Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K27v1. Hit the needle with an arrow .

The character must hit the needle with an arrow (in the eye of a needle).

Lepcha, Abaza, Kabardian, Karachai, Ingush, Chelkan, Tuvans, South Altai Tuvans, Khalkha Mongols, Oirats, Darkhats, Nanais.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Lepcha [people are constantly dying; the king turns to the fortuneteller; he predicts that in addition to six sons, the king will have a seventh; in heaven, the mother of Rum feels the aroma of smoke; her husband says that it is the king of Lyang-bad who asks to send him a son; someone who can 1) throw a heavy stone, 2) hit the needle behind the mountain with an arrow, 3) cut horsehair along the mountain before, than the steam from a cup of tea rises to the head, 4) bring a lot of firewood; two older brothers can't, the youngest baby does everything easily; falls like a hailstone next to Queen Tang-kung-ramit on the ground; she breaks off a piece, swallows; the other pieces are swallowed by a cow, a mare, a chicken, a goat; everyone gets pregnant and gives birth; T. gave birth to a bag, buried it; the king dug up, there is a copper vessel in it, there is a boy in it; the king gave him the name Ati- azyak-pono; sends his older brothers to marry King Lung-da's seven daughters; along the way they must hoist flags of the same color on black, green, red, white mountain; pass the plain on which the spruce, and there are two suns around; it's hot, you can't take off your hats; the king gives daughters, does not tell you to play the flute and harp on the plain; but the younger three began to have fun with the brides, sat under the spruce tree, others also had to; Four seas of black, green, red, white color flooded on four sides; the Paril-bu snake came out of the sea, demanded that his younger brother be given to him; disappeared, the waters flooded with him and one disappeared the sun; the demon messenger came for A.; A. went to the snake, left the bride two rings, if they changed places, he died; first A. quietly entered P.'s mouth; he ordered to get the queens Zer-y-ong and Komyong- pandi; the girl gave A. rice to the dogs, the meat to the tigers, the roll of cloth to the demon Shang-tang-krbu, who would become a friend; when leaving, A. sowed rice - if it dried up, he died; the demon could not swallow A., admitted to A. master; A. dropped a knife into the pond, asked the demon to drink water; came to Z., became her husband; there was no water, the demon drank everything; Z. showed where the knife was, the demon regurgitated the water; Z. took an oath from her 7 demon brothers that they will not eat A.; demons offer to hide; turn into trees, partridges, streams; Z. tells A. each time where they are (gives a knife to cut trees, etc.); demon friend A. defeats seven in martial arts; they offer fights between roosters, goats, horses; each time A. asks his heavenly parents to send animals (those who descend in the hailstone give birth to a cockerel, a goat, etc.); A.'s animals win; also a wild bull and a peacock; A. destroys an army of demons; the remaining ones are destroyed by a peacock by firing fire from under her tail; A. enters Z., her fang to the sky, the other to the ground, one chest hangs, the other is thrown behind her back ; then she is beautiful again; the demon friend swallows the snake, A. and his wives Z. and Komiong returns to the brothers; allows the demon friend to swallow the younger three; kills him, revives the young man swallowed by him Dediong-pono, gives him the princess EU-Ramit, leaves him to reign on earth, returns to heaven with three wives]: Stocks 1925, No. XXVI: 406-420.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Abazins [a man named Shepherd comes to another named Son of the Sun, then both to the Son of the Moon; the prince will give his daughter to someone who hits a needle suspended at flight height with one shot birds, fragments will catch a Circassian woman in the hem; P. performs the task, but gives the girl to the Son of the Sun; elsewhere the same to the Son of the Moon; comes to the old woman, she sends him to the giantess, telling him to touch with the lips of her breasts; the giantess directs her to the hero who kills the grooms; tells them first to hide in a hole, lure the hero's dogs out, she will get tired of barking, she will beat them half to death; then the same with her horse; then find her sleeping, beat her with a bronze whip until she put up with it; that's how it happened; one day my wife washed her hair, swam her hair down the river, an old woman found him, showed him to the prince, promised to bring this a woman; she became a maid to P.'s wife, persuaded him to ask what his soul was wearing; in the casket, the old woman threw him into the river, P. died; the old woman lured the woman into the boat, brought him to the prince; the Son of the Sun and the Son of the Moon let him go arrows into the sky, they returned bloody; the son of the Moon asked Keith to regurgitate what was in his stomach, who regurgitated the casket with P.'s soul, P. came to life; P. threw his ring into the vessel with which he came for water maid of the prince's new bride; twin brothers threw the prince off the high porch, the old woman was torn by horses]: Tugov 1985, No. 43:110-117; Kabardian people: Aliyeva, Kardangushev 1977 [dying, the prince commands three sons guard his grave for three nights; each time his younger brother goes; defeats the rider, takes the weapon and three horses: bay, white, black; the prince will give his daughter to the one who knocks down the one suspended from the needle pole, wins the race, the bull will defeat; each time the younger brother who arrives incognito wins on three different horses; gets the princess]: 82-86; Kerashev 1957 [old Kurtyzh had a son Cambolet; an old warrior took him up; teaches him to ask his father for a small foal; then teaches him to beat the grown foal with a family with dogwood rods until he obeys; K. went on a campaign, met and accompanied the Son of the Sun, the Son of the Moon and the Son of the River; Pshi will give gouache to whoever falls into the eye of the needle; K. knocked down the head of the bend, gave the gouache to the Son of the Sun, drove on; the same from another psha (hit the needle, gave the gouache to the Son of the Moon); the third on the pole has a horn with a drink; whoever gets in, takes off and does not shed, will receive gouache; K. performed, gave the gouache to the Son of the River; each of the friends must shoot arrows into the sky; if Milk will flow from the fallen arrow, then everything is fine with K., and if there is blood, then trouble; at the intersection of three roads, a stone with the inscription: happy journey, neither bad nor good, unhappy path; K. chose an unhappy one; hacked down a hundred cannibal horsemen; in the house their mother, one tooth rests against one beam of the ceiling, the other against the other; you can see the shine overseas, this is beautiful; the mother of cannibals teaches you to tame the porpoise, she will transport it through sea; overseas, K. married the beautiful woman; at that time his abandoned horse knocked out both of the old woman's teeth; she made a bridge with her handkerchief, also crossed the sea, came to his wife K. under the guise of an old woman, advised find out what her husband's soul is; he first says that in his thigh, shoulder blade, then in his sword; the old woman stole the key, threw her sword into the sea; K. died, and his wife was beaten and thrown at the reeds; comrades see arrows in blood, come to the cannibal mother, she puts her handkerchief like a bridge, they cross the sea, find his wife K.; the son of the Sun and the son of the Moon rise, illuminate the sea, the son of the River descends under the water, the turtle stumbled Oh sword, he pulled it out, revived K.; he and his wife returned home]: 177-187; Karachays [the father agreed to marry one hundred sons to one hundred daughters of another; the youngest is Kichibatyr, he is left to guard the house; he tells you to throw three balls of oil to the rocks, they part; on the way back, three lumps of felt, the rocks will take them for oil; tells them not to approach the fire, even if it gets very cold; the wedding procession has become freeze, came to the fire, stopped, in the morning a monster is nearby, demands K.; tells K. to get him the daughter of the khan, who is by the sea; the khan demands to hit the eye of a needle with an arrow, out of a thousand Catch a hundred running chamois, spending the night in a hot iron house; K. meets, takes a shooter, chamois catcher, sailor as companions; they fulfill the conditions (the red-hot house is cooled with water); the princess saves a snake from the well, she promises to help her; K. gave the girl to the monster; the snake ordered to offer to be chained, she will become a chain; she became a snake again, the girl and K. ran away, and the snake bit the monsters to death; everything is fine]: Rumyantseva 1981:101-111; Ingush [the mountain prince met the planar prince; they agreed: if their wives give birth to two girls, they will become named sisters if boys will be born - they will be twin brothers, and if a boy and a girl are born, they will become husband and wife; the mountain prince is dead, he has a son; a planar prince has a daughter; the son of a mountain prince came up to the boys playing alchiki, picked up the alchiki, rubbed them to dust; the children said: "Don't break sticks in vain, better bring your long-married bride"; as soon as he was reproached by his bride, he went to his mother, she told him everything; the son of the mountain prince sent matchmakers to the planar prince, who confirmed that the contract had been made; the son of the mountain prince brought the bride home; when he entered her, she did not began to listen to him; the son of the mountain prince swore that he would not approach her until he found out the strength of her stubbornness; stole horses from the Georgian prince and tried to steal household utensils; was captured and thrown into a hole; when the prince went to the wedding, his daughter offered the prisoner food; he agreed to take it on the condition that the girl pulled him out of the hole and gave him a horse; promised to return before her return father; the girl complied with the request, he went to the place where that {feast} was to take place; three conditions were announced under which the girl was to marry the winner: 1) get the ram out of pits; 2) shoot through the ring thrown by the girl from the height of the tower; 3) for the wife to be loyal to her husband; before the competition, each participant must drink three bowls of intoxicating; during On the third race, the son of the mountain prince grabbed the ram by the neck and threw it out the princess's window; when no one could get into the abandoned ring, the prince's son shouted to throw a needle; then broke thrown a needle with an arrow; to test his wife's loyalty, sent his bridles; they came to visit her; at midnight she sent a maid to them; they thought it was a princess, cut off her braids, and left; The princess dressed in men's clothes, followed them and summoned them to a duel; winning, forced them to take off their clothes and put a brand on their buttocks; came with them to the son of the mountain prince, what happened at night, showed off her hair; married him; he returned to the Georgian prince, climbed into a hole; when he arrived home, the Georgian prince asked his daughter if his prisoner was the one the man who was on that; the daughter admitted that she let the prisoner go; the Georgian prince released him, gave him his daughter; the son of the mountain prince returned home and began to live with three wives]: Sadulaev 2004, No. 51:127-131.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Chelkan residents [Ak-Kaan believes that Kystyyak-Mergen has taken all the wealth of the taiga for himself, is going to fight him, he easily kills him; buries him with honor; AK's wife gives birth to a son; he plays with other children , breaks their onions, they say that his father was killed by KM; he asks his mother to give him a handful of hot wheat, clamps her hand, she is forced to tell how his father died; AM meets a skinny horse, she turns in a good horse, heroic clothes are tied to him, a note that the name of the rider will be Alatay-Mergen; AM meets and kills Ai-Kaan's servant, several of his heroes, AK offers to shoot through a handkerchief hanging , where seven heavens converge, and his daughter will get into the eye of the clamp needle; others do not reach the arrows, the boy at Ai-Kaan's court pierced his handkerchief, but not the needle's eye, Alatay-Mergen shoots, gets a girl, a boy and he becomes twin brothers; in search of KM, AM descends underground; the horse warns not to pay attention to the monsters playing, not to touch the old woman, who puts one ear under her head, takes refuge in the other, bows to the man on a large stone, crossing the river; turning the horse into manure, herself into a water rat, then runs to the old woman in the AM column, tickles her nose, she sneezes 7 rings, he breaks one, 6 turn into heroes; the one sitting on a stone comes to the rescue, the arrow sent by Kara-Nutkul {is this the boy?} pierces the hearts of AM opponents; sitting on a stone explains that KM is his nephew and cannot be killed, otherwise all evil spirits will rise; as soon as AM decides not to pursue, the red star on the sky (this is KM) goes out; N.'s sister, who sent his arrow to help, explains that two heroes (the owners of the Blue and White Seas) took his eyes away, they will kill him in 6 days; AM finds KM's eyes in the stomach of a pike, KN returns, they kill the owners of the Blue and White Seas together; AM got KN's sister, KN got his daughter Ai-Kaan; she was engaged to him before, so he sent his arrow to help AM]: Kandarakova 2005:132-158; Tuvans [an episode of an epic tale; the khan has a competition, the winner will get his daughter; the son of the moon, the son of the sky, the son of the sun participate; the KK arrow went through the needle's eye, through a hole in his shoulder blade, set fire to a bunch of firewood, etc., but he threw a lasso over it and returned it]: Grebnev 1960:114; Tuvans [episode of an epic tale; Bora-Shaley, dressed as a man, competes with Humush-Huler -moge; her arrow flew through a hole in the camel iliac bone, widened the fox ilium hole, broke off the silver needle eye, set fire to firewood in a hundred cowhide packs, iron leather cut it in the middle; after that they rummaged for a month; Huler-Moge's lower back burst; Bora-Sheley began to blow and whisper; "Let the rest of the upper part be the beginning of bronze casting in descendants; let the lower part some of the descendants will become a split skin ball!"] : Orus-ool 1997:367-369; South Altai Tuvans [hero Sharaldai met a bald man, who imposed himself as a brother, convinced him to tell him what his soul was; in a knife in the sole of his boot, in a bird in a box, which is hidden in the horse's nose; in three red threads on the navel; when S. fell asleep, the bald man broke, tore these containers, S. died; his younger sister Mashgaed Ulaan hid his body inside the rock; made of barley porridge is the figure of a young man; this figure or M. himself wins competitions in which the winner is promised the daughter of the khan; each time he says, "Not me (doing this and that), but my brother Sh."; taming his brother's horse, pierces the ears of seven darning needles with an arrow; defeats heroes; makes a huge spit; having received the khan's daughter, he leaves early, pulls out his brother's body, writes to him on his arm that she will turn as a hare, retires to the mountain; when he sees the lifeless Sh., his wife revived him; the little black maid suspects a substitution, but the wife says that her husband has become taller and stronger in her homeland; S. finds a sister, asks her to take human form again; the maid offers to look for lice, pours tin into her ears; S. planted a box for his deaf sister, hung a wild ram around her neck; once he saw two boys - this his nephews; one hunter shot a ram, the tin leaked out, he married Sh.'s sister; S. wanted to punish the maid, but his wife advised me to forgive her]: Taube 1978, No. 28:121-125 (=Taube 1994, No. 11:127-131); Khalha Mongols (recorded by C.J. Zhamtsarano) [Adazudai Mergen (D.)'s best husband lived in Ara Khorgolji; herd Asagaldai noticed that the mare in front of the herd jumped from the water, where his lungs were swimming and the heart; the old man grabbed them, they turned gray and white hares, and ran; the old man killed them; a 15-headed mangus appeared: the old man killed his children, who took the form of hares; demanded that the old man for this he killed D.; D.'s wife had a dream: the shepherd in agreement with the mangus; but D. did not pay attention; when his horses descended from heaven, D. could not ride them, because the harness and armor were damaged by the shepherd; D. is running, the mangus took his wife and property; D. lived hunting, returned three years later, the fire is still burning in the hearth: a good sign; under the hearth, a letter from his wife; it says where the new armor and edibles are hidden supplies; let her marry Princess Naran Gua (NG); she would sew the last button to a shirt that his wife did not have time to sew on; D. wanted to pick up his wife, but there was a poisonous sea on the way, so he went after NG; taking the sight of a bad boy, D. waited at the gold and silver wells; a servant came, then NG herself; they played chess, then spent three nights together; the khan allowed them to live in a hut; hunting 6 his elder son-in-law did not kill anything, and D. returned with rich prey; gave the carcasses to his brothers-in-law, but took his legs; made his brothers-in-law poisoned with the meat of the carcasses; cured them with a piece of meat left for himself; the khan sent look for a hundred golden horses stolen by Garuda; D. turned into horse manure, hid; the mare necklaced, the garuda carried away the foal; D. managed to shoot the foal's tail, the garuda's feather; tail and feather gave it to his wife; in the morning his brothers-in-law quarrel over the feather left on earth; the khan sent him to the Garuda for the stolen horses; D. also wants; he is offered to get a horse on the border of earth and sky; he got it and tamed; while sleeping, the horse ran home; everyone thought that the horse had thrown him off, but D. rode his horse Ezen Sharga, leading the second on the lead; in the middle of the plain, a yurt with a cup, an old woman with a finger; she sent to garuda; D. shot garuda, drove the herd home; the old woman warned that his brothers-in-law wanted to destroy him; D. told his brothers-in-law that the wings he was carrying were the wings of a lark; he was forced to sit in a corner of honor, fell into the hole; his horses stole the herd so that his brothers-in-law would not get it; they brought a dagini with a 99-planted scythe; the braid did not reach the bottom of the pit; to lengthen the braid, she began to comb it; to do this, lake; horses urinated, creating it; sent a lark for eternal water and revived D. raised by it; a feast at the khan; D. beat his brothers-in-law, cutting them apart; NG begged them to resurrect them, D. did it; NG in an instant sewed up the collar of his shirt for him, and D. in an instant shot 80 carts of firewood, a black boulder and shot a silver needle through his eye; they returned home, where there was nothing left of their former home; while hunting, D. shot him maralikha, and a boy immediately took her away; the same again; on the third day, D. brought the boy; the horse: this is your son; D.'s wife gave birth to him after the mangus took her away; the boy recognized his father by the mole on his back, which the mother said; D. and mangus are fighting; mangus asks his wife to put flour under the feet of the one she loves and the one she does not love, black pebbles; D.'s wife poured flour to D., pebbles to mangus; M. killed the mangus, an iron boy appeared to cut off his fingers, he was also killed, but with difficulty; at home M. executed the traitor old man Asagaldai, married his son to NG, and healed himself with his wife]: Poppe 1937:79-82; the Oirats [ an episode of an epic story; the winner of the competition will receive the hand of the khan's daughter; including shooting at the target; from a distance of half a day, you must fire an arrow so that it passes into the eye of a thin needle, through the hole of a large needle, broke the feather grass stem, went through the hole in the fox's pelvis, then under a crooked tree and would break a stone boulder; the hero's rival arrow, Yerkim Hara, made it all the way, but split when it hit a boulder, and the arrow of the hero Shara-Bodon smashed the boulder]: Vladimirtsov 1923:232-252 in Zhirmunsky 1974:283; darhats [Alakhai-Mergen cannot be killed, but the warriors of the Mangus king they tied him with iron, threw him into a deep hole, stole cattle, took his sister as the wife of the Mangus king; the Magpie and the Raven are crying because they are no longer given giblets from the slaughtered cattle AM; AM asks them to bring Khan Garudi , she lowers her wing into the pit, AM gets out; two servants of the mangus king, blind and armless, tear iron with their teeth, freeing AM; he finds his younger brother, they meet, take them as friends Listener, Runner, Thief (quietly plucks the feathers of a flying magpie), Drinking the Sea, Rearranging mountains; they put poisoned wine on the manguses, win 1) shooting in the eye of the needle for the family mountains, 2) in horse racing, 3) in wrestling; the mangus khan puts them in a yurt, sets it on fire, the Drinking Sea floods the fire, the subjects of the Mangus king drown in the water, the Mountain-Raising crushed him the mountain itself; seven return her property to the kidnapped AM sister, rise from the mountain to the sky themselves, turn into seven Burkhans (seven stars of the Ursa Major)]: Sanzheev 1931, No. 3:87-93.

Amur - Sakhalin. Nanais (recorded from an illiterate 78-year-old resident of the village. Belgo, 1968) [a lonely boy went for a walk; a boat with pudin and her servants landed on the shore; the pudin took the boy with him; when he ran out of food, he stood on the top of the cliff and asked his father and mother for them to give him a bow and arrow; an arrow flew from the upper reaches of the river, a bow from the lower reaches; the boy shot, the arrow returned with seven wild boars and seven elks; the next day they swam to a large village; head the village announced a competition: pierce nine awl ears, nine boiler covers, the bottoms of nine cast-iron boilers with an arrow, and then hit the mergen sitting between the horns of the red deer with an arrow; the winner will marry the daughter of the head of the village; the contestants started shooting, but no one could hit the targets; the boy turned into a servant: "The head is bald, covered with scab, snot in three fathoms, and drooling at five fathoms long"; fired an arrow, pierced everything that was supposed to be; shot at the mergen, who was the fiancé of the daughter of the head of the village, who fell off the head of the red deer, and then the red deer himself collapsed; the head of the village gave his daughter to the boy; after the feast, the Mergen boy made a boat, took half of his father-in-law's possessions and set off on the way back; on the way, it turned out that the pudin was the hero's older sister; when we reached the enemy's village, who took his sister and brothers, the mergen defeated him; then turned into a duck and flew to the place where the enemy of his father and mother lived; his mother told Mergen that the enemies, failing to kill his father, had locked him in an iron coffin and threw him into the river; the mergen wrapped the old enemy in a chain and forced him to climb into the water; the old man took out the coffin, the father came out; the mergen killed the enemy, took his two daughters; then went down to the shore, met parents, gathered his father's servants and maids, all the enemy's men, drew a boat in the sand and hit its nose; it became real; they pushed it into the water, put people in it and set off on the road; healed peaceful and rich]; [from the commentary to text No. 16: "An interesting episode that repeats itself repeatedly in Nanai folklore, when the things depicted (in this case, the boat) become real. <... > According to the Nanai, these transformations can be carried out by heroes who have the sorcery ability given them by their patron ancestors"]: Kile 1996, No. 16:191-201