuses to raise the foster room; the princess manages to give him a pearl; with her help, the adopted child can enter the underwater palace, has been married to three dragon daughters for three years; his own son is recognized as the princess's savior, but cannot show the pearl; after three years, the adopter returns, marries princess]: Frick 1954, No. 26:532-533; Koreans [an ogre from the world stole three princesses; the king promises the youngest to the savior; the old man, the mountain spirit, leads the young man to the hole leading to the ogre's lair; the young man descends into the lower world; the cannibal sleeps for 3 months and 10 days, the younger princess shows everything, the young man cuts off the cannibal's head; when the girls and treasures are brought to the surface, the young man's three servants cover hole; the mountain spirit brings the young man to the surface; the king is going to give the princesses to the servants; the young man marries the youngest, the servants are punished; var.: forty points the way to the ogre; on the way, the young man meets three warriors, makes brothers; 4 comrades save four princesses, get married; in the underworld, a young man saves a fish wounded by a crane; she brings him to the dragon kingdom; he brings a bird from there, she turns into a girl, he marries her; gets to earth]: Choi 1979, No. 284:110-112; fox [astrologer helps everyone; his two sons want to kill him because he does not help them; astrologer tells them to go at dawn to a crossroads; a yellow horseman on a yellow horse galloped by, then white, then black; they killed black - he and the horse made of iron; they realized that the others were made of gold and silver; became blacksmiths; the dragon is unhappy that they set up a forge near its lake; sent a fish (they grabbed it by the tail with mites, since then the fish tail has been flat), a frog (they tore off its tail); a dragon he went by himself, they grabbed him by the nostrils, began to beat him; he was forced to give up the knife that separates everything, and the crossbow, the arrow from which hits everything; the younger one accidentally pointed the knife incorrectly, was separated from the elder; came to a country where huge snakes and a falcon killed everyone; killed one with a knife, the other with an arrow, took two girls; brought them to his brother; the youngest beautiful was smeared with soot on the face, older brother chose the eldest; realizing the deception, he decided to get rid of the younger one; disguised the hole from which the wind was blowing, took his brother there to hunt; the brother fell into the lower world, where little dwarfs ("ant people"); the frog is an elephant for them, the groundhog is a bear, the bamboo rat is a tiger; the younger brother easily kills such animals, gets a wife, but she is too young for him; the last rat asks her not to kill, tells her hold on to her tail and not laugh, then he will bring her to the ground; seeing the rat's ass, the younger brother laughs, the end of the tail comes off, they fall; so 8 times; on the ninth they reach the ground; the younger brother gave the rat sharp teeth (cutter") and a flute; the dove borrowed it and did not return it, now he plays it; the younger brother met the girl, realized that she was his daughter and that his older brother took his wife; hacked the elder, told his daughters and women the whole story]: Dessaint, Ngwâma 1994:329-346.

The Balkans. Hungarians; Bulgarians; Macedonians; Serbs [the king has an apple tree with golden apples, every night the dragon takes them away; sons take turns guarding; the elder brother saw the dragon and frightened; the middle one too; the youngest took nuts with him, began to eat so as not to fall asleep; wounded the dragon, the blood trail to a deep hole; the brothers began to lower the elder on a rope, he was frightened; the same middle one; the youngest came down, the dragon's three daughters were ready to help him; he finished off the wounded dragon with a club; sent the girls upstairs; seeing that the youngest was the most beautiful, the brothers cut off the rope; the youngest noticed the door, was born; there the snake is going to eat the eagle's chicks; killed the snake and fell asleep; the eagle wanted to peck out his eyes, but the chicks told everything; the prince asks the eagle to take him to his city; no prepared food enough, the prince cut off a piece from his buttocks; when they arrived, the eagle put what was cut back; the prince immediately met his betrothed; wedding]: Eschker 1992, No. 27:140-144; Slovenes; Moldovans; Greeks; Albanians; Slovenes [a young hero is unable to learn from a shoemaker, from a blacksmith, goes on a journey; meets and companions 1) turning pine trees, 2) throwing millstones; brothers stop at the castle, cook in turn, the beggar takes food, beats the miller, the pine; the blacksmith beats him himself, the old man disappears into the abyss; the miller, the pine tree is ordered immediately pick them back, the companions bring the blacksmith down, he kills three snakes guarding gold, silver, sparkling locks, frees three girls, who give a ring, a sword, companions pick up the girls, leave blacksmith; he makes the brownie ring the bell, the castles fail, the blacksmith goes to the ground; forgives his companions, gives them a wife, takes a third girl; the power of the heroes is gone, but from everyone a glorious family went]: Arkhipova 1962:45-49.

Central Europe. Czechs; Ukrainians; Belarusians; Russians (Terevsky Bereg) [the elder prince asks to let him down for a walk on an open field; disappeared; the same middle one; younger Ivan: Let him down - I'll go, and don't let me go; I got to the brothers, the forces are dark and dark against them; I. went around her, entered the house, there the girl weaves a krosna; she will click with stuffing {the kind of surf comb duck} - a horse and a man will jump out and He went to the service; I. cut off the stuffing, shot the girl; the brothers beat the force and burned the house; they are going - the stove, under it a hole; I. asks him to lower, there are three houses and three girls, each wiped her kingdom into an egg and in she put her pocket; the brothers picked up two girls; the third to Ivan: they argue over me; stayed with I. in the lower world; I. sees a man, the other hits him on the head with a hammer, the man asks him to redeem him; after the third times (the price is first 100, then 200, 300 rubles, I. bought and brought him to the ground; he promises to bring him to the ground; led to the sea, a whale sailed, he limited it with his hand, became a ship; sailed, the servant does not sleep at the wheel ; three birds arrived; first: I. went to the earth horde, took his beautiful wife and a prudent woman; second: why happy, his own mother died, his father married Baba Yaga, his stepmother would give him wine, he he will drink it and tear it apart; the third: and whoever hears and retells, will petrify knee-deep; the next night the same (the stepmother will bring her shirt; he will petrify up to the waist); on the third night: the stepmother will bring a silver spoon, I. He will sip and tear it apart; he who told everything will be petrified; they sailed; the servant threw wine on the dog, he disappeared; threw his shirt on the goat, he disappeared; and threw the spoon out the window; after telling everything, he petrified; the old man: the son will be born, releasing blood from under his throat on a stone, the servant will come to life; the son has also come to life, only the scar remains]: Balashov 1970, No. 40:126-133 (=1991:86-101); Russians (Arkhangelskaya, 1908, Lapinskaya volost, an 18-year-old girl A.S. Filatova, lived as an employee in different villages of Pomorye, composes ditties and songs/"folk poetess"/, illiterate) [The Tsar and the Queen notice that someone in their garden at night then he steals turnips, sends sons to watch. The two eldest sons didn't see anyone. The youngest Ivan sat on the fence, "sings songs, counts the stars", sees a humped man tearing his turnips, comes up and helps him pick up. The man invites Ivan to his dungeon, Ivan takes his brothers with him. They stay at the entrance, Ivan comes in, beats the man at cards, the man invites Ivan to guess which of the birds is a parrot, a bird, a white swan. Ivan goes out to think on the porch (smoke), the Mukhtotska dog suggests that it is a fly, a mosquito and a louse, respectively. The old man gives Mary Tsarevna for Ivan with a large dowry. Ivan's brothers lift Mary in their belts, as soon as they started lifting Ivan, cut off his belts, and he fell into the dungeon. She walks into her grandmother's backyard hut, asks how to get home, she shows the way past Jaitsna Babitsna's hut, warns that she will want to eat Ivan, put it in the oven and advises her to ask show how to sit in the heat properly. He gives Ivan a brush, a comb and a mirror to escape from Jaicna-Babica's chase. Ivan followed his grandmother's advice, put Yaitsna in the oven and ran away. She knocked out the stove flap with her feet and chased Ivan. He throws a comb, a forest grows, Yaytsna gnaws through it, throws a brush - a mountain appears, it gnaws through it, throws a mirror - a river of fire appears, it rushes into the river and burns down. Ivan comes to his city, goes to his grandmother's house, who says that Maria-Tsarevna visits her. The grandmother puts Ivan in the closet and asks where her longing is, the princess replies: "The ram has a horn", the grandmother has gilded her horn. She put it on the table, then Marya said that her longing was in the lake, in the stone chest, duck, egg, and longing in it. Grandma and Ivan caught a stone and took out an egg. Ivan drops it and can't find it, the hare brings the egg. My grandmother put Ivan in the closet, made eggs out of eggs, and treated Mary to her. Marya's longing passed, Ivan came out of the closet, they told the truth to the tsar, expelled the brothers from the kingdom and got married]: Tseitlin 1911, No. 10:5-7; Russians (Zaonezhye or Pinega, Poganets, 1927, E.F. Fofanova, 12 l.) [The king takes turns sending his sons to watch the garden where apples are missing. The elders fall asleep and don't see the thief. The youngest sees that the apples are being stolen by a polar bear. He asks his brothers to let him down into the hole from which the beast comes out. He finds himself in a copper hut, the girl transfers threads from ball to ball, feeds and poit-puts to bed (at the request of the guest), learns about his goal and says that there are 2 more girls and a grandmother ahead. In a silver hut, a girl winds silver threads, everything repeats itself, and the same goes in a golden hut (a girl with gold threads says that the bear lives with her grandmother). He promises to marry each of the girls. Ivan turns his hut on his chicken foot, the old woman tells him that the bear will force him to heat the bathhouse, and then ask him to give it up, but this cannot be done, otherwise the beast will eat him. He follows the old woman's advice, does not give up when the bear asks, the beast writhes and dies. Ivan rips off his skin, picks up his grandmother and three girls. Every girl twists the hut into a ball and puts it in her pocket. They go to the hole, Ivan warms the crows with a bear skin, sends them upstairs to the girls' brothers, and they start fighting over them. The brothers raise Ivan, but not completely and throw him back into the hole. The raven brings Ivan to the surface of the earth, and on the way, the bird eats the bull's meat it brings, which Ivan throws into his beak when it ends, cuts off the meat from his legs. The raven sees that the prince is limping, spits out his meat and putting it at his feet. He returns to his kingdom during the wedding of a girl from a golden hut, marries her, she develops a hut out of the ball]: Nikiforov 1961, No. 77:175-178; Russians (Vologda) [the tsar and queen are childless, both 80; the king tells the fishermen to throw a net for his luck; the pike looked like gold; the king tells the nanny to bake a cake; ate the middle part with the queen, the one where the head was eaten by the nanny, the tail - dog; everyone gave birth to a boy, only the dog's son has dog ears; the priest gave the names: Ivan Tsarevich, Ivan Nyankin, Birth; brothers grew up; C. suggests considering the elder who will leave 4- a pound club; he himself threw the furthest; went hunting, got lost, stopped in an empty house, next to the bridge across the river; the brothers take turns guarding; the IC sees a three-headed monster riding, disappeared, not said to the brothers; the same IN (6-headed); on the third night S. leaves a glass: if full of blood, hurry to help, and if the blood is over the edge, save themselves; the 12-headed monster prevails, S. threw his the boot, the gate disappeared, the horse ran, helped kill the monster; S. put 12 heads under a heavy stove; the brothers apologize for hiding and not helping; when they went, S. asks to return - gloves forgot; he fell off the stove, under it 12 heads; the brothers kept silent; three sisters of the sorceress gathered; one promises to become an apple tree, the other a feather bed, the third a well; the brothers want to eat apples, lie on the feather bed, drink water, S. does not give; brothers find a hut, hunt, cook in turn; a dwarf with a long beard came, ate everything, beat the IC; the same with IN; S. beat the dwarf, pinched his beard in the stump; he pulled out the stump from by the root, gone, the trail of blood leads to the hole; S. orders to kill the bear, make it out of the skin of belts, lower it on belts; the girl of the copper kingdom sends to the girl of the silver kingdom, she to the girl of the golden kingdom; everyone asks to marry her; the maiden of the golden kingdom orders to change the wells with strong and weak water; the dwarf drank weak water, S. killed him; S. sends the girls upstairs, each turned her kingdom into a lump; when the brothers picked up S., they were flattered by the girls, cut off their belt; S. fell, found the Firebird, she carried him upstairs, because he defeated her villain; IC took the girl of the silver kingdom, the IN took the copper kingdom, and the maiden of the golden kingdom is his servant; having learned how it was, the tsar executed the IC, drove the IN away, made S. an heir, he married the princess of the golden kingdom]: Gura 1965, No. 20:230-233; Russians (Moscow) [the old man weaved bast shoes, sold it; 12 brothers are dragging a mare; the old man gave for her what he took by the bast shoes; the mare has a pearl tail, a golden mane; tells me to sit on it, but not cling to his head clouds; at home, the mare immediately necklaces and gave birth to a foal; the landowner bought it for 500 rubles; the mare to the old man: but he forgot about me; he fed her, she flew to the steppe and gave birth to a son Ivan-Kobylin (IK); he went to rescue the princess, she was carried away by a 12-headed serpent; he met and took Gorynya and Dubynya as companions; they were afraid to go down into the snake kennel, IK descended; the princess had a serpent on her knees, she was looking for lice in his heads; tells you to mark strength with impotence in places; the serpent has drunk impotence; they fight with sabers; IK: Serpent, look around, your kingdom is burning" the serpent looked around, IK cut off all heads; the princess gave her ring; her companions they picked it up; IR tied a stone, they cut off the rope, believing that they were raising the IC; 12 cabbage rolls promised to take IR to the ground, told them to prepare water and meat; the last portion was not enough, he cut off the eggs from his right leg , divided it into 12 parts, gave it to cabbage rolls; on the ground, the birds coughed up pieces, put them back; the mare's mother ran, hit the stone, the crows began to peck at it; IC grabbed the crow, told the crow to bring it alive and dead water, the mother revived; dressed as a beggar, he came to the wedding of the princess with Dubynya; the bride recognized her ring; Dubynya was opened across the field, IK received the kingdom]: Vedernikova, Samodelova 1998, No. 23:58- 61; Russians (Tambov Region) [An unclean spirit stole Anastasia the Beautiful from Tsar Pea; three sons go in search; the youngest Ivan sees how three spoonbills became maidens, began to swim; I. hid the sash as the most beautiful; she replies that his mother was kidnapped by her father Raven Voronovich; tells him to follow a bird with a golden tuft; I. goes with his brothers, they bring him down to the lower world; 33 spoonbill girls in the copper, silver, golden kingdoms they send I. to go for a ball; the princess of gold gives a ball to go to the pearl kingdom, where mother I.; orders to rearrange vats with strong and low-power water there; I. enough BB, makes him give him a road- a feather; princesses and mother I. turned the four kingdoms into balls, the I. brothers pulled them all out, cut off the rope, lifting I.; 12 fellows carried him to the ground; I.'s father executed his wife, wants to marry the princess the golden kingdom; she demands to sew boots, then a dress without measure; I. does everything, hiring artisans and revealing hidden kingdoms; the princess tells I. to cook in milk, he becomes handsome; his father jumped, cooked; I. marries, reigns]: Afanasiev 1958 (1), No. 130:239-243; Russians (Kursk, Valuisky District) [The only son of a poor widow is forced to beg, then he is hired by to a rich old man, promises to do it for three. He grinds his life, agrees with two men to work together. At night, they look for fire in the field, the grandfather by the fire agrees to give fire in exchange for a fairy tale, the men can't tell, he cuts a belt out of their backs. The widow's son agrees to tell the story, on the condition that the old man does not interrupt him. He tells stories for a long time, then says that his grandfather rode his old grandfather in the next world. The old man screams "you're lying", the widow's son clamps his beard in the crevice in the stump, takes the fire. Guys want to see an old man running away with a stump. They follow the trail from the stump that leads them to a bottomless hole, the widow's son comes down and finds himself in another world. In the mansions, three beauties warn him of an evil old man, the youngest shows kegs with weakness and strength, he swaps the contents. The grandfather returns, senses the Russian spirit, the widow's son goes out to fight with him, then both drink from kegs. The widow's son wins, takes treasures and three beauties, but men only pull girls out. He sees that the chicks are threatened by thunderstorm and rain, and covers them with a cloak. In gratitude, their mother promises to take him out of the dead, he collects meat for her on the road. The meat runs out on the way, and the man is forced to cut off his thighs. When a bird lands and finds out what it ate, it spits it out and returns it to its place]: Aristov, Pavlov 1939:73-76.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kalmyks; Stavropol Turkmens; Kabardian people; Abkhazians: Bgazhba 1983 [the prince asks his sons to bring birds to the daughter of the deity Ayerg; the elder remains to work for the blacksmith, the baker's middle, the youngest comes to the witch Arupap, puts on her chest; she tells her to unlock 12 doors, a beautiful woman sleeps in the last room, a cage with birds above her head; Apupap sends a young man to kill a deer, makes copies of 12 keys out of deer bones; on the way back, the young man meets his brothers; they let him down the cliff to collect water, throw the rope, bring the cage to his father themselves; Aerga's daughter rushed in pursuit, she pulled the young man out, came with him to his father, told the kidnapper to tell him how he stole the birds; the older and middle brothers are lying, she tells them to be locked in a stable; the youngest says she marries him married; father drives away his eldest sons]: 111-113; Shakryl 1975, No. 78 [Adaouy son finds out that his mother is a kidnapped girl; demands that the father allow them to see their relatives; so as not to quarrel with his son, father rushes into the abyss; the mother is horrified: the other adaus will take revenge; then the son leaves, hires a mullah, brings a pile of trees on his shoulders, drags an elephant by the ear; people ask the mullah to calculate the employee, He gives money, the Adaui buys a prisoner with it; takes Adaua, who has a mill on his big toe; another who turns a trough on his thumb; cooks one by one; A bearded man arrives on a rooster, ties up the cook, eats everything; when Adaua's son remains, he pinched the dwarf's beard with a tree; but he pulled out the tree, went into the abyss; the companions lowered the son of Adaua there; three the girls say that the dwarf is dying; the son of Adaua sends them upstairs; the youngest warns that if his companions don't pick him up, he must jump on the white ram that will take them to the ground, and the black one He will lower it even lower; the companions left the son of Adaua below; he accidentally jumped on a black ram; old woman: an elephant guards the water, once a week allows him to be taken for a girl; Adaua's son has overcome an elephant, brought it by the ear; only a kite can carry it to the ground; an elephant attacks the chicks, the Adaua's son killed him, the grateful kite promises to take it upstairs, tells them to stock up on meat and water; the meat is over, the last The son of Adaua took a piece out of his hand; on the ground, the kite healed the wound; the son of Adaua killed his companions, and made their wives slaves to his wife]: 353-361; Abazans; Ossetians; Ingush; Chechens [The young man goes to face off with seven Nart-Orsthoys, who marry him; when he goes home with his wife, her brothers warn that they will be mirrored when crossing the river; young man he held on, and the horses and wife fell into the lower world; the young man made a hut, two more came to live; it was clear how a girl went to the lower world; the companions cannot go down - it's hot, the young man went down, there are three girls there, he sent them to the ground when he began to climb himself, the companions cut off the rope; the old woman says that there is a Sarmak by the stream, does not provide water, the young man cut it into 9 pieces; the old woman: the road is white, gray and black sheep, if you touch the black one, you will go even lower; the young man takes the white man, goes up to the ground; finds his father; the insidious companions are expelled, the young man married the one raised girls he liked]: Malsagov 1983, No. 25:126-128; Avars; Lucky; Armenians; Georgians; Turks; Azerbaijanis; Kurds.

Iran - Central Asia. Turkmens; Uzbeks; Tajiks; mountain Tajiks; Shugnans; Bartangans.

Baltoscandia. Latvians; Estonians; Seto; Karelians; Norwegians; Danes [husband told his wife to breastfeed his son Hans for 10 years; he could not tear out a tree; another 10 years - could; H. is too strong to work properly; the pastor sent him to the forest for firewood, where demons, H. threw them away, brought a cart of firewood and horses; pastor sent H. to bring paper from hell; hell suggests: whoever throws the rim higher; H. pretends to throw it to God the Father, asks him not to do so, gives the paper; the pastor is forced to pay a load of money; H. tells the blacksmith to shackle for him an iron club; meets, takes a stonemason, a woodcutter as companions; they come to the castle, cook in turn; every time a witch comes, beats and throws the cook into the basement, eats everything; H. takes away from her magic ointment, saves friends, the witch is gone; H. finds a hole in the ground, tells him to go there; beat the witch, sends two princesses upstairs; then puts his staff; the companions think it's H. cut off the rope so that they could get both princesses; H. killed the seven-headed troll, freed the third princess; forced the witch to carry them to the ground; the princess gave him one thing like half the sun, the other is like half a moon; the king demands just such things; H. hired a jeweler, pretended to forge the things himself, came to the palace, married a younger princess, who recognized him as his deliverer]: Suritz 1991:14-19; Swedes [when the son of a peasant is 16, he takes him to town, he sees a gun, easily raises it with one finger, carries it on his shoulder; tells him to be called Bären-Öra; at the age of 20 he takes it an iron club, goes to wander; prevails in martial arts, takes satellites 1) a river damming with a beard, 2) pulling a spruce tree; satellites live in a forest hut, cook in turn; a troll twice comes, eats everything; when BÖ remains, he hits the troll with a club, he leaves, pulling out an oak tree out of anger and dragging it with him; friends follow the trail of failure in the mountains; not far from the sea, friends take it from the locals are all ropes, they lower BÖ down the rope; there is a castle and a torn oak tree; the princess gives BÖ a drink of strength, not a drink of weakness; a BÖ troll clutching his sword kills him with a club, he The troll's mother kills with a sword; the princess was kidnapped 10 years ago from Arabia; BÖ sends the princess upstairs; then puts a stone in the basket; the companions think they are lifting BÖ, cutting off the rope; They bring the princess to Arabia, in a year she must marry one of her imaginary saviors; BÖ finds a whistle, a servant comes out to the sound, serves food, royal attire, fast horses; they gallop to Arabia, BÖ marries a princess, companions flee]: Stier 1971, No. 1:5-11.

Volga - Perm. Chuvash; Mari; Tatars; Bashkirs.

Turkestan. Kazakhs (including Xinjiang); Uighurs; Dungans.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Siberian Tatars; Tuvans; Tofalars; Dongxians; Inner Mongolian Mongols (Chahars) [Türgen's elder brother arγatu (TA) tyranite younger Tegüs jayaγatu (TD); demon fox with 8 souls (mule, snake, spider, frog, boar, pheasant, ax; {the eighth is not named; then, when destroying souls, other incarnations are mentioned} kidnapped Princess Najid (N.) and took her away on his mule; she lost her shoe, TD found it; the king promises his daughter's hand to her savior; TA and 500 warriors go along with TD; seeing a hole in the ground, TD went down; TA took the soldiers away; N. said what room the demon's souls are in; the main one is in the golden turtle; TD killed a yellow dog, a snake, a spider, a wild boar; returning, N. became angry with the mule, hacked it with an ax; then became angry with the ax, broke it against stones; only one soul was left; the demon and so on fought for a long time, N. helped to finish off the demon; N. went upstairs with treasures, went to the warriors; TA bribed them, ordered them to fill up the way out of the ground; heavenly the messenger brought TD to the ground; the warriors confirmed TA's words and the king wants to marry N. for him; N. objects; TD returned, married N., TA expelled]: Heissig 1985, No. 7:127-136; Mongors; Oirats; dagurs.

Western Siberia. Nordic (?) Selkups; Mansi.

Eastern Siberia. Evenki of the Baikal region.

Amur-Sakhalin. Orochi.

Japan. The Japanese.

SV Asia. Chukchi; itelmen.

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos; chugach; Bering Strait inupiate [wife tries to kill her husband]; Northern Alaska Inupiate; copper.

Subarctic. Koyukon; tanana; helmet.

NW Coast. Except Hyde: a husband kills his wife. Haida; Heiltzuk; Quakiutl; Nootka; Makah.

The coast is the Plateau. Chilcotin; shuswap; thompson; lillouette; snohomish; skagit; Puget Sound; quinolt; cowlitz; sunpual; curdalen ; ne perse; clickitat; vasco; lower chinook; alsea; cous; clamate; modoc; kutene.

The Midwest. Northern Ojibwa (Sandy Lake); Eastern Cree; Steppe Cree.

Northeast. Nascapi; montagnier; seneca.

Plains. Sarsi; blacklegs; assiniboine; santi; yankton; teton; arapaho; iowa; skidi pawnee; kiova-apache.

Southeast USA. Caddo; tunic; biloxi; alabama.

California. Yurok; viyot; karok.

Big Pool. Northern Shoshones; Utah

Great Southwest. Navajo; jicarilla; chiricahua; western apaches; tewa; zunyi; maricopa; havasupai.

Western Amazon. Shuar; Aguaruna.

NW Amazon. Carijona; kubeo; yukuna; makuna; barasana; kabiyari; andoke; chikuna.

Central Amazon. Parintintin.

Eastern Amazon. Tenetehara.

Montagna - Jurua. Cashibo; machigenga; kachinahua.

Bolivia - Guaporé. Surui; synta larga.

Southern Amazon. Vaura; kamayura; trumay; kalapalo; iranshe; paresi; umotina; bororo.