Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K27N. Attributes tasks, H310, H331.


A young man must complete difficult tasks to obtain a marriage permit; H310, H331. See motive K27.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Luba [creator god]; bena-lulua [creator god]; mbundu [chief]; bondei [chief]; kaguru [chief]; kikuyu [sun; chief]; chokwe [magic chief] villages]; laadi [chief]; congo [father of the bride]; sundi [chief]; yaka (Congo) [bride parents]; lamba [mother of the bride at the instigation of the hero's brothers]; lenje [one of the most popular stories in the Zambezi region; when leaving, the chief says: if one of the wives gives birth to a boy, he must be thrown away; one gave birth to a boy, put him on a bed in reeds, the old woman promised him take care; his mother called him Kalombe, but the old lady Mandu; his first cousin Ngoma ("drum") and his friends hear his song and try to get him out of the hole in the anthill, where he hides like a rabbit; they he was dug up, brought to his mother; he came to his father, who is not going to kill him, gives him half of the village, slaves and cattle; he goes to marry the daughter of the rain god; sees an unusual bird, goes for her; meets an old woman, sleeps with her; she gives him the feather of this bird; then the feather leads him along the right road, removes dangers and obstacles from her (excrement; a herd of elephants; a mountain with steep cliffs; buffaloes; snakes), teaches and guides him, completes tasks; he is asked to enter different huts, saying that this is the abode of the daughter of the rain god; offers the girl herself; the pen repeatedly reports deception ( the girl's mother herself, etc., take her form) and shows the right choice (which mat is the daughters of the rain god and which are not); he is given wine and food, but these are only transformed father-in-law and mother-in-law, he does not drink or eat; the rain god orders to get bark from the top of the tree; the other two applicants fall, the feather assures that M. will get the bark; then they bring the bride for M., but they also want to deceive: the daughter of the rain god is in ash and covered with skin, and the maid wears jewelry from head to toe; the pen reports everything; the father-in-law tells me to dig a hole that she hid M., but he tells the pen to grab his father-in-law, he is forced to let M. out of the hole; then the same an episode when a feather takes his father-in-law hostage, with a tree (must throw M.), with a bunch of dry trees (the father-in-law himself starts to burn, tells the fire to let M. go), with a hammer in the forge; the father-in-law tells me to fill the pot with tears, M. asks that other sons-in-law fill the second pot; the father-in-law has to order that the roof does not throw off M.; M. and his wife, servants, cattle, provisions leave; M. gives his pen to his wife and the skin of a wild cat; he goes ahead, she and her companions fall behind; it rains, but M. tells it to be sunny; when a liar comes out of the forest almost at the target, takes the form of the daughter of a rain god; M. discovers deception, because the imaginary wife does not have his pen; does not believe that she forgot it while swimming; the liar runs away, M. returns for his wife, she is solemnly accepted; after 10 days she says she cannot live here, incest is everywhere, leaves; M. rushes after her; after her breaks into the abode of the rain god; stays there; in the version of Sera's relatives, if one thunder thunders from one side of the sky and him the other answers, it is the son-in-law clapping his hands, and the father-in-law claps in response]: Torrend 1921, No. 18:97-144; ndau [chief]; song [Tshitata Tshikulu, other participants are animals]; ganda [ heavenly leader]; basa [girl's parents]; fipa [cannibals]; isanzu [father-in-law]; scythe [scary Mangangezulu]; mpongwe [merchant]: Nassau 1912, No. 4:30-37; makua ( dude, Kelimabe district) [Tembo sees a snake suffocating trying to swallow a gazelle, saved it; the snake's son advises choosing a mirror on which the fly will sit as a reward; coming dressed in banana leaves , T. asks the ruler's daughter as his wife; the girl's mother orders to build a house in the middle of the river; the mirror gives a house, servants, etc., T. gets a wife; when the war breaks out, T. says he does not want to see it; that's it warriors fall dead, an old woman remains; asks to look at the mirror and replaces it, takes it to the ruler; warriors come to life, T.'s wife returns to her father, T.'s house is destroyed, he and his cat are locked up ; rats come to kill him, but the cat grabs the rat, lets go for promising to return the mirror; using a mirror, T. returns his house, servants and wife]: Torrend, p. 247ff in Klipple 1992:203-204; maviha [people came to ask the chief for his daughter; he demanded that the groom drive the wind away so that the millet would not die; the groom could not complete the task; the rabbit went to do it, got a wife, although the millet died from the wind; killing the turkey, asked his wife to cook it for his father-in-law, and let him dry the gravy on a spit; the leader gathered people, asked if this requirement was ridiculous; the Rabbit asked if the wind could be driven away; the leader reports The rabbit has his power]: Harries 1940, No. 2:413-414; Swahili [sultan; princess herself]; aka [Kômba has two daughters; he promises them to those who get honey from a huge hollow tree with with a slippery trunk; kills every groom; goes Mbangō, meets an old woman covered with ulcers, scrapes off her scab, she gives him her hair, tells him to put paths at the fork, the left of which leads to K., there is a red duck there now; when K. put a bag of hair next to the duck, it contained axes, machetes, spears, money, a big cock, M. gave all this to sister K.; she tells K. not to answer. when he comes and starts screaming and not smoking tobacco with him; when M. climbed the tree, he told all the women to sing, otherwise it is impossible to climb; K. throws leeches that cut off the branches, but M. moves to others, fills the baskets with honey; when K. cuts off the last branch, M. manages to quietly go down and hide in the hut of K.'s daughters; he searches for him in vain in the foliage of the fallen branches; the girls are happy; with Since then, honey bees have spread through the forest, and honey used to be owned by K. alone]: Motte-Florac 2004, No. 39:171-182; Lenje [Tilo promises daughter Maria to whoever beats him at cards; young man Jewawu beat; T. makes wooden figures, offers to choose a bride; M. warns J., he wants M.; T. throws beads, tells them to pick up; M. calls people, they pick up; J. tells them to sow rice, right away But to harvest and cook food; M. tells people to do everything; tells them to choose a small knife rather than a big knife; M. and J. take horses, ride away; M. returns to return his pendant to his father; returns to J.; T. wakes up, rushes to chase; M. turns himself and J. into children playing sand, T. does not recognize them; T. summoned J. to him; J. promises to kill M. if in his absence she gets together with another man; Antonio comes instead of J., M. unlocks, converges with him; J. came back, stabbed M., took another wife, A. fell into the ground; M. became a bird, flew to J., became again a woman; J. brought her back, drove her other wife away]: Earthy 1937:295-301.

West Africa. Baule [chief]: Himmelheber 1951b: 127-134 (translated into Himmelheber 1960:169-180); soninke [king]; tenda [girl's mother]; gola [girl's mother]; dagari [king]; bambara [king]; dark [king]; borax [beauty's father]; banen [porcupine promises to give his daughter to whoever jumps over the hole; all animals take turns jumping and falling into the hole; turtle with I planted a tuber in the evening, a plant grew, the turtle jumped over, got a wife {it's not clear how the plant helped me jump}; when he saw the turtle's beautiful hole, the porcupine also decided to live in a hole]: Dugast 1975: 315-318; senufo [the king plants a cotton tree, places a metal teapot on the top of his head; this tree grows rapidly, the trunk is covered with thorns; the king will give Nayêlêma's daughter to whoever climbs a tree and take off the kettle; two young men go to try their luck; one does not pay attention to the dirty leper old woman, and the other greets her; she also asks to scratch her back; says that he will put his skin on him and in this form he will be able to climb a tree, and later regain his true appearance; the king is happy]: Diep, Bamba 2007, No. 44:145-150; Anyi [Heaven promises a daughter to marry him , who will clear the forest with which it is covered, and will not scratch it; an elephant took up the job, but he scratched the sky; the same with other animals; the spider completed the task and got the girl; got the bull; led him where there are no flies; sent his son Aba-Kan to bring fire; but he mistook the red anus of Sleeping Death for fire; she came and swallowed the whole bull]: Basset 1903, No. 79:199-222; mukulu [at God's daughter; only a lover knows her name; God will give her daughter to someone who collects more grass and leaves, and the land under them will open; an earthen squirrel has dug a cave, the vault has collapsed, the earth seems to have opened; God demands to guess the daughter's name; the earth squirrel calls him {it's not clear how she found it}; God demands that the dog be brought in is a panther; the earth squirrel pretends to be seriously ill; the panther allows her to be tied paws; the squirrel leads the panther to God; he requires a special bull - the lion; the squirrel tells the lion that they want to eat it, the lion allows itself to bind; God: make it pour in and fill the vessels; downpour He poured in; God slapped the squirrel so much that the squirrel became deaf]: Jungraithmayr 1981, No. 5:20-25.

Sudan - East Africa. Kordofan (language not specified) [ghoul]: Frobenius 1923, No. 11:101-117; amhara [king]; lango [bride's father]; nao [hare takes with him an ax, hoe, machete, goat bag skins, a small basket, grain and a piece of cloth; gives part of the canvas to ichnevmon (Egyptian mongoose), cuts bamboo for termites, gives birds snails, feeds guinea fowl grain, catches an antelope for a lion, cuts down a baobab for an elephant; a man promises a daughter who has eaten 10 baskets of food; no one should eat more than one; the hare asks to bring food into the house, leave him alone; one basket of food is eaten by birds, two by termites, three by a lion, the rest are an elephant, ichnevmon drinks beer; when he leaves the house, the hare cooks cassava for himself and says he is hungry; gets a wife]: Held 1904:134-136; malgashi [heavenly god].

North Africa. Mauritanian Arabs: Tauzin 1993:127-142; Kabila [Sultan; Dev, Ghoul]; Algerian Arabs [Sultan]: Filleul de Pétigny 1951:113-137; Ancient Egypt [king]; Arabs Egypt [ruler]; Tunisia [emir].

Southern Europe. Spanish [king; devil]; Catalans [king]; Portuguese [king]; Basques [king]; Italians (Ticino): Keller 1981:214-219; Italians (Basilicata) [ king]: Calvino 2017, No. 133:590-593 (=Crane 1885, No. 13:61-68; translated to Cotrelew 1991:131-134); Sicilians [king]: Calvino 1980, No. 172:616-622 (=Cotrelew 1991:148-156); Maltese [ king]; Ladins [king]: Uffer 1973, No. 18:54-56

Western Europe. The Bretons [king; sorcerer]; Welsh [giant]; French [king; devil]; Wallons [sorcerer; king]: Laport 1932, No. 313, *313D: 43-44, 44-45; Flemish [king]; friezes [king]; Germans (Hanover) [king will give only daughter to whoever builds a ship moving on water and land; carpenter, cabinetmaker, and shoemaker who made wooden shoes , everyone decided to try; the old woman asks the carpenter what he is doing; he is rude to her; she replies that she already knows - she may not try, it won't work; the same with the cabinetmaker; the shoemaker is kind says; the old woman promises that his princess; when she goes to the king, let her take everyone who gets in the way; it drank, ate (gnawing bones), runner (holding her knee, otherwise immediately will be far from here), the shooter (if he shoots, he will sweep everyone around); the king orders him to drink all the wine in his cellars (he drank), eat 8 cows (ate), deliver a letter to the king's brother in 24 hours and to answer (the runner suffered, but fell asleep, the shooter woke him up with the thunder of a shot; after the wedding, the king sent his son-in-law to war; the shooter destroyed enemies, and then the king and his entourage; reigned, making friends Ministers]: Wolf 1845, No. 25:105-106, 121-126; Germans (Austria) [witch]; Irish [king; sorcerer]; Scots [king; giant]; British [king].

Western Asia. Palestinians [the fisherman caught a huge fish; she tells him to take it to the Sultan; give the water in which it will be washed to the mare, let the sultan and his wife eat the meat, and the fisherman and his wife; then children will be born; fish It smells bad, but the fisherman talked about its wonderful properties; count the eggs in the pan, but do not count the months of the pregnant woman; the mare gave birth to two foals; the king gave his son to the fisherman's wife to feed both; the prince is Hasan, the fisherman's son is Hussein, he is smarter; when are they 15 years old? his mother is unhappy that he is holding the fisherman's son by his brother; they sat on horses born at the same time as them and went on a journey; they stayed with an old woman; she says that the local sultan is evil; Daughter's suitors give impossible assignments, fails to cut their heads; see motive K27Z4b]: Littmann 2016:160-183; Syrian Arabs [woodcutter thinks how to drag a log home, and Suddenly he sees a camel; he loaded it, brought him home; every day the camel brings a golden egg; then tells him to marry the king's daughter; the king demands a bunch of grapes that do not run out of berries; a carpet that will cover all the streets; a golden castle; everything is being fulfilled; the king has given his daughter, at night the camel turns into a young man; tells no one to tell; enemies have attacked, the princess's husband fights at night, smashes them; the king tied his wound with his handkerchief; the princess found out, told everyone, her husband had disappeared; the king built baths, the plaque was a story of the extraordinary; an old woman told how she spent the night in a tree; the earth opened , the prince came out, holding three apples in his hands: one for the dove, one for my wife, who could not keep the secret; his wife came and hugged him; he explained that the underground witch had cast a spell: If a woman deceives him, he will stay underground; his wife goes underground with him, he passes her off as a maid; the witch tells him to sweep with a broom to which the beads are attached; if one bead is lost, will send it back to the ground; the husband collected the fallen beads, attached it back; the witch has a sister in another country; let the girl take her the chest without opening it; the girl dropped the chest, snakes got out of it and monkeys; the husband gathered them back; wants to marry the princess's husband to another woman, and let her dance at the wedding; husband: ask the witch for a lamp and wick; while dancing, the husband threw a lamp at the witch and she burned down; The spell is removed, the princess and her husband returned home]: Abu Risha 2015:30-35; mehri [Ginny girl's father; sultan]; Socotra [sultan].

Micronesia-Polynesia. Uliti [chief]; Gilbert [Tabakea sorcerer is the strongest on the island and Bakoa shark is at sea; B. went to the island and saw an old woman with daughters Nei Winaba and Nei Wiriki (the eldest); B. chose the eldest as his wife; T. also came to that woman and married her youngest daughter; the eldest has many children at sea, and the youngest is childless; goes to ask the sister of Bakoariki's eldest son for upbringing; was It is known that this son will bring misfortune, so he was not cared for; Ney Vinaba's path is blocked twice by a palm tree, but the girl says it's T., the palm tree disappears; Ney Vinaba brings the boy ashore, T. tells the spirits to take care of him, he quickly grows up to be a giant; his real mother has come to protect him because her husband Bakoa and his sharks are going to eat him; Ney Vinaba leads his sister and the Bacoarics along a dangerous road, to make them die; 1) two huge shells, people opened them, they slammed shut, killing people, the Bacoarics break their shells; 2) two rocks collide and disperse in the sea, their Bacoarics breaks; 3) a huge squid grabs it, he is powerless, asks Her Viriki to help, she shouts T., he sends the beast to Kekenu, he defeats the squid; Bakoa tells Bakoarica to eat and drink a lot, otherwise he will kill; Keken's beast eats everything in the dark; Bakoa lets in a poisonous centipede, Bakoariki kills her; Bakoa invites his son to dance to kill at that time, but he sings, making the beast's song huge, he eats all predatory fish, eats Bacoarica's mother; Bacoarica spared his father and, with his adoptive mother, returned to T.; he is disappointed that Bakoariki did not kill Bacoa, became a small insect and made Kekena tiny too; sharks still hate humans]: Koch 1966:48-52; (cf. Nukuria [recorded Feb 2013; two brothers sail to an old woman to find wives; she tells everyone to get coconut from a palm tree without dropping it; then put the coconut in the boat and sail away from the island, without turning around; the eldest turns around, sees an old woman in his boat; the youngest does not turn around, brings a young wife; coconuts have turned into women]: Davletchin, personal message 02.05.2013).

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans (Amdo) [king]; Tibetans (Sikkim) [king]; Tibetans [king; Chinese emperor]; Mustang [princess brothers]; rai [king]; apatani [wife's brother: chief spirits and owner of wild animals]; chrusso (aka) [father-in-law is the owner of the waters]: Elwin 1958a, No. 11:169-171; lhota [owner of wild pigs]; meitei [(without details); the widow has a son with a huge head and small body; his name is Makok ("head"); his mother's brothers took him on a trade expedition; when everyone was sleeping in the boat, thieves stole goods; M. did not sleep and noticed that the leader of the robbers had dropped a magic ring that fulfills wishes; when he returned, M. told his mother to go to the king and ask the princess for his wife; the king gives impossible tasks, M. does everything, gets the princess]: Oinam et al. s.a.; meitei [the frog invites the widow to take her son; tells the adoptive mother to marry the princess; the first time the king sent her away, the second time he ordered her to be beaten, and on the third he sets the condition: to build a palace with a roof of flowers and fruits, from the palace there is a wall of gold and silver, in the palace there are hundreds of servants; the frog groom does everything, gets a wife; she dreams that a prince is next to her; in the morning she sees frog skin, burns; spouses happy, lots of children]: Oinam et al. s.a.

Burma - Indochina. Shans [king]; monks [king]; Viets [king]; Khmers [king]; Zhuang [father of heavenly maidens]; white tai of Vietnam [king - father of heavenly maidens]; Arakan people [king]: Konow 1903:9-12; Burmese [ruler of Silver Mountain]: Blundell 1839:536-551; inta [king]; karen [king]; tyamas [astrologers promise the childless king that he will have a son if he makes sacrifices at the mouth of the river, but this son will ruin the kingdom; the king makes sacrifices; the boy eats a lot, the king is broke; when his son is 15 years old, his father calls him into the forest, knocks him down on him tree; in the evening the son brings a tree to his father; tells him to forge a heavy axe, leaves, his name is Strong; meets the Wagon Pulling (without bulls), the Reed (cutting reeds on five mountains); both cannot lift an ax Strong, become his younger brothers; giants Sharp ass, Snotty, Big foot are fishing; The strong asks for fish, each of the giants tells the other to give, finally, the Big Foot gives, A sharp ass hits the ship in anger, Snotty closes the hole with snot; the portion of fish is so large that there is no firewood in the village to fry it; the brothers go to the forest, they have no fire; a wagon pulling comes to the old woman , she throws him into the cauldron; the same with the Reed; the strong makes the old woman give the plant of immortality, revives the brothers, sews up the old woman's eyes and mouth, tells her husband to be sent in their footsteps; the giant husband drives him Pulling the wagon and the Reed up to the neck into the ground; the Strong drives him up to his neck into the ground; the old woman goes to look for her husband, urinates where he is in the ground, hears his voice, digs him up; The strong throws the head of the fish into China; the emperor promises a daughter to the one who removes the smelly head; The strong cleans up, marries the princess of the Wagon, leaves him a tree of immortality, tells him to make sure that no one enters garden; throws a fish head at Siam; throwing it into the sea, gets the Princess of Siam, gives it to the Reeds; returns to the land of the Tyam; the pulling wagon allowed people into the garden, the tree of immortality flew to heaven, The strong man died immediately; the Wagon and the Reed came to the Tyam Land for him, and died too]: Landes 1887, No. 8:67-76.

South Asia. Ancient India [solar deity Sávitar, father of Surya, the female version of the sun; rakshas]; northern India [king]; konkani (Goa) [demon]; kannada [Indra]: Ramanujan 1997, No. 3:5-15; dhanwar [serpent lord of the underworld]; Kashmiris [king]; Marathi [king]; Nepali [king]; varli [hermit]; Bengalis [rich landowner]; Santals [king]; Oraons [king]; agaria [king]; pardhan [master of the lower world - Ses Nag]; baiga [ogre]; kannada [the mighty king asks four sons, what will they do after his death; elder: I will continue my father's work on the throne; second: I will help my brother rule the state; third: I will lead the army; fourth: I will become king of kings, I will build my own city and marry four heavenly maidens; the king expelled his youngest son; once in the forest, he came to the old woman's house; she is the daughter of a sage hermit who has lost control and who raped a girl; then he was killed by a tiger and his daughter born was ugly; her mother died and she became a hermit in the forest; as a result, she became powerful; the young man began to herd her cows; she She told them not to take them north; he went, hid by the pond; Indra's four heavenly daughters came down, took off their sari, began to swim; he stole one sari; the maiden ran after him, promised to become a wife, he was amazed looked around, she took the sari and turned the young man into stone; the old woman found him and revived him; told him to take a sari and run to her house and not look back; he did so; the old woman turned him into a baby, and a sari hid it inside his thigh so that the seam is not visible; when the maiden came running, the old woman advised her to cover herself with a cotton sari; then promised to return the sari if the virgin agreed to marry the young man; a young man with They came to the city as a wife; the king's servants saw the maiden, told the king; he pretended to be sick, sent the young man to extract the venom of the serpent Karkotak; the wife sent him to the mountains to the snake hole and gave a letter to the snake; on the way he saved a worm from the web; threw a letter into a hole; four snakes took it to the lower world to the king of snakes; the letter asked him to marry the applicant's daughter and comply with his request for poison; returning with with his second wife and poison, the young man gave poison to the king's servants; when they opened the bottle, the tamarind standing next to him broke out and burned; the king ordered the poison to be buried deeper; sent the young man to bring crocodile bile; along the way a young man let a young crocodile on land into the water; the young man threw letters from his wife to the crocodiles; the king of the seas gave him a daughter, diamonds and bile; now the king asks him to go to heaven to Indra and find out how his deceased parents and brothers live; his wives wrote many letters, the young man jumped into the fire, the god of fire took him to heaven, where Indra gave him a daughter, letters to the king and minister, and returned him to earth; on the way, the young man saved ants when the anthill was flooded with water; the young man gave letters; inviting them to heavenly paradise - you must also jump into the fire; the king and minister and their families burned down; the young man made a poor brahman king; himself he built a new city with 4 wives; at this time his father lost his kingdom and became a firewood seller; he came with his family to the young man's city; he sheltered them; gave his first wife's sari to his mother for storage; his wife asked him she, she put on her, and all four wives flew to heaven, and the city turned into a jungle again; the young man brought his brothers and mother to the city, where he made a brahmana king, and he went to look for wives; his wives met him and was the first to say that he must be tested by Indra to recognize him as his son-in-law; his wives took him to heaven, turning him into a fish in a vessel of water, and left him; I. tells 1) to collect the scattered sesame in 3 hours ( the young man called the ants - they perform); 2) get the ring thrown there from the well (the frog took it out; when meeting the hero with the frog, the informant lowered; for this purpose, the frog threw the tadpole to be eaten by snakes on at the bottom of the well, and found the ring myself); 3) cut the banana tree into three parts with one blow (the crocodile cut it); 4) recognize the first wife among three identical girls (the worm, now flying insects, sat on her sari); I. arranged a wedding; on earth, a young man conquered kingdoms; his father admitted that he was right]: Ramanujan 1997, No. 3:5-15; Tamils [Indra is the father of heavenly virgins]: Natesa Sastri 1886:80- 119; Sinhalese [two sons of one king and the daughter of another came to swim from different sides of the river; the elder hid the princess's clothes, brought her to the palace; the king drove him away with his wife; they stopped at widows, the prince told her to hide his wife's clothes, she persuaded her to return them; said that the prince would see her no sooner than the elephant chicks (Aet-Kanda-Lēniyā, at Kanda Lihini); the prince came to the forest, killed the cobra that crawled to the elephant's nest, fed the chicks; they asked their mother not to kill their savior; she took him to the princess's palace (he grabbed the branch, the bird held it in its beak); the prince buys and releases elephants, pigeons, fireflies; women carry water to wash the princess's hair, the prince throws a ring into the jug; the princess calls him, agrees to return if he completes the tasks 1) clear a plot in the forest for peas (elephants performed), 2) sow (pigs), 3) collect peas (pigeons); the king orders 4) to identify his daughter in a dark room among eight girls (fireflies); the prince gets a wife]: Parker 1910, No. 51:291-299 (translated to Volkhonsky, Solntseva 1985, No. 78:169-173).

Malaysia-Indonesia. Malays [king]; Minangkabau [king]; Mentawai [wife's heavenly brothers]; clemantane [daughter of Palai (Pegasus constellation) fell in love with an earthly boy Lafaang (Orion) and invited him to heaven; her father offered to feed the guest; contrary to warning, L. puts food in his mouth with his fingers rather than a needle; his wife told me to put the ax by the tree, he would cut it down; but L. began to cut it himself; the wife offered watch her father cut her (put his ax, the trees fall); the same the next day; L. tore off his left arm with a fallen tree; L. decided to leave his pregnant wife and return to the ground; the wife gave the tops sugarcane and banana roots, lowered the vine; as she descended, L. heard a newborn scream and wanted to return to heaven, but it was not returned; on the ground he did not throw bananas and sugarcane on the ground, but planted carefully; if something has grown, it is worse in quality than in the sky]: Hose, MacDougall 1912:140-141; dayaki of the sea [heavenly god]; dusun [raja]; murut [raja of heaven]; oh -wa Sangihe [raja]; Solor [father of heavenly virgins]; loda [raja]; minahasa [raja]; toraja [raja], Sumbawa [raja]; tabaru [father of a fish woman]; tetum [parents of a heavenly wife].

Taiwan - Philippines. Visayas [Magbolotó hides the wings of the youngest of three goddesses who came to swim in the stream; her name is Macaya; marries her without saying that he hid her wings; after giving birth to a son, she cooked rice, she noticed a parcel under the roof, put on her wings, flew away; her husband goes looking for her, the North Wind shows the way to the East, that to the South, that to the West, that to the Eagle, he brings his wife to her grandmother; she demands spread out the grain to dry and harvest (ants collect), peel rice (rats clean), cut down the entire forest on the mountain (wild boars uproot); M. and his wife return home]: Maxfield, Milington 1907:95-98; central subanen [sultan-father of the heavenly wife]; kasiguran agta [father of the heavenly wife]; kelley-i callahan [king father of the heavenly wife].

China - Korea. Chinese (Qinghai) [wealthy farmer]: Frick 1954, No. 13:522-523; Chinese (Gansu, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Manchuria, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hunan, Shandong, Fujian) [assignor - father of heavenly virgins; a poor young man sees fairies bathing, steals one of them's clothes, takes a fairy as his wife; after many years she finds her clothes and flies to heaven; the husband comes for her; God separates them, allowing you to meet only once a year; {the motive for difficult tasks and challenges is not included in the plot definition, but given the detailed retelling of the texts, Riftin probably occurs in most cases}]: Eberhard 1937, No. 34:55-56; namuzi [lord of heaven]; fox [dragon]; chuan miao [father of the heavenly maidens]: Graham 1954:278-280; meo [Sky Star]; Koreans [father of heaven] virgins and husband of his wife's older sister]: Garin-Mikhailovsky 1958:.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece [king]; Moldovans [tsar]; Gagauz [boyar]; Hungarians [king]; Bosnians [widow's son herds two cows in the mountains; fell asleep, no cows, went to look; three the brothers are fighting over a samovar boiler, a baton that hits on orders, and speedboat boots; the guy invited the brothers to race, took the items for himself; met Hajji; he offered to change his an inexhaustible purse to the samovar boiler; and then the guy sent a club to kill Haji and returned the cauldron; sent the mother to marry the ruler's daughter; he demands that the pond where the cows drink be filled with ducats and pave the way from the widow's house to the palace; he did everything and got the princess]: Preindlsberger-Mrazovic 1905:13-19; bosses [the poor widow's good and good-haired daughter rejects suitors; her mother drove her to forest: you will become a bear queen; the bear took her to his lair; when leaving, he blocked the exit with a stone, but she did not even think of running; gave birth to a gold-haired girl with the same clever eyes as a father bear; bear: my son would be in me and inherit my kingdom, and let my daughter be the queen among people; the bear put his crown in the cradle of his daughter and went to die; the bears buried him; the bear's wife turned the daughter in a toad and hid it under a stone; the king has three sons; the father tells them to take bows and shoot arrows from the top of the tower; the elders fired arrows into the neighboring kingdom and brought the princesses; the youngest fired an arrow at side of the forest; found an arrow on the fir above the cave, and everything around was tidy; wanted to kick a toad, and she: don't hit, I'm (your) happiness; he brought it home; noticed that although the servant brought food to the prince's room, like It should be, then everything was turned upside down; the prince came in and saw the girl wearing the crown; opened the closet and threw the skin into the fire with the toad; the prince introduced the bride to his father; he told the three daughters-in-law to eat; the elders threw off the crumbs on the carpet, and the youngest on the plate, and they turned into ducats; after that, the king demanded that the son give the sorceress to him himself; he does not agree; then let him sew clothes for everyone from one piece of fabric soldier; bride: go where you found me and shout "Burning hair - show up!" Tell my mother what she needs, she will do anything; she has given everything; the second task is to cook food in a cauldron for all the soldiers; the same; bring the ring that the king's late wife took to another world; bride: go ask the mother what to do; the bride's mother told her to remain silent and led her deep into the cave; one snake steals another's eggs (the girl is turned into a snake for secretly taking eggs from her mother during her lifetime); man and woman hanged by the legs, with their backs to each other (during their lifetime, the couple quarreled); the baby is hanged, the dog licks the dripping blood (the dog is a woman who strangled her child); two men are roasted on skewers, and they complain about the cold (during her lifetime they stole firewood hedges); the late queen, the prince's mother, cooks in boiling water; reached out her hand and told her son to remove the ring from her finger; let the king pay for 30 cherries, for which she did not pay was the only thing she could be punished for; when she returned, the prince told the king everything; he called the people together; when he found out who his wife owed, he gave that poor man the money; the prince returned to the cave and the bride's mother showed how the prince's mother came out of boiling water across the golden bridge and was saved; the wedding of three princes; the king handed over power to the younger]: Preindlsberger-Mrazovic 1905:81-94; Albanians [king]; Bulgarians [tsar]; Slovenes [of three brothers, only Zapechnik comes to his father's grave for himself and for his brothers; each time he receives a nut; the king tells his daughter's suitors to ride through glass bridge; Z. breaks a nut each time, pulls out a horse and knightly equipment; for the third time, the princess manages to seal his forehead; the king sends soldiers to look for the winner; Z. find he becomes king]: Arkhipova 1962:221-222; Croats [the widower married a widow, both with a son; the wife demanded that her son herd cows and her husband's son oxen; give her bread and cheese, and stepson - crusts; ox: twist my right horn, you will find food there; when I see my stepson full, my stepmother pretended to be sick, she needs that ox's meat; ox: when the butcher comes, jump on my back; took the young man far away from home; warned: I will butt with a plump ox and win; and a thin one will kill me; then take both my horns, but do not open my left one until you come home; but the young man, when he reaches the bridge, opened his left horn and from there the cattle came; vila: I'll put it back if she is allowed to come the morning after her wedding night to comb his wife's hair; the young man thought: it's not yet known whether I will marry; so he promised; he found it at home only a father, the farm is in decline; the young man sent his father to the king to ask for a princess; after the third time, the king descended to talk to the peasant: if your son has the same castle as mine, I'll give it back; the young man looked into the horn: there was a better castle than the royal one; now the king demands cattle; the cattle come out of the horn; the wedding; the pitchfork appeared in the morning; but in the corner lay yarn, and there were three breadcrumbs in it; crumbs they started talking: if you go to God from God, and if from hell, then to hell; Vila combed the princess and disappeared]: Leskien 1915, No. 44:197-199; Croats [king]; Serbs [tsar]; Montenegrins [ the guy decided to marry only the princess; the king requires three horses, each of a special and rare suit, and to load each with as much gold as he can carry; the princess fell in love with the guy, gave a magic knife and taught me what to do; go east, there will be a meadow where horses graze; use a knife's blade to direct reflected sunlight into the meadow, horses will go like sheep; in the meadow, cypress has copper roots, silver branches, golden needles; you have to knock on the roots with a knife, gold will appear in abundance; and so it happened; as a dowry for the bride, the guy asked for and received a knife]: Eschker 1992, No. 25:135-137; Greeks [king]; Macedonians [king]: Uther 1904 (1), No. 513A: 299-300.

Central Europe. Tsar, king. Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians; Russians (Karelian Pomorie, Sumy Posad) [the old man was fishing, he got cancer, he brought him home; cancer during the day, and a peasant at night; tells him to marry him royal daughter; the tsar sets conditions; build a palace; around the moat for ships to sail; a church and a bell tower; Rak Rakovich tells the servants to perform ("sea lions, eternal Voronezh"); after the wedding The princess admitted to her parents that her husband was good; the cancer was gone; she came to the hut: turn her eyes to the forest, my gates; Baba Yaga gave a handkerchief to embroider the corner; the next ball of silk was the second corner; the third is a boat; give for the covenant: spend the night with Cancer Rakovich; you can't wake him up; before the third night, Baba Yaga advises you to take out your sleepy pin; they began to live happily ever after, make good money]: Razumova, Senkina 1974, No. 67:313-317; Russians (Vologodskaya) [after the death of his parents, Ivan lives with his aunt; she gives him one hundred rubles three times, he bought a dog, a cat, a snake; the snake leads to his mother, tells him to take as a reward, a ring on his right hand; I. asks his aunt to marry Tsar Mary's daughter; the king demands a house like his, the ring workers perform; the crystal bridge, the milk river with jelly banks, on the bridge cages, birds in cages, and they will go to the crown, apple trees to bloom; everything is done, I. received M.; M. asked about the ring, tickled I.'s nose, the ring fell out of her mouth, M. ordered I. to be taken to the swamp, and her to her father; A cat and a dog came to I.; the cat tickled M.'s nostril, she spit out the ring; the dog swims across the river, the cat on the dog dropped the ring, the fish swallowed, the fishermen caught the fish, the cat got guts, brought a ring to I., he forgave M.]: Smirnov 1917, No. 34:187-191; Ukrainians (Transcarpathia; p. Zbui of the Zemplin Committee of Hungary) [the emperor has no children, he walks to sorcerers; one replies that the queen spat in the water, swallowed saliva by fish, brought offspring, and the queen has no children; it is necessary catch this fish in the lake under a stone slab and cook it, but so that no one else tries it; the maid tries the fish, the queen eats the fish, throws the bones to the dog; the maid, queen and dog get pregnant and through nine months give birth to a boy; the emperor is frightened; the advisers order to hire nurses; the boys have grown up and went to school; the son of the female Yanko has learned all the sciences and languages; the king is happy; I learn from books that Once there was a sun, a month and stars, but now there is nothing, the earth is covered in darkness; asks his father, the king says that three shufflers (dragons) have arrived; a 24-headed sun grabbed a sun with 12 heads - the month that had was a star; three royal sons saddle horses, went to look for the sun, the month and the star; the father told them that his brother, i.e. their uncle, studied to be a blacksmith in the Shedzmerice Region; the hell brought a letter: brother serves as a blacksmith for these three shufflers and their paternal uncle Laccibrade, who is elbow tall but has a long beard; the sons must go to Schedzmeritz, where their uncle is; there he is 100 meters Iron gates up, 24 comrades blacksmiths and 24 students; taking a letter to their uncle, the blacksmith, the brothers come to the Shedzmerice region, knock, the gate rings, the uncle leaves; making sure that their nephews are welcome accepts; knows where the lights are, because he is the blacksmith of kidnappers, whom he calls devils; one has a house made of gold, the other has silver, the third has copper; they are 24, 12, 6 miles away, respectively; their girlfriends - 48, 24, 12 miles away; at noon everyone leaves before midnight to see a friend - then you have to come; the princes will come to the copper house and the copper gate, where the weakest (with a star); he has a bridge from him to his home friends; his horse does not walk on the ground, only across the bridge; you have to take out one board in the evening to make a hole; I must sit under the bridge and listen to the shuffling go home; the shuffling sits on the horse, the ground is shaking; his horse comes across the bridge to the hole, gets scared, rushes back; the shuffling calms down: there is no horse like him and no good man like him; only his mother-in-law Gynjibaba said she saw Suchiy Yanko, but if he met now, the shuffler would cut him to pieces; I.: I'll cut you down, blows all your heads off, sits on the shuffler's horse, takes his sword and star, throws a star into the sky, she rises to his seat, becomes lighter; the brothers go to the 12-headed shuffling; Y. breaks two silver plaques from the silver bridge; the shuffle promises to chop Suchiy Yanko, mentioned by G. throw meat away to magpies and crows; I blow 6 heads, then 6 more; each one cuts off the end of her tongue, hides it in her pocket, lets go of a month; tells my brother from the maid that he will have a 6-headed horse, brother from the queen - 12-headed, he himself will take the 24-headed shuffler's horse; invites the brothers to take the sun, they are afraid; leaves them the spoon given by the uncle for the matitsa: if it has blood, hurry to help; pulls it out bridges 4 gold plaques; the shuffler promises to chop the son of the dog mentioned by his mother-in-law, throw it away to magpies and crows; I.: I will do it with you; they fight for 24 hours; both ask crows for help, but I promise all the more. meat; the shuffling breathes fire, the crows stuff weeds into his mouth, take away the sun, it rises to the sky; the shuffling throws fire even more, the crows in their beaks carry water, pour on I., others grab the shuffling legs, he fell, I killed him, cut off the tip of his tongue from each head; there is blood on a spoon behind the matitsa, the brothers take their horses out to flee; when I appear, they say that they were going to help him, he accuses him they lie, share horses; on the way home, their mother-in-law's hut of shufflers drive home; her daughters met there; I became a cat, climbed through the chimney, the youngest daughter, whose lover had 6 heads, recognizes Me by my eyes, the other two confirm; Gynjibaba: I would know if I saw it; the youngest looks up one century to her mother; G. sees Y., tells his daughters to put him in fur; they think that they did it and burned the fur from which, But I am a sorcerer and escaped; a mother tells one daughter to become a red handkerchief and lie on the road, strangle his two brothers and horses; the other with a silver pear, the fruits of which brothers and horses will choke; the third should become a meadow with silk grass and a well in the middle, people and horses will die from its water; I cut the handkerchief crosswise with a sword, it pours blood knee-deep to horses; the same with a pear, with a well; royal The brother, the chief blacksmith, orders the Iron Gate to be opened because her nephews will run away from G.; she chases with her mouth open, the young men rush to the uncle's yard, his students and comrades close the gate and G.'s eyelids are supported; G. demands to show her Y.; he tells the audience to take up one leaf, and he lets G.'s head into the yard and lock the gate with a key; G. is amazed that some worthless killed six (her daughters and shufflers); Y. replies that he will not let her go; let her become a horse that runs around the light in an hour, better than the Sharkani ones; G.: you can't wait; I ask my uncle for workers with with hammers; they hit G. on the head, she asks for mercy, but does not agree to be a mare; I tell you to hit harder; G. swears to serve faithfully; iron stirrups and a saddle are forged for her; I sit on horseback, take it in my hand a strand of flax lights him, linen does not have time to burn while the mare runs around the world; his uncle praises him, gives him a letter to his father and punishes him not to react, no matter what wonderful things he sees on the way; the brothers go home, towards the ditch is old Laccibrad on a hare, followed by his casing and beard; he says that I am not a man; I dismount, L. is in the saddle and flies away on a horse; I tell my brothers to notify father that the sun, the month and the star are already in the sky, and he will go for the horse, which was made in his uncle's forge out of sharkanikha; he returns to his uncle, he reproaches him for his disobedience, tells him to take a hammer and go to the plain, where L. herds a mare and sleeps on iron saddles and stirrups; he must crush his head, take a mare; when he finds L., Y. decides that he is so small that he is not dangerous, grabs the mare, shouts at L.; he wakes up, hits Y. with stirrups and a saddle; I beg for mercy, L.: his sister will no longer wear I., for although Y. beat her, L. himself beat him, so we should honestly leave; I leave; my uncle sends him back; L. agrees to give the mare if Y. brings him a princess from the other side of the world; uncle: it's in the seventh land, it's easy to get there, any novelty you see must be taken with you, the royal daughter will be given for him ; on the way, Y. sees, takes with him hungry (he gets bread on carts), drank (drinks the river, but can't get drunk), cold (he can't warm up near the fire in 12 fur coats and 12 covers), throwing a hammer at the end of the world; crossing the whole world in two steps; having a huge eye and seeing everything; the king receives them, offers to eat a thousand oxen and bread out of three thousand measures of flour in one supper, drink a thousand barrels of wine and a thousand vodka; Y.'s companions eat and drink everything; the king puts him to bed in an iron house, sends blacksmiths to bring bags of coal, kindles a fire; the freezing one takes off one fur coat and one casing, the coals go out, everyone goes to bed; the craftsmen bring more fire; the freezing one sheds two coats and two covers, the coals go out, the craftsmen freeze to death; the king orders in three hours go to the end of the world and take leather and gold to the craftsman to cast a ring and sew shoes; companion Y. steps once and finds himself with the master; on the way back he enters the city, where Sister G. lets he sleeps, puts his horse head as a pillow, takes his ring and shoes; half an hour before the deadline; the seer sees the sleeper and sister G.; another companion throws a hammer, knocking his horse's head out from under the runner's heads; he catches up with sister G. in one step, takes away his ring and shoes, and the other steps he finds himself at the wedding; I. and the princess are married, given the wagon and the army to accompany him to the border; L. pretends to be married stuck in the swamp, Y. tries to help, L. pulls him knee-deep into the swamp, runs on his horse with his wife; I. rides a Sharkan horse to the Shedzmericki region to visit his uncle; uncle: go to the oak grove, where there is a hollow, through it you will get to a city 7 miles deep into the earth, in the city a three-story house on a duck leg is L.'s home; Y. finds a house, hides by a well, meets his wife: let him know where L. has power; L. to his wife: he is called to war, whoever he helps will win; in response to his wife's persuasion, he explains that a wooden deer drinks water near the well, a chamois in it, a hare in the chamois, a duck in a hare, two eggs in the duck; if you break one, he will lose half his strength and both will die; if you take a golden apple on a gold cord and put it in your pocket, you can take the house with you; L. goes to the seventh land for a month to war; I cut animals with a sword, breaks one egg; L. flies home on a mare - he is still stronger than I.; I break the second egg, L. falls, I kill him; turns the house into an apple, takes his wife home, stops by my uncle on the way, he advises him to return to his homeland and secretly build the house; his father's servants discover an unknown house; the princes guard a possible enemy, warmly welcome his brother, he says that he has obtained a mare and married the daughter of a tsar from the seventh land]: Gnatyuk 1898, No. 8, pp. 39-54; Eastern Ukrainians (Poltava, Piryatinsky, recorded by L.M. Zhumchuzhnikov) [see motive K27p1; the snake king gives the prince difficult tasks; they are performed by Ivan Golyak, who is actually the prince's younger brother; the prince liked the youngest daughter of the snake; the snake orders to threshing 300 ricks overnight, spread straws to straws, grain to grain (IS orders mice perform); get a ring dropped into the sea (IS: the serpent threw it into the sea himself; tells the pike to get it); shoot a hundred pounds with a bow; prince: it's shameful for me to shoot from this, let the servant shoot; IS pulled on his bow, it broke; ride around the horse behind 12 doors; IS: this is the youngest daughter; say you don't want to be embarrassed, let the servant go around; IS hits the mare with a piece of bow, tells you to go down, fall and legs spread out; identify the bride among her sisters (the mosquito will sit on her nose); the prince got a wife, IS tells her not to trust her for 7 years]: Kulish 1857 in Pankeev 1992:84-99; Luzhitans, Czechs, Slovaks: Uther 1904 (1), No. 513A: 299-300; Czechs [rich merchant]; Kashubians [the king will give his daughter to someone who makes a boat that sails on land and water; two sons of a peasant decide to try refuse to speak to the old man; he says they will only make a gutter for the pigsty; the third younger brother politely answers the old man, made a boat; the old man tells him to take whoever the boy meets ; he met three old men; one drinks and cannot get drunk, the other is cold even in the sun, the third eats a lot; the king tells you to eat 12 loaves of bread, 12 bulls per night, drink 12 barrels of wine, sit in hot iron stove; old helpers do everything; war has begun, the king demands that the groom defeat his enemies; the old man teaches where to get a horse and a bag with his army; the young man is wounded, the king bandaged his leg half of his handkerchief; after victory, he ordered to find a brave man; the boy was found sitting in ash; a servant sent in search killed the hero and the second servant sent with him, tied his leg with a handkerchief and married on the queen; the old man revived the dead; everything was clarified; the deceiver was torn at the gate, tied four bulls to them; after the feast, the narrator was beaten into a cannonball and shot, flew to your table and I'm sitting]: Lifshitz-Artemyeva 2017:196-200; Poles [many records throughout Poland; variants close to Kashubian]: Krzyżanowski 1962, No. 513:165-166.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Crimean Tatars [king of jinns; padishah]; Karaites [the padishah has a beautiful and intelligent daughter Shah Sine; he will give her to someone who completes three tasks; the son of Padishah Chin-Machin has come; let him get it lion's milk; at night he climbed a tree, a growling lioness walked by, the young man was frightened, returned to his father; the shepherd also dreamed of SHS; found a ring in the sea, licked - devas appeared ready to perform orders; the shepherd sent the mother to marry the SS; he again demands lion's milk; the devas shackled the lioness and the shepherd fed milk in front of the padishah's eyes; the second task: bring the rhino; the devas delivered, the shepherd brought him to a padishah (a rhino the size of a mountain); bring Azhdaha (the same); build a palace; the devas built; a wedding of 40 days and nights; Padishah's son Chin-Machin called witches with sorcerers and ordered him to find out than a mystery; you need a witch - the sister of Devi Padishah; she sits in a cave looking into the all-seeing mirror; the witch pretended to be an unhappy old woman, the shepherd and his wife sheltered her; as soon as the shepherd fell asleep, she took possession of a ring; moved the palace and SHS to Chin-Machin; the SS asks for 40 days; the padishah threw her son-in-law into prison; the SS asked the witch to take her to the bathhouse; in the bathhouse, witches and sorcerers lose their abilities the witch forgot about it; the SHS scalded her with boiling water and took possession of the ring; sent messengers to her father and husband; returned everything as it was; the shepherd from the SHS inherited the throne]: Zherdeva 2020, No. 77; Kalmyks [khan]; Abkhazians [giants (bride brothers)]; Adygs [prince]; Kabardian people [dying, the prince orders three sons to guard his grave for three nights; each time his younger brother goes; defeats the rider, takes a weapon and three horses: bay, white, black; the prince will give his daughter to someone who knocks down a needle hung on a pole, wins the race, defeats the bull; each time the visitor wins three different horses incognito younger brother; gets the princess]: Aliyeva, Kardangushev 1977:82-86; Balkarians and Karachays [khan]; Stavropol Turkmens [khan]; Ossetians [sorcerer]; Terek Cossacks (art. Umakhan-Yurtovskaya) [the son of a poor widow buys the dog and cat that their owners wanted to kill; the widow scolds her son; he buys the snake that the men wanted to kill; goes with his mother to work in the garden for all day; in the evening they see that the stove is heated at home and food is cooked; this is the case every day; the widow comes home in the middle of the day; sees a snake shirt lying on the table; burns it in a burning stove ; a girl enters the hut; tells the widow that if she waited three more days, she would marry her son; then turns into a snake and tells her to be taken to her father and mother; the widow's son goes with her to the forest; from the father of the snake comes out of the glass house; asks the daughter whether to reward her savior with gold or a ring; at the daughter's insistence, he gives the widow's son a ring from which three young men appear who fulfill wishes; son the widow returns home; tells the fellows to build mansions and the mother to go to marry the royal daughter; the king gives the task: to build a crystal bridge between his palace and the mansions by morning; thanks to the ring, the widow's son performs it; marries a princess; decides to test her and turns the mansions back into a hut; the princess takes off the ring from her sleeping husband and returns to her father; the widow's son asks the cat and dog to help return the ring; the cat and the dog come to the palace; the mouse king caught by the cat asks him to let go; the cat tells him to order the mice to steal the ring from the princess; the princess sleeps and holds the ring in her mouth ; the mouse tickles her nose; the princess sneezes; the mouse grabs the fallen ring and brings it to the cat; on the way back, the cat and the dog must cross the river; they agree that the cat will hold the ring in its teeth and sit on the dog's back, and when it gets tired of swimming, they will switch places; the dog gets tired and wants to take the ring; the ring falls into the water; the dog catches the cancer king; on his orders, crayfish find the ring; the dog and the cat run home; the cat gives the ring to the widow's son, who is already being led to the gallows; he escapes thanks to three fellows and returns home]: Kikot 1892, No. 1:179-184; Terek Cossacks: Vostrikov 1907, No. 5 ( art. Naurskaya) [with the money taken from his parents, Ivan buys a cat, dog and snake at the bazaars, which their owners wanted to kill; when they see the snake, his parents scold Ivan; he goes on a journey with bought animals; sees an iron house standing in the forest on cast-iron legs; the snake says that this is her father's house; advises him to ask him for a twelve-eyed ring; the father rejoices at the return of his daughter; offers I. money, horses, treasures; he asks for a ring, gets it; goes on with the cat and the dog; rubs the ring, 12 fellows appear out of it; I. asks them for food and tells them to clear the road in the forest; enters the hut in which the old woman lives; orders the fellows to set the table; finds out about the princely daughter; tells the old woman to go to marry her; when she returns, she conveys the prince's words: "Let the son Yours will build a crystal palace in front of my palace in one night to have a place for him and his daughter to live; and if your son does not build a palace, then for your audacity I will remove my head from him and you"; by order I. 12 fellows are building a crystal palace from a ring; the prince is happy, but says to the old woman: "Tell your son to connect his palace to my palace with a crystal bridge in one night, so that from my house there was also a crystal bridge in the church, along which the bride and groom would be taken for the wedding; so that fruit trees would grow on the sides of this bridge; let him make sure that when they are married, the trees bloom, - they led from the church, spruce fruits"; I. performs the task with a ring, marries a princely daughter; she learns about the ring and picks it up at night; tells the fellows to destroy the palace and move it to the old one to the magician; I. tells the prince about the disappearance of his wife; he orders I. to be put in a cast-iron pole; a cat and a dog help the merchants; bring the food they receive to the owner; find his wife, learn from a caught rat that the ring is kept under Yagi Baba's tongue; at night, the rat tickles YB, she sneezes; the rat brings the fallen ring to the cat; on the way, the dog picks it up; swimming across the river, barks at the crow ; the ring sinks; the cat and the dog find it in the stellate sturgeon caught by fishermen; bring it to the owner; he tells 12 fellows to destroy the pole; is transferred with the prince to the wizard's house; the prince sees his daughter in in the arms of an elder; cuts off both heads; I. returns to his parents with his cat and dog]: 55-63; Ingush [tsar]; Kumyks [tsar; father]; Avars [khan, ruler]; Dargins [khan]; Lucky [tsar]: Khalilov 1965, No. 51:137-142; Kyurins [the childless queen suddenly gave birth to 40 sons; after that, the king left home; the wife hired nurses and raised sons; younger Melik Mammad calls on the brothers to find their father; they found him and threatened to kill him if he did not marry them to 40 sisters, daughters of one father and one mother; the king found; MM punishes the brothers not to stay in the Palace; but they spent the night there, and in the morning they are surrounded by a huge snake; he will let everyone go if MM comes to him; MM has come, the serpent tells him to get the daughter of the king of divas for him; the wolf tells MM to ask the serpent for a horse; his horse MM stabbed for a wolf; MM meets, companions someone who milks deer on the run; throws stones; drinks the river; the king of divas tells me to spend the night in an iron room, she was covered with wood, drank regurgitated the water, the room cooled down; run with the lame old woman for reindeer milk; the old woman gave wine to the deer milker, he fell asleep; MM saw it, shot, the milker woke up, killed the old woman, brought milk; overcame hero (stone-thrower overcame); MM got the daughter of the king of divas; came to the wolf; the wolf orders to kill a huge hare, an egg in his heart, a snake's soul in the egg; MM broke the egg, the snake died; MM married his daughter the king is a diva and a girl brought by his father; his father gave him the throne]: Lionidze, Sultanov 1892, No. 5:204-208; tatas [padishah]; swana [the tsar has three daughters, his wife died, he took another, she tells get rid of his sons; the king found an apple tree in the steppe, brought an apple to his daughters; they asked them to be brought to the apple tree; the king dug a hole there, covered it with a carpet, the daughters failed; the sisters ate apples, they ran out, but the youngest hid it away; these were over; the eldest wanted to eat her, but the youngest turned her hands into a shovel and an iron-tipped stick; they dug a passage into the tin house; there the servants feed royal horses with boiled wheat; sisters eat everything, horses lose weight, the king executes servants; the healer orders to guard; the sisters are caught, the king wants one of them to marry his son; the eldest: a hundred carpet so that the king and everyone subjects bed and blanket; middle: I will drink wine to the king and the people; youngest: I give birth to a son and a daughter {hereinafter we are talking only about a son}, so that their lower and upper halves are golden; this sister was given for the prince; the elders the sisters threw their children into the river, replaced them with puppies; the king tied the bride to a stump at a fork in three roads; let everyone spit in her eyes; the children were picked up by a priest who owned the mill; the priest raised a young man, he is the best hunter; his mother's sisters understood who he was; advised the priest to send the young man to Elbrus for a golden apple tree; on the way, divas, petrified to the waist; says that everyone is so stony ; we must remember his mother's nipples; the young man thought about them, brought an apple tree; the divas chased the young man, but that divas drove them away; the sisters advise asking the young man to bring a mirror from Elbrus; everyone was stony, and the young man remembered his mother's nipples and brought a mirror; sisters: to kidnap the wife of the Western sovereign; the young man came to the tower, where the king's daughter was; the king would give her back if the fruit in the garden was ripe by morning; the princess told me to put a wand in the ground, pour water, in the morning a tree with fruits; king: jump across the sea, build churches everywhere so that all the bells ring; the princess gave a towel, it created everything; tame the horse; the horse: order an iron hammer and beat their horse; recognize the bride among her sisters (she will have a ring on her finger); the princess tells her to run, the king sent an army; the princess turned the young man into a monk, the horse into a church, herself into an icon; arrived to the tsar-father; the boy's mother was released, the sisters were executed]: Nizheradze 1890, No. 1:176-187; Georgians [devs]; Armenians [tsar]; Azerbaijanis [Shah]; Turks [deva woman (mother of the groom); tsar]; Kurds [king]; talyshi [king].

Iran - Central Asia. Shah-name [king]; Baluchi [tsar]; Pashtuns [tsar]; mountain Tajiks [tsar]; Yagnobs [tsar]; Uzbeks [tsar]; Vakhans [queen herself]; Munjan people [king]; Yazgulyam [king]; Sarykol [king]; Ormurs (Logar) [the king built a fortress with high walls and settled his daughter in it; many tried to find her, but could not overcome the walls and were executed; Turdalay unsuccessfully tried to make a hole in the wall, then ran away; found a "shushmar snake" (monitor lizard), tied it to a rope and threw it into a niche in the wall; pulled himself to this niche; the next day he threw it the monitor lizard was slightly taller and pulled himself up again; trained the monitor lizard until it was tame; thus he climbed the wall; from there he threw the monitor lizard onto the roof and, seeing that it was holding tight, climbed the rope himself; in the morning, the king's daughter went to the pool; T. began to throw pebbles at her, met her; a dove flew in from the king; the king's daughter tied a letter to him: "The melon was immature - it became {mature} melon, in she was stabbed deep. Here (she) is ripe. What does she need right now?" ; the king realized that his daughter wanted to marry; came, saw T. next to her and was furious; on the advice of ministers, he did not execute him, but said that three conditions must be met in order to marry; first: bring Akbar-Pach's treasury; T. reached the city of A.-P.; the guard asked if he was a nomad or not; T. replied no; the guard did not let him in; T. went upstream of the river on which the city stood; made three the reed raft, launched the first raft along the river; as soon as it reached the city, they started shooting at him; then T. launched the second raft; the guards decided not to pay attention to it; T. got on the third raft, got to the city; made a hole, stole the treasury and returned to the king; he set a second condition: to bring two bars of gold from A.-P.; T. came to the city, told the guard that he was a nomad; he replied that -no one is allowed into the city for the robbery; T., like the first time, used three rafts and entered the city; stole gold bars, brought them to the king; he demanded that the last condition be met: bring a curl of hair from A.-P.'s head; T. entered the city with three rafts, went into the room of A-p and his wife while they were sleeping, and cut off a curl of hair; when he went outside, he lost his way and was captured by the guards; in the morning he told A.-P. How and why he committed the theft; he ordered T. to be thrown into the pit; the king's daughter rode on horseback to the city of A.-P.; T. was given to dogs to pieces; the king's daughter began to pray to God for dogs devoured each other; God heard her request - the dogs clung to each other; the king's daughter put T. on a horse and took them to her kingdom; the king called a mullah, became engaged; "May God fulfill their desire there, and ours is here"]: Efimov 1986, No. 36:276-283; Turkmens [tsar]; kafirs (kati; western in 1968 in Kabul from a native of villages. Kulem) [Tsar]: Grunberg 1980, No. 1:131-133; Burishi [Tsar]; Bukhara Arabs: Vinnikov 1969, No. 7 [the son of a firewood seller sees a black snake defeat a white snake, he killed a black snake; white is the daughter of an emir a serpent, her father gives him a ring; the emir tells him to 1) fill the house with gold, 2) build a palace; the angels do everything from the ring, the young man gets a wife; a beggar comes to them, persuades his wife to find out her husband's secret , takes possession of the ring, moves the palace to the emir, buries the young man waist-deep into the ground; a dog, a cat, two pigeons return the ring, the young man executes the beggar], 8 [the firewood seller separated the son, gave him a chicken, she carried eggs; once became a stone; the son decided that his father killed his chicken, but the stone began to move, offered to fulfill his wishes; the guy sent his father to marry the emir's daughter; the emir demands to catch 40 mares, make them a nursery made of gold, bring 40 camels loaded with money and rice; otherwise he executes; the stone did everything; the young man received the emir's daughter; she found out the secret, gave the stone to her father, the emir; the dog and the cat went to return stone; the cat made the mouse tickle the emir's tail in the nose; on the way back, a stone fell from the cat's mouth into the river; the fisherman caught the fish, the dog found a stone in its giblets, brought it to its owner; a stone to the owner: you Why did you tell your wife? the man returned everything; surrounded the emir with a river, gouged out his eyes, ordered him to eat carrots]: 59-62, 65-67.

Baltoscandia. Kalevala [Pohjola's mistress]; Karelians [1) old man and old woman Hiisi, Katerina's parents; 2) K. gives tasks herself; 3) Hitto is Annie's father, who lives on the edge of Tuonela's afterlife; 4) old woman Hiisi - mother Anney; 5) merchant]; Finns [king]; Karelians (Kalevala District) [wife, dog and cat gave birth to boys in the same night; all three went to see the world; stayed at home at the bridge; the Woman's Son is the first to guard, but falls asleep, the Cat's Son goes; the Three-Headed Serpent rides across the bridge, his horse stumbles; Cat Son cut off his head, hid it under the bridge; the same the next night (turn Dog Son, Six-Headed Serpent); Nine-Headed Serpent rides on the third night; Cat Son left a sign in the house, but the other two did not wake up, he had a hard time cutting down his ninth head; all three went on, but The Cat's Son has returned ("forgot his hat"), eavesdropping at three windows; for each wife of one of the snakes, his son sleeps and promises to turn into a well and a ladle, a feather bed and a blanket, a table; the horse lies down, warning not drink, do not go to bed, do not eat; the horse is stopped by the Bone Man, tells Elena the Beautiful to get; the Cat Son meets and companions invisible people; one knows how to steam in the bath, the other eats a lot, shoot the third; the king will give Elena if the groom withstands the hot bath, eats a lot, falls into Elena's ring three miles away; the vaper cools the bath, the Eater eats everything, the Shooter hits; Cat Son marries Elena; mother Elena's sister gives a fire arrow: when the Bone Man laughs with joy, let her into his mouth; the Bone Man is burned]: Onegina 2010, No. 8:108-110; Oriental Sami [the old prince has three sons; he sends them to sleep in a new house and asks them to tell them what they dreamed of; the elder: the house is full of water, I drank it; father: why didn't it burst? the son burst; the same with the middle son (the house is full of bread, he ate it); the youngest saw a poisonous snake crawl towards him, but the old man whipped her and drove her away; the young man refused to tell a dream until he came true; the father got angry, sold his youngest son to Ivan Tsarevich; the young man did not tell him the dream either; they went to get the daughter of the Swedish king; she sets the condition: to break his father's gold ring and pole, both magpies; a young man disguised as I. came to the princess, threw his pole so high that he flew for a day, and when he fell, both the pole and the ring broke; the second task was to ride his father's horse to death; the same ( a young man in the guise of I. flew it and she crashed); the princess demands that her father's head be brought to her from across three seas from 40 ships; the young man sees the princess become a dove, followed by an eagle; she talked to her father, flew back, and the young man cut off her father's head and brought it; the princess is preparing the wedding; the young man asks I. to get permission to let him into the doorstep; after the wedding they go home; at night, the young man hears a bird: the young go to his father and stepmother, the stepmother sent a gift, whoever takes it will burst, and whoever tells will petrify; the gift is a hat, the young man persuaded him to give it to him; the same for the next night (the gift is bread); on the third day, a golden carriage with horses and a coachman, the young man again begged him to give it to him; at night, Baba Yaga climbs into the young's room, gnawing through the doors, the young man cut off her head; I. thinks that he wanted to kill him, take possession of the princess; the young man told everything and became petrified; it turned out that Baba Yaga was Father I.'s new wife; the statue was watered with live and water, the young man came to life]: Kert 1961, No. 38:142-151; Estonians [sorcerer (devil)]; setu [king]; Lutsi (western 1893) [in the forest a man leaned to the water for a drink; a waterman grabbed his beard: give what you don't know at home; a son was born at home; grew up, went to the forest, the mother gave 9 cakes in her milk; the devil got involved; the boy consistently throws cakes over his left shoulder; they close the path to the line, he runs to the spring to drink every time; the blacksmith hid boy; devil demands to be unlocked; blacksmith: spill your tongue; grabbed his tongue with hot mites, the devil ran away; the blacksmith gave a horse, tells you not to look at what he meets; the young man did not look at the underground dwarfs at naked old women, but looked at the girls out of the corner of his eye; the horse was gone; the hell tells him to get a princess; gives him ducks, pigs and veal - these gifts are enough; he gave it to a wolf, bear and swan; on a stone a man as tall as a thumb, advises me to take it with you; a young man comes to the king; king: I lost 30 stallions in the forest 9 years ago; bring and get a princess; bear brought; 30 oxen: the wolf brought; the princess lost her ring in the sea: get it; the swan dives, took it out on the third attempt; the king tells you to go to a hot iron bath; the man with a finger enters first, the bathhouse becomes cold, the tooth does not fall on the tooth; so three times; swim in boiling water; the man with the finger first, the water is warm, wash well; recognize the princess among many girls; she warned: she will stand on her left heel; the next time: I'll stand on tiptoes; third time: I won't be among others, I'll carry the bowl across the meadow; the king sends the young, giving money and gold; that's the hell, a grave with burning resin, a rope through it: go and I'll give it back horse; young man: show me how; hell went on the rope, the young man cut it with a sword, the devil fell into the resin, only the smoke remained; came home on horseback; wedding; ate and drank, flowed down his lips, did not get into his mouth]: Annom et al. 2018:215-220; Latvians [king]; Lithuanians [king]; Norwegians [king; sorcerer; rich]; Danes [king; sorcerer]; Eyrbyggja Saga [Styr]; Swedes [young man (whose the birth was unusual) goes on a journey, meets and companions people with unusual abilities (pulling trees, blowing heavily, a runner causing frost, moving faster than a bird, listening, eating, drinking, crumbling stones, shooter, omniscient, etc.); with the help of an old man or on his own, a young man builds a ship that moves on water and on land; usually among tests Running competition with a princess whom the young man wants to marry, eat a whole ox, withstand the fever, etc.; the hero wins with his companions]: Liungman 1961, № 513AB: 135.

Volga - Perm. Komi [tsar]; Udmurts [landowner]; Chuvash [father of swan girls]; marie [devil is the father of pigeon girls; tsar; rich bride]; Mordovians [father of duck girls; mother underwater girls]; Mordovians [tsar; see motif k32d]: Samorodov 1972:138-156; Kazan Tatars [Shaitan, father of swan girls].

Turkestan. Karakalpaks [khan; bai]; karakalpaks (Karauzyak district) [{the text is sketchy; the narrator apparently did not remember some details}; the diva approached the Kogyurshin bird sitting on the shore and asked to transport him across the river; the kogyurshin bird did this and asked his only son in return; the diva returned home, did not recognize his son, hit him; before leaving, the boy left the alchik; he got into The old woman's spinning wheel and broke it; the boy asked the old woman to find him a Kogyurshin bird; the old woman said: "There is one river on the other side, when you go downstream, the girls will come and swim, when one little girl is left, you grab this girl; as soon as she says, "My house is on top of that split poplar," that's where you go." at the top of the poplar; the kogyurshin bird {hereinafter called the dove} said: "Dig the river, my son, dig [day] and night, then, my son, build a bridge without supports from the ground and without pendants from the sky, then my son, build a house that will ring all the time on its own, then build, my son, a garden of wood, a garden of clay and a garden of stone, and I will give you, my son, my daughter; which of my daughters will you take, my son?" {these tasks are not discussed further}; the boy replied that he would take the youngest of his daughters; the kogyurshin bird said he would give her back if the boy killed a diva named Dumalak; the boy did it, received girl; enemies came, surrounded him; he took off his galoshes from his feet, killed all enemies with them; took the girl, rode to his native village; then a yellow bird flew in; the divas drove her away; the boy and his wife stayed in his father's house]: Baskakov 1951:80-81; Kazakhs [khan]; Kyrgyz [poor old man and old woman; an old man trapped a badger; asks not to kill: he will become a son, he will take care of them; badger drags partridges to old people, old people eat up, raise cattle; the badger offers to move to the village; easily drives away dogs; the khan tells them to come with the badger; the khan has a daughter Aiperi; the badger turns to her by name; a year later, the badger begins to wither away, says that he is in love, asks A. to marry; the khan ordered the old man to break his arms and legs, tie him to a mare and sent home; the badger tells the old woman not to worry: the old man is safe again; next time the old man is broken in half; the old man is alive again; the old man was killed, burned, the badger revived him from a handful of ashes; the khan is advised to give the old man an impossible task; let him plant him before a munaru tree and a plane tree, and at the roots there is a lake of milk and a lake of oil, let the fish jump from one lake to another; let there be only sheep in one trough, yaks in the other, horses in the third, and horses in the fourth is camels, and even if their number is innumerable; let there be a golden throne between the two trees, so that the khan can sit on it and admire the fish; at night the badger asks the old man to slaughter and cut the mare and ears turned into two trees, eyes into lakes filled with butter and milk; hair cut from the mare's mane turns into fish, the skull into the golden throne, the blood and contents of the intestines and stomach into four types of cattle, legs into 4 golden horse riders; in the morning the mare stands in its place safe and sound; the khan gave his wife to the badger; her good aunt cheers A., the angry aunt mocks her; at night the badger takes off his skin, turns out to be a young man of unearthly beauty; the good aunt rejoices; in the morning the badger puts her skin back on, tells his wife to wait; but the misfortune that the evil aunt will bring will have to endure 6 years; the next evening An angry aunt serves, throws her skin into the fire; the young man turns into a bird and flies away through the upper opening of the yurt; the evil aunt is tied to the tails of 40 horses; A. goes to look for her husband; the khan gives her iron boots and an iron stick; she wanders for 5 years, meets a tall white-bearded old man in her sixth year; he advises going to a hut at the foot of the mountain; an old witch is in the hut; you must ask to receive her like a daughter; the old man will turn in the wind, shake the hut until morning; in the morning the witch will be tired and lie down with her head on A.'s knees; let A. tear the witch's hair out until her eyes roll and they will turn white, but they should not turn red; the old man gives A. the hair, tells them to run it over the witch's body, when her eyes turn white, she will twist and freeze; after that A. must run; months later the old man meets A. again, tells him to go to a hill that looks like a skullcap, there will be the white yurt where A. spent her wedding night; in the yurt, a gold stand (for birds of prey), A. must dig into the ground under her; her husband will arrive, will circle for several days, saying that he smells like a person; saying "where can a person come from here", he will sit on a stand; the old man hands Aiperi a net and says that her husband is a son Peri, who gave birth to a child at the top of a tree near the Khan's yurt, when Khansha gave birth to A.; seeing that the human child was a beautiful girl, Mother Peri spat on A.'s cheek, putting a mark; husband- Peri's name is Aktilek; sitting on a stand, he will start saying "fell asleep, fell asleep", but this means that he is awake; when he starts saying "woke up, woke up", then he will fall asleep; we must throw a net and hold; Aktilek will fly out of the yurt and start carrying A. across the sky; three pigeons, also peri, will arrive, talk to A.; the first will say, "Hey, long hair, short mind, are you equal to Peri's son?!" ; the second will begin to feel sorry for A., and the third will offer help to go down to earth; Aktilek will ask A. to open his eyes, but only after the third sentence A. should open them; helping A. go down to earth, pigeons were bruised, which is why some pigeons are not white, but blue; Ayperi and Aktilek have healed happily]: Sabyr uulu 2008:555-572; Kyrgyz (Issyk-Kul Province) [Nurzhan, his daughters Aykyz, Gulkyz, Nurkyz, and son Sarytai; his wife dies, Nurzhan suffers, wants to marry again, but it feels sorry for the children; in a dream, a voice tells her daughters to be given away without dowry, someone hands Kyzyr Niyaz a ring, it fulfills wishes if you turn to him by name; in the morning a ring on his right thumb; to check, Nurzhan demands good food from the ring; the family has healed for pleasure; Nurzhan announces to his son during his lifetime testament: after his death, three dervishes will appear who will wash his body and bury him, his son must give them sisters without dowry, as well as all the goods at home; let him keep only the ring, his Do not give the name to anyone; S. fulfilled his father's will and went to distant lands; he forgot that the ring makes wishes come true; he almost drowns in the river, the fish carries it ashore; in the forest he hides from predators in a tree, by morning they eat each other; S. reaches the mountains, cannot pass them, falls asleep; Perishte spirits carried him over the mountains; S. enters an area where the wind is raging, clouds of poisonous insects in the air; in some In the old courtyard, he finds an old man and an old woman, invites them to become their son; they ask them not to go outside at night; he goes out and sees two moons in the sky; one goes out in the morning, becomes darker; an old woman says that the ruler has a married daughter named Sahipzhamal, plays in the palace courtyard with her friends and is so beautiful that the radiance on her behalf is the second moon; S. falls ill from love; She notices a ring on her hand, recalls, tells her to fill the house with food; asks his adoptive parents to marry him to Sahipzhamal; the old woman comes to ask her to marry S.; the vizier advises to give an impossible task: bring 40 gems; S. orders the ring to deliver 40 camels, 40 horses, 40 mules and 40 donkeys loaded with gems; let them be accompanied by 25 beautiful people whose clothes are decorated with gem buttons, also decorate the bangs of their horses with gemstone bells; the mother should allocate a separate horse, let her clothes be luxurious, like the harness on horses; the ruler is shocked asks the groom himself to come; wedding; S. tells the ring to create a new palace on the cloud, and under it a lake of milk and a lake of butter; the vizier persuades Sahipzhamal to find out her husband's secret; S. says the name of the ring; the vizier says it, he orders the palace and Sahipzhamal to be moved to seventh heaven; S. is looking for sisters, their dervish husbands help him; the eldest husband is guilty of sleeping for 40 days and 40 nights, all this it happened when he was sleeping, carries S. to his younger sister's husband, who reports that the Zymyryk bird can take him to the palace, the Zymyryk bird lays 2 eggs every year, but the dragon eats the chicks, you need to kill the dragon, Zymyryk will help save the chicks; the dervish gives the young man a one-inch long sword, which, when waving, extends to 40 fathoms, and carries him to a tree with a nest Zymyryk; S. drinks from a spring near at the foot of the tree and falls asleep in anticipation; he wakes up from the rain, these are the tears of the chicks, sees that the dragon is preparing to swallow them; he kills the dragon, feeds its chicks with meat, and himself, having eaten a leaf from the tree, begins understand the language of the chicks; they say that their mother will arrive soon, hide it under their wings; storm, wind, tornado, rain and hail notify the bird Zymyryk; when they see that the chicks are intact, the bird is happy, is ready to fulfill any wish of the savior; S. asks to be delivered to seventh heaven; they take 40 wineskins with water and 40 with meat; the bird teaches: if you look to the right, you should throw her a wineskin with meat, if to the left - wineskin with water; supplies run out, S. gives the bird meat from his right thigh and moisture from his left eye; oh, appearing at the palace, sees through the gap how the vizier pulls Sahipzhamal to his bed, and she screams that she has there is a husband; after waiting for the vizier to fall asleep, S. says "Kyzyr Niyaz" and the ring is on his finger; he orders them to be transferred to Father Sahipzhamal; shows him the sleeping vizier and Sahipzhamal, the king Orders the vizier to cut off his head, scolds his daughter; calls him to imitate Sarytai, true to his word]: Sabyr uulu 2008:119-125; Uighurs [khan]; yellow Uighurs [khan].

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Baraba Tatars [khan, becomes a crow]; Altaians [rich; khan; Ulug-Piy, turned into a fox]; Shors [khan]; Tuvans [khan; ruler of another world]; South Altai Tuvans [Khan]: Taube 1978, No. 29:126-137 (=Taube 1994, No. 19:187-202); Taube 1978, No. 37:192-206; Teleuts [Khan]; Chelkans [Biy (Ulug-Piy)]: Sadalova 2002, No. 20:173-201; Darkhats [Khan]; Buryats [King of China; King Guli; Khan Wolf]; Mongols (Khalkha) [Khan]; Mongols (Ordos) [Khan]: Potanin 1893, No. 8b: 152-156; Dagurs [heavenly king; serpent]; Mongors [official; emperor].

Western Siberia. Nenets [Owner-Iron Swing; Haptarka-Leader]; Mansi [Usyng-Otyr; Shul-Otyr (owner of the lower world)]; Eastern Khanty (b. Pim) [Tsar]: Kulemzin, Lukina 1978, No. 113:125-132; Kets [God Is]: Alekseenko 2001, No. 44:103-104; Donner 1933:95.

Eastern Siberia. Central (?) Yakuts (the place of recording is not specified, the mediation of A. Kulakovsky; probably central): Tolokonsky 1914 [historical legend, episode; Dygyn sets a condition: Bart-Khara marries his daughter if she catches up with her on horseback; fascinated by the race, the girl drives the horse struggling, BH can't catch up; at the last moment she remembers that it's about her marriage, allows herself to catch up]: 102-105; northeastern Yakuts: Seroshevsky 1896 (Kolyma) [Ulu-To& #235; n sends his grandfather Sesen to marry Kyun Kys (Sun-Daughter) from Ai-Toyon; he asks for a mirage and a water swell in return; W. collects animals; The Wolf and the Raven promise to get it, get paid this is the first long legs, the second vigilance; but they did not get it; retelling in Yeremeyev 1980:54]: 655-666; Potanin 1883, No. 187 (Verkhoyansky) [three sons of poor Bordeaux consistently sell themselves into slavery to the rich Boylyt; the first two can't do their job, they've been skinned; younger Bert-Air does everything easily; one person advises sending Bert-Er for a monstrous bear; Boylyt sends with a promise of a daughter; Bert -Er brings a monster, it smashes Boilyt's farmstead, destroys his people; Boylyt in horror, gives his daughter]: 641-647; Baikal Evenks (Baikal Region) [Lamuney leans over to wash his hands at sea, Master the sea grabs him by the beard, lets him go for promising to give him his unborn child; his son is Chocondon; the fox brings him to the lake, he hides the clothes of one of the 12 swan girls who have come to swim; her father Deraulov tells him to identify his daughter among 12 birds with one stone; his wife warns that she will limp on her left leg; D. says she will not give her daughter anyway; she offers C. to run; turns C. into a stone, herself into the mistress of the lake; D. arrives in the form of an eagle, says that they will remain in this form; the daughter says that then he will remain an eagle; D. lets them go, they come to Ch.'s parents]: Voskoboynikov 1967, No. 10:35-37; Baikal Evenks (northern Transbaikalia) []: Pinegina 2019:100-103; Amur Evenks [heavenly father of the Goose Wife]: Bulatova 1987, No. 7:125-128; Uchursky (probably) Evenks [ leader]: Myreeva 2009:128-145; Evens (b. Corcodon) [the dwarf Hulura ("dwarf") did not eat larch branches in his hut, but only drew with charcoal on his stomach: he would erase the deer, the fighting warriors would be erased; he got up and went, but did not even leave the hut in a day ; but in the end he hit the skis with a stick and they went; after him Bald ("eat"; first they shot at each other; H. dodged, his arrows bounced off W.; then at knives; W. missed, H. stabbed him ; came to the camp, where Petty Officer Shakinxan asks: big or small? Is it small? I'm afraid of him; the leader's son let H. into the iron plague through a hole in the roof, closed it; there are dead bodies and one alive, Nivani ("strongman"); he helped H. break the wall; H. touched the dead with his stick, they came to life ; they said that everyone came to marry the foreman's trust, and his son covered them in an iron plague; they unanimously yielded to beautiful H.; she threw 20 reins out of the plague, and 20 reindeer appeared, they are bringing good; H. fired an arrow: follow it, will lead you to my house; the lively have parted; everyone has their own people: from one Yukaghira, from the other Chukchi, Koryaks, Yakuts; N. and four others were Evens ]: Jochelson 1926:295-297.

Amur-Sakhalin. Nivhi [Master of Heaven]: Sanghi 1974:106-114; Nanai [wife's younger brother]; Ulchi [head of town]; Orochi [ordinary person]; Udege [shaman (always old Kanda )].

Japan. Kojiki [god Susanoo]; Japanese [father of the heavenly maiden].

SV Asia. Coastal Koryaks [village owner]; Chukchi [Father-Arcturus; Father-Earth; Shaman; Rich Reindeer Herder; Bride herself]; Tundra Yukaghirs [father and brothers of swan girls].

The Arctic. Asian Eskimos [relatives of a polar bear wife]: Bogoraz 1949, No. 12:161-176; Rubtsova, Vakhtin 2019, No. 20:254-276; St. Lawrence [relatives of a polar bear wife]: Slwooko 1979:86-91; Nunivak Island [father-in-law sends his son-in-law to split a log; waves move at him, he throws a slate tip at them; pulls out water with a bucket, something white flies out of the well, he hits it with a spear; finds his father-in-law and mother-in-law wounded at home; kills their daughter and turns them into a white whale; returns to her home, marries again]: Lantis 1946, No. 11: 280-281; central Yupik (Kuskokvim) [wolves]: Krenov 1951:181-185; Kodiak: Golder 1903, No. 9 [at a time when there were no winds, the young man receives mink skin from his grandmother; sails to the bay , marries; 1) father-in-law asks for firewood (a monster rushes at the young man, he kills him with an arrow, brings firewood); 2) his wife and her sister call him to swim (he is swallowed by a whale, he turns into a hole, jumps out through the whale's breath); 3) the whale shakes the young man's wife and her sister on its tail (the young man quietly kills the whale with an arrow, only then steps on the tail); swims home; a huge wave rolls behind him, he breaks it with an arrow; he is swallowed by a monster, he becomes a mink, gets out through the gills; remains a mink]: 95-98; 1909, No. 2 (Karluk) [mother gives her son a pen, a pebble, a needle; the old man pushes him off a cliff, he lands with a feather; marries a cannibal's daughter; she sends him to her brother's steam room; he turns into a pebble, withstands the fever; kills his wife and mother-in-law with a needle; marries the leader's daughter]: 12-13; Bering Strait Inupiate (Cape Prince of Wales) [relatives of a white bear wife]: Curtis 1976 (20): 157-160; Garber 1940, No. 24:195-203; Northern Alaska Inupiate [relatives of a white wife bears]: Spencer 1959:419-425; McKenzie estuary [relatives of a polar bear wife]: Ostermann 1942:91-95; Igloolik (Repulse Bay) [relatives of a polar bear wife]: Spalding 1979:12-14

Subarctic. Tanaina [Chief's Daughter]; Inhalic [Shaman]; Upper Tanana [Bear]; Atna [Bear]; Kuchin [Bear]; Khan [Bear]; Tagish [Bear; Sun]; Inner Tlingit [Sun; (unnamed character)]; Southern Tutchoni [Bear]: McClelland 2007 (1), No. 2c, 11d: 37-39, 72-77; helmet [Cannibal Sun]: Teit 1917a, No. 1:435-441; beaver [sorcerer]; taltan [sorcerer]; slevy [sorcerer; flying monster].

NW Coast. Tlingit [mother-in-law killing grooms]; hyda [Many-ledges]; Tsimshian [chief]; bellacula [Sun]: Boas 1898:73-83; McIlwraith 1948 (1): 671-672; quakiutl [father women who have living water]; chickpea [Sun; heavenly leader; chief]; makah [Month]: Densmore 1939:212-213.

The coast is the Plateau. Quarry [Chief in Heaven (Possibly Sun); Chief]; Chilcotin [Sun]: Farrand 1900, #10:24-26; Shuswap [Chief in Heaven; Red Hood Player]; Thompson [Cannibal; Cold]; lillouette [underwater spirit; father-in-law and mother-in-law]; comox [chief in heaven]: Boas 1895, No. VIII.3:65-68 (=2002:181-186); chalkomel [Sun; Month]; Okanagon [Grizzly Bear]; quinolt [Sisemo marries Thunder's daughter; father-in-law demands 1) get snow from mountain peaks (S. brings a handful, snow covers the whole ground); 2), 3) bring two cougars, two bears (S. leads, Thunder is frightened ); 4) split the log (Thunder knocks out a wedge, S. is not crushed, brings a log); 5) bring lightning from the underworld (the inhabitants there play ball with it); S. turns into something, I don't know what, takes lightning; Thunder floods his pursuers' torches with rain; puts lightning under his arms, gives a piece to all animals and birds painted red]: Farrand 1902, No. 9:113-114; clallam [Sun]: Gunther 1925:131-134; Cowlitz [Thunder]: Adamson 1934:209-211; Lower Chinook [Thunder]: Boas 1894a, No. 2:31-36; Cous [Month]; Upper Coquill [Thunder]: Jacobs 2007:172-279; modoc [sorcerer]; Western sachaptin [Eagle Chief]: Farrand, Mayer 1917, No. 9:157-164; ne perse [chief]: Phinney 1934:166-170; clickitat [some person].

The Midwest. A magician. Winnebago [bride]; menominee [father-in-law or cannibal mother-in-law only]; Algonquins (Grand Victoria Lake) [Pike]; Western Marsh Cree [Wimisos]; Eastern Marsh Cree [Wemishus]; Eastern Cree [father-in-law]; Northern Ojibwa (Sandy Lake) [father-in-law] [father-in-law; wife]; ojibwa [giant father-in-law; father-in-law turns into pike; bear] ; timagami ojibwa [Vemikus]; northern soltos [Omishus].

Northeast. Seneca [cannibal mother-in-law]; montagnier [Pike]: Speck 1925:16-17; naskapi [Salmon]: Millman 1993:136-137; mikmaq [Skunsiha mother-in-law; chief]; delawaris [chief].

Plains. Sarsi [chief]; blackfooted [chief]; grovantre [chief]; assiniboine [sorcerer]; crowe [old man; Bisonicha mother-in-law]; mandan [Bisonicha mother-in-law]; teton [father-in-law and bison mother-in-law]; yankton [chief]: Zitkala-Ša 1985:61-99; Omaha & Ponka [Bisonikha mother-in-law; chief]; iowa [cannibal mother-in-law (Mistress of the Wind); chief]; arpaho [old man; wicked father-in-law; bison father-in-law]; arikara [1) old man with sharpened leg; 2) bison father-in-law and mother-in-law; 3) old man]; skidi pawnee [chief; father-in-law bison and other bison]; kiowa- Apache [chief]; wichita [chief].

Southeast USA. Caddo [relatives of the Bisonicha wife]: Dorsey 1905, No. 43:73-76; natchez [cannibal mother-in-law and father-in-law]; koasati [wife's relatives; mother-in-law]; chirokee [Thunder, aka owner of deer inside mountains]: Kilpatrick, Kilpatrick 1966:84-91.

California. Yurok [mother-in-law; wife's relatives]; Karok [Month]: Kroeber, Gifford 1980, No. A10, III37, III38:18-21, 250-252, 255-258; Shasta: Dixon 1910a [Moon], No. 32:364-368; Farrand 1915, No. 4 [Thunder]: 211-212; Wailaki [Month]: Goddard 1923, No. 6:95-99; Shinkyon [Sun]: Nomland 1935:172-174; Wappo [Wife's Brother Month]; Pomo [Thunder; Bear; Sun]; Vintu [ Sun]: Curtin 1898:121-158; Dubois, Demetracopoulou 1931, No. 7:291-295; nomlaki [father-in-law and mother-in-law, not named]; Yana [Month]: Curtin 1898:281-294 (=2004:180-189), 425-442 (=2004:266-278); Sapir 1910, No. 4, 13:66-74, 233-235; Maidu [Thunder]: Dixon 1902, No. 6:67-71

The Big Pool. Northern Payut [Eagle]; Northern Shoshones [Eagle Chief]; Southern Payut [Chief]: Sapir 1930, No. 14:445-447; Utah [People in Another Country]; Havasupai [Sun]: Smithson, Euler 1994:62-69; Valapai [Sun]: Kroeber 1935:272-275

The Great Southwest. Navajo [Mr. Deer; Corn Girls' Grandfather; Serpent]; Lipan [Big Owl]; Taos Tiwa [Chief]: Parsons 1940a, No. 25, 26:76-78, 78-81; series [Sun]: Kroeber 1931, Nr. 5:12-13.

NW Mexico. Yaki [vulture]: Giddings 1959:68

Mesoamerica Lacandons [master of the underworld]; kakchikeli [shaman; without details]; (cf. tsutukhil ["king" (Heb.)]: Petrich 1997:161-166); ishili [sorcerer].

Honduras-Panama. Kuna [crocodile]: Chapin 1989:74-76

The Northern Andes. Kogi [vulture]; guajiro [Thunder]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1986 (1), No. 106:299-301.

Llanos. Sicuani [Hebrew borrowing: king].

Southern Venezuela. Makiritar: Civrieux 1960:180-185 [Thunder] (=1980:89-93), 97-99 [jaguar], 103-108 [jaguar]; yanomam [deer]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 102:194-197; sanema [deer]: Colchester 1981:54 (=Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 103:198); Yanomami [deer]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 104, 105:198-199, 200-201.

Guiana. A vulture, if not otherwise. Warrau [1) Vulture; 2) "The One Who Eats Too Much"]; carinha na Orinoco; camaracoto; pemon [Thunder]: Armellada 1973, No. 15:61-63; taulipan; lokono [1) Cayman; 2) Vulture mother-in-law]; Guyanese carinha; makushi; waiwai [father-in-law (man)]; hishkaryana; wapishana; trio [Jaguar]: Koelewijn, Riviere 1987, No. 13:65-70; oyana [mother-in-law (person?) ; oyampy.

Western Amazon. Mayhuna [Tapir]: Bellier 1991b, No. 4a, 4c: 180-181, 187-192; Kandoshi [produces thunder]: Page 1975:55-62.

NW Amazon. Andoke [Sun]; uitoto [ogre]; okaina [ogre]; cubeo [mother-in-law].

Central Amazon. It turns into a caimana. Maue [Jaguar]; munduruku [cannibal].

Eastern Amazon. Tenetehara [vulture]: Wagley, Galvão 1949, No. 20:150-151

The Central Andes. Paramonga (dep. Lima) [casik]; Risua, Andamarca (dep. Junin) [estate owner]; Cuzco district [cacique]; mountains of southern Peru [casic].

Bolivia - Guaporé. Takana [sorcerer; mother-in-law and father-in-law turned into a snake and anteater]; baure [Father of Earth]: Nordenskiöld 1923:133; guaraçu [chief's daughter called man her father child; father-in-law tells 1) to collect all the corn from the field in a day (the ants did), 2) bring a seven-colored tapir (the fox showed where to find it); the leader said that the man passed the test, allowed him to marry; the woman admitted that she was not pregnant, joked foolishly; the Chuúbi bird stole someone else's baby, brought it to her, the father did not learn about the deception; the husband and wife lived happily ever after]: Riester 1977, No. 46:300-302.

Southern Amazon. Vaura [Thunder; hero's uncle]; nambiquara [forest spirit]; iranshe [vulture]; paresi [forest spirit]; umotina [fishermen eat all the catch themselves; one girl hides on the tree where her father is fishing; men invite her to go down and eat fish; she jumps over their heads, runs to the village, tells the women; they kill their husbands with clubs; one is pregnant, gives birth to a boy Areámuno; bandages him like a girl and runs away with him; blood drips from her vagina, so rivers appeared; women chase them but can't cross the big river, come back; A. grows up, marries a jaguariha, a turtle, a blue and yellow arara; the children of these marriages are half birds or animals; when he marries a daughter of a snake sukuri, people are born; this wife's father is Jaguar; killed sons-in-law, luring her sons-in-law into the thicket, the corpse was thrown into the river; A. himself pushes the Jaguar into the water, he drowned; his wife and mother-in-law are happy]: Schultz 1962, no. i: 239-242.

Araguaia. Karazha [Sun]: Baldus 1953:213-214, 214-215 (=Baldus 1937a: 226-228).

Chaco. Nivacle [Sun; Month is good father-in-law]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1987b, No. 1, 2, 3, 4:21-25, 26-30, 31-33, 34; maka [shaman]; matako [shaman]; toba: Wilbert, Simoneau 1982b, No. 96 [Father of the heavenly virgin]: 195-197; 1989a, No. 276 [Sun]: 363-365

The Southern Cone. Araucans [shaman]; Southern Tehuelches [Father-Sun and Mother-in-law Moon]: Hernández 1992:138-139; Wilbert, Simoneau 1984b, No. 7, 27, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54:21, 45-47, 74-76, 77-81, 82-87, 88- 90, 91-92, 93-95.