Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K35C. Dev in the well, ATU 677, 677*, 986.


Dev (Azhdaha, king of the sea) did not kill the man who came down to him, as people expected, but rewarded him because he greeted him and/or answered his question correctly.

Arabs of Morocco, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Punjabi, Albanians, Russians (Teresky Bereg, Arkhangelsk, Karelia, Vologda, Ryazan, Voronezh), Ukrainians (Podolia), Belarusians, Avars, Dargins, Lucks, Lezgins, Tsakhurs, (Aguls), Georgians, Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Turks, Kurds, Lurs, Persians, Baluchis, Pashtuns (?) , Uzbeks, Turkmens, Latvians, Lithuanians (?) , Estonians (?) , Finns (?) , Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz.

North Africa. The Arabs of Morocco [the king calls his only daughter a pearl; she believes that fate is God; the father {who apparently believes that his daughter's fate depends only on him} passes her off as a poor young man; he lives with her like a sister; she helps him find a job - carry firewood; he goes with a caravan; goes down to a well for water; where a ghoul asks a question, a young man gives the right answer, a ghoul gives him two a pomegranate; the young man sends them to his wife, who finds pearls inside and uses this money to build a palace in front of the king; the king wants to visit the owner, but she asks to wait until her husband returns; he is on the opposite The way receives three more grenades from the ghoul; the king and the vizier are invited to the wedding; when they recognize the princess, they confess that they were wrong]: Desparmet, Contes Maures, p. 182 in Nowak 1969, No. 284:264-265.

Western Asia. The Arabs of Syria [the princess insists that a woman both destroys and builds a house, the king insists that it is a man; takes her daughter to the desert and passes her off as a poor garbage collector Muhammad; the princess embroiders with silk, M . sells her embroideries to the king and vizier; the caravans invite M. with them, his wife sewed money into a handkerchief; he is asked to go down to the well to get water; there efreet asks which of those sitting on his lap women are more beautiful - white or black; M. guessed that Efrita likes a black woman better; for the correct answer he received 4 grenades and tells me not to talk about anything; on the way back, M. brings for a black woman the dress that efreet ordered him; M. returns with money to his wife, who builds a palace, tells her father and vizier to be invited; the king believed that a woman was building the house]: Lebedev 1990, No. 32:163-167; Arabs Lebanon [same summary as Moroccan Arabs]: Nowak 1969, No. 284:264-265; Iraqi Arabs [Gazman helped the old man for three days; received three tips; 1) don't say "You're ugly" to anyone; 2) remember that everything is your master; 3) if you are angry, count to a hundred and then make a decision; on the way back, the monster took him into the cave, fed him and asked if it was beautiful; G.: I did not see you more elegant; the monster became a young man, and a frog sitting next to him a girl; they were bewitched by a witch; the young man gave G. a jug of gold; G. went with the other travelers, who began to grab a horse with a golden saddle that had come running; G.: don't take it, everything was his master; a man with a dagger came, took the saddle, took those who took him to prison; at home G. saw his wife with someone else; it turned out to be her sister; everything is fine]: Yaremenko 1990, No. 7:47-50;.

South Asia. Punjabi [Prince Ram Singh quarreling with his stepmother, goes on a journey; the old guru says goodbye gives advice: 1) obey unquestioningly to who you serve; 2) not talk badly about anyone; 3) don't lie; 4) don't try to portray yourself as equal to someone taller than you; 5) if someone reads a holy book or preaches, stop and listen; in town, the prince hired a vizier's bodyguard; Raja went on a journey with the vizier and his entire entourage; they found themselves in a waterless country; the old man says that there is a well, but it has evil spirits; the vizier tells RS to go down there; a giant has appeared and, pointing out on a chest of bones, asked what the mortal thought of my sweet wife; RS: I think it's impossible to find another one; the giant was delighted and said that MS was the first to have eyes; the rest were kill; asks what reward the young man wants; RS: allow all people to use the well; after that, RS became Raja himself close and treasury keeper; Raja's brother, making plans for him removal from power, offered RS his daughter; he hoped to take possession of the treasures; RS remembered that you should not be equal to those above you, refused; then brother told Raja that RS insulted him and him daughter; Raja ordered the execution of RS; sent soldiers to a tower outside the city; we must kill someone who comes to ask when the construction will be completed; in the morning, the Raja sent RS with this question; he heard a sermon in the temple and stayed to listen; but Raja's brother, disguised himself, went to the tower, saw only builders and a few warriors, and asked when the tower would be finished; they cut off his head and brought the Raja; he found out the truth, raised RS again; RS lived a happy life]: Lang 2009:74-78.

The Balkans. Albanians [the poor man went to work and was going to return home 18 years later; the owner offered him a choice of three righteous piastres or 300 unrighteous ones; the man chose the righteous, set off in even if he spent the night in the house; there is a century-old man; the owner says that every word he says costs one piaster; the man gives all three; "Do not swear God's creation"; "Do not enter the muddy water"; "Put off morning anger until in the evenings, and leave the evening for the morning"; a man came to the well, people are sitting around; everyone who goes down is lifted up without a head; the man asked him to be lowered; below the water there are two women, white and black; man remembered the first advice and replied that both are good; black: you pretend, you like white better; man: no, you are both God's creatures; women let man go upstairs, water flowed from a well and a man were given two mules loaded with gold; when he came to the overflowing river, the man did not enter the muddy water; a man with two horses loaded with gold came up, rushed into the water and drowned; the man got horses with luggage; the water slept and he crossed to the other side; at home, the man found his mother, wife and 18-year-old boy (they did not recognize who had come); thought it was his wife's companion, but put it aside murder in the morning; in the morning I heard a young man call his wife his mother; everything was clear and all is well]: Lambertz 1952:175-180.

Central Europe. Russians (Murmansk, Ryazan, Voronezh), Ukrainians (Podolia), Belarusians [In the underwater kingdom: the hero orders him to be lowered from the ship to the bottom of the sea, where he receives gold, having resolved the dispute between the sea king and the queen about what is more expensive than gold]: SUS 1979, No. 677:174-175; Russians (Teresky Bereg) [the wife asks her husband to sell the necklace; he gave it for advice: the head will not die without trial ; gave embroidery in silver, the husband gave for God, so he elevates himself to the bottom; gold embroidery: Swing - do not hit, but call - do not lower; after that, the husband was afraid to go home, hired the ship as a captain; ships stopped in the middle of the sea, someone must go down to the king of the sea; that man descended; the sea king: the sea is rich in the land; the king's wife: the land is rich in the sea; you can live on land without the sea, but without the sea land is impossible; the man asked the king to put him on his throne, judged him as follows: the sea gives and takes, but the land gives and does not take it, the land is richer than the sea; he fell asleep and woke up in his cabin: gold is all around; have arrived to the king; the captains give fur and think that it only has coal; it turned out to be gold; the husband returned, saw two young men next to his wife, swung his sword, but did not hit; it turned out that his sons ]: Balashov 1970, No. 150:401-404; Russians (Arkhangelskaya, Pinega) [Sadko is not rich, but happy and good; the sea tsar advised him to bet that there is a golden feather fish in the sea, and you lay your head; went with Novgorod merchants in the blue sea; the fish was caught, S. got rich, sells well; suddenly the ship stopped in the middle of the sea, the sea king demands a man; they abandoned a cat, a dog - does not help; S. writes a will, asks to throw a board into the sea - it's not so scary to swim; the king of the sea accepted him, ordered him to play the harp; he began to dance, there is a storm at sea, people are dying; Mikola went down, asks stop; S.: not my will; M.: say that the buttons are broken, the king of the sea will offer you a wife, choose a black girl; S. is back, M. erected a church]: Nikiforov 1969, No. 72:163-164; Russians (Arkhangelskaya, Pomors) [the guy went to prison for stealing; when he left, he came to ask the tsar for money; the tsar's daughter wanted to marry him; her father kicked her out without giving anything to him; she embroidered a towel three times sent her husband to sell, he sold it for three tips: go and don't be afraid; judge and don't discuss; swing, don't hit; it's a shame to return to my wife without money, hired a coral; ships out of place, who will go under water? the man remembered "go - don't be afraid", volunteered to go down on the condition that if he returns, one of his ships; two waterfowers in the silver palace ask what is more expensive in Russia - damask or gold? "Judge - don't discuss": gold is more expensive, but if war, then damask is more expensive; the watermen are happy, they gave the box; the man got up, got the ship, the ships sailed; the man took one gem from the box, gave it to the king, he seated him next to him; the merchant is envious: if the price of my ships is lower than his alone, I will give him everything; the contents of the box are much more expensive than all ships; the man returned home with ships; changed clothes with the beggar, his wife did not recognize him; two men came at night; "Swing, don't hit"; it turned out that his sons; the wife recognized her husband; the tsar had a feast in honor of his son-in-law]: Razumova, Senkina 1987:138-143; Russians (Karelian Pomorie, Sumy Posad) [the old man's son does not want to learn a craft, he came to the king to ask for money; princess: I will marry him; tsar: what came in handy, go for it; she embroidered towel, sent to sell; then twice more; husband sold for three tips: go and don't be afraid; judge, don't discuss; swing, don't hit; he's ashamed to return to his wife without money, hired a sailor, swam; the ships have risen; the man agrees to go down on the condition that if he returns, he will be given any of the 30 ships; at the bottom, the old people brought vodka, called him the royal son-in-law, asked what is more expensive: damask iron or gold; gold, and if war, then damask; the old people are happy, they advise you to ask for the last thin ship and give a box; they sailed to another king, everyone offered gifts; the man bet that his gift is the most expensive; took one pebble from the box, he turned out to be more expensive than all the others together; received all the ships; when he returned, changed clothes with a cripple, asked his wife to spend the night, she was not his I found out; two guys came at night; the man first thought he was lovers, but then realized that he was sons; a feast for the whole world]: Razumova, Senkina 1974, No. 51:255-261; Russians (Vologodskaya) [Ondron the unfortunate man came to the king; he wanted to execute him, but Mary the princess took him as her husband and the tsar drove them out; M. weaves carpets, O. sells; first for money, and then for three words; Where will they call and do not unsubscribe; O. I did not want to go to the ship, but remembered the advice and sailed; the ships stopped; out of the water: give us a Russian man; O. did not deny it again, went down to the bottom; there are three old men: what is more expensive is gold, silver or gems? O.: it doesn't matter in Russia; old people: here we are fools for three years, but the Russian man immediately calculated; O. picked up precious stones, got up, the ships sailed, the foreign tsar is happy with the gifts; O. loaded ships with bricks, but he put a gem in each brick; O.'s cargo turned out to be much more expensive than that of other merchants {apparently they were fighting to bet}; O. returned, two fellows next to his wife; O. remembered the third word: go up, don't put it down; did not cut; the guys woke up: hello, baby! ; the tsar found out about his son-in-law; a feast for the whole world; and I drank vodka and honey, it flowed down my mustache, but it didn't get into my mouth]: Sokolov, Sokolov 1920, No. 29:111-115.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Karachays or Balkarians [the daughter reproaches the khan for not giving what he earned to the young farmhand; the khan kicked her out and she became the wife of that poor young man; he went to look for work; hired a shepherd for three years; the owner asks if he wants to receive 3 honestly earned rubles a year or 15 dishonestly; the young man wants honest money; in a year he is going to take the money to his wife; the owner promises to do this is instead of him; bought a mirror and sold it for 30 rubles to the daughter of a rich man, who looked in a bucket of water; gave the money to the worker's wife with an order from her husband to build a house; the same for the second year; the owner bought a cat and sold it worth its weight in gold to people who were tortured by mice; the worker's wife built a real palace; three years later the worker goes home; the companion sold him three tips for 3 rubles; 1) not keep a grudge against a friend; 2) don't spend the night in the ravine; 3) take your time to draw conclusions; people are afraid to go down to the well; the worker has come down; there is a girl, a frog and a young man; he asks who is more beautiful; worker: whoever his heart loves; that young man cut off the girl's head and said that the girl was chasing him, and he would rather take a frog; the worker shared the gold with his companions; spent the night on a hill, and the rest were in the ravine and were carried away by water; at home, the worker thought that his wife had found another husband, had given birth to a child, but did not show anger; in Kunatsky, his father-in-law and his wealthy owner; the owner explained everything]: Malkonduev 2017:832-830; Avars [Azhdakha captured the source, on the palisade of the heads of the killed; the young man comes to face off, but Azhdakha says he needs an answer to the question; shows two women one is much more beautiful than the other; the young man replies that the one that Azhdaha likes is more beautiful; Azhdakha freed the water, one of the mountains is his body]: Atayev 1972, No. 88:139; Dargins [father says they became rich because of his efforts, and his daughter because of her mother's intelligence; the father will marry his daughter as the poorest young man; she let her husband sell earrings at the bazaar; the husband goes with the merchants; the wife tells me to speak what is more beautiful is not beautiful, but his beloved; the merchants told the young man to go down to the well for water; there a bearded old man asks who is more beautiful; a young man: who do you love; an old man who killed many people before gives three diamonds to the young man; he sent one of them to his wife, with this money she built a house; the young man sees a woman put a knot under the head of the sleepers at night; managed to cut off her braids; identified the wife of the mayor , who cut off his son's head; wife hanged, young man awarded; wife luxuriously receives her returning husband's companions; parents arrive, father admits daughter's correctness]: Aliyeva 2013, No. 79:351-355; varnishes [Khan's daughter demands that he treat the poor man; for this, the father passes her off as the first beggar; the beggar brings his wife to the cave where his mother is sick; she advises her son to hire a caravan worker, his friend late father; merchants promise gold to whoever goes down to get water into the well before none return; the young man is in the dungeon; there is a thin man and a turtle; the man asks questions, the young man is right answers (the sweetest is the lips of the beloved, the most pleasant thing is to sleep next to her, the most beautiful is the one you love); the turtle has turned into a beauty, a thin horse, gives two grenades; with an oncoming caravan the young man sent gold and one pomegranate home, the wife found pearls inside; the wife is building a palace; her father found out and repented everything, arranged a lavish wedding for her and the boy]: Kapiyeva 1991:256-260; Lezgins [husband with the wife is arguing which of them started a family; to prove the uselessness of women, the husband married his daughter to a lazy boy; she cooked salty soup, put a bowl of water in the yard, her husband had to leave the house; wife sends him to sell a handkerchief; his husband sells for the old man's advice: what you like is always beautiful; next time: don't spend the night in the lowlands, spend the night on a hill; spend the night in the city or far from the city, but not near city; husband went with a caravan; at the spring of Azhdaha asks what is most beautiful in the world; the person recalls the first advice: what is sweet to the heart; ajdaha gives water and three precious stones; one the man immediately sends to his wife; everyone sleeps in the lowland, and the man on the hill, who sleeps in the lowland, the man gets a second camel, sends his wife a second stone; caravans spend the night at the city wall , and a man goes to herd camels; comes to visit the caravans, grabs and cuts off something soft; in the morning everyone is arrested - someone cut off the head of the son of the chief of the guard; the man shows the cut off braid: the girl is to blame with her love affairs; the man receives a third camel as a reward, returns to his wife, there is a palace; the father admits that his daughter is right]: Aliyeva 2013, No. 80:359-362; Tsakhurs [The padishah asks three daughters who makes the house home - husband or wife; the elders say that the husband, the youngest Gulperi, is a wife; the padishah gives her for the lazy poor Ahmed; G. adjusts that A. he is forced to go for water and firewood; he hires to herd camels; the three-eyed ajdaha in the well does not provide water, the caravans do not feel sorry for A.; he negotiates with Azhdakh, greeting him and giving him a ram; Azhdakha allows you to collect water and gives two grenades; A. does not know that they are gold, she sends them to his wife; she sells gold, builds a house; on the way home, A. releases goldfish into the sea, she gives jewelry; The padishah arrives, sees a rich house, admits that his youngest daughter is right]: Aliyeva 2012, No. 81:366-370; (cf. Aguly: Maysak 2014, No. Sh6 [One bald poor man married the king's daughter because she only wanted to marry a poor man and rejected all rich suitors. When she gave the bald man three gold coins, he bought two clever tips for two of them, and food and bed for the third. Going with the merchants to sell goods, the bald man came to Azhdaha, who asked him a question and, having received the right answer, gave him treasures. Bald sent wealth to his wife and mother. In the city, merchants were given the head of a murdered young man, but the bald man managed to cut off the braid of the murderer woman and pointed to her when he and the merchants were accused of the murder. The young man's parents also gave a bald boy. After driving back, the bald man offered not to stay overnight in the gorge, as a result of which he survived, while those who stayed there died because of the mudflow. When he returned, the bald man found that his wife had built a large house in his absence. The king appointed bald man to an important position]: 473; Shahumyan 1941, No. VI [the tsar passed off his daughter as bald; she gave the bald man three gold coins, ordered him to go to the bazaar and buy food and bed; he went to the shop, to which was nothing; the man sitting there said he was selling the mind; the bald man gave one gold and bought one mind from him ("When you're on the road, don't sleep in the gorge"); then gave another gold one; the shopkeeper said: "Do not trust or sleep in the night parking lot"; I bought a mattress, food, drink for the remaining gold bald one, and returned home; after a while I went with the merchants to work; when they arrived in the steppe, the merchants they lowered him into the well for water; the bald man took out water; when he came out of the well, he was grabbed by a giant and dragged him into the cave; warned the bald man: "I will ask you a question; if you do not answer my question, I will give you I'll cut off my head" and asked: "What's good in the world? "; the bald one replied: "It is good to be loved"; the giant gave him gems and let him go; the bald man caught up with the merchants; for the night they stayed in the city in the merchant's courtyard; in midnight, a woman brought the severed head of a boy and put it in the packs of merchants; the bald man found out about this, grabbed the woman and cut off her braid; in the morning at a national assembly she proved that merchants were not involved in the murder and that the murderer was the merchant's wife; on the way home they decided to spend the night in one place; the bald man said: "Let's not stop in the gorge at night, let's stop on a hill, the weather at night not good"; some of the merchants stopped on the hill with the bald one, and the rest stopped in the gorge; it rained at night, and those who stopped in the gorge were carried away with all their belongings; those who stopped on the hill returned safely to their city]: 128-129); Georgians: Kurdovanidze 1988 (2), No. 113 (Kakheti) [=Chikovani 1986:435-445; poor Burkina Faso goes to work, his wife gives him half a cake; he is hired to serve Solomon; he offers to take money or advice; F. chooses advice: do not answer the question right away, think about it; in a year again: don't reach for what you don't capable; a year later: do not believe other people's words, believe only your eyes; F. comes to a city where the king has a wife in the guise of a frog during the day, so as not to overshadow the sun with beauty; she will be free from the spell if someone in Recognizes a woman in the guise of a frog; F. is in no hurry to answer that there is a frog in front of him, begins to praise her beauty, the spell has been destroyed; the king gives F. a caravan of gifts; the merchant offers a dispute: who will catch the bird, will receive another caravan; refuses to catch, but the merchant did not catch, F. took possession of everything; at home, a neighbor tells F. that his wife and children are dead; F. does not believe, he returns, the family is alive, everything is fine]: 208-218; Chikovani 1954, No. 11 [Seeing the ragged poor man, the princess claims that this is hell; the king in anger tells her to marry him; she tells her husband to sell the handkerchief; agrees if for three advice; 1) don't speak without thinking; 2 ) do not believe slander, even if they say that a person wants to kill you; 3) if asked about a brod across the river, tell me the truth - I don't know; the poor man was hired by merchants, they sent him to get water; by the water, the knight asks: he or the frog is more beautiful; the poor man was in no hurry to answer, replied that it was a frog; her skin burst, a beautiful woman came out; knight: now I will not kill people anymore, water is free; he gave three grenades and a golden belt: the wife will put on, a golden-haired son will be born; the poor man sent his wife a pomegranate, a city and herds in it; the poor man asks whose herds at first do not believe that he is his own; the former poor man and his wife invited the king, he handed him the throne]: 71-76; Armenians [the poor man went to look for money; sends a bag of apples and a cat with the merchant; he comes to a city where he did not see apples, the merchant received a huge profit; in another country the dominance of mice, the merchant releases the cat, the king pays in gold; the merchant gave money to the poor man's wife, who built a good house, sent her son to study; on the way home, the poor man gives the last coins for the wise man's advice: 1) you won't die before death, even if you fall off a cliff into the water; 2) the one you love is the best; 3) every sneeze is good; people ask the poor man to go down to the well for water; there are severed heads, a raven and a frog; a raven asks if he should marry a frog; the poor man replies that the one you love is the best; the raven becomes a young man, the frog becomes a girl, gave him a gift; the people who pulled him out of the well , they also gave a coin; when he saw his wife's house, the poor man thought that she had married a rich man; when he saw the young man, he thought it was his rival; but remembered that sneezing was useful, began to eavesdrop, and realized that the young man was his son; everything is fine]: Nazinyan 2014:191-194 (=1969:99-103, but in a different translation); Azerbaijanis: Bagriy, Zeynally 1935 [the youngest of the three daughters of the padishah replies that wealth was not given to her by her father, but by God; viziers advise not to kill his daughter, but to pass her off as a poor man; lazy Ahmed received her; hired a merchant, went with his caravan; someone should go down to the well; there are divas, A. promised water in exchange for pistachio gum; he gave; in response, the divas gave water and pomegranate; in the same way A. got water for the oncoming caravan, asked to give his wife and mother both grenades and money; in the city of A. fell asleep by the pool, hears doves conversation: at the bottom of the reservoir there are jugs of gold; tree leaves will heal the daughter of an Indian padishah; A. went with a caravan to India; we must cross the sea; A. hit the water with a branch, the road opened; A. cured and married an Indian princess, became rich; at that time A.'s mother cut a pomegranate, jewelry in it; mother and daughter-in-law began to live in the palace; mother became younger; A. did not immediately believe that his wife was without She did not libertine him, but she showed him a grenade; A. generously gave a merchant with whom he traveled to India; the king asked for a girl, his daughter came, he recognized her; admitted that he was wrong, handed over the throne to Ahmed]: 329-339; Nabiev 1988 [the old woman replies to the Shah that if a woman does not destroy the house, it will last for a thousand years; the vizier agrees with her, the shah does not; the eldest daughters tell the Shah that the house is being built by her husband, the youngest by his wife; the shah passes her off as a poor and lazy Ahmed, the son of an old woman; after sprinkling nuts in the yard, his wife lured A. out of bed; with the first money he earned, A. bought a cat; went with a caravan; he is asked to go down for water into the well; the diva leads A. to the room where the frog asks what is the most beautiful thing in the world; A.: what does your soul love; the diva loved the frog, gave A. pomegranates and nuts as a reward; with another caravan A. arrived in the country of the Thin-Legged; rats and mice rush at people, A. released the cat, received gold for it; A. sent pomegranate, walnut and gold to his wife, she built a palace better than the royal one, the pomegranate contained precious stones; when A. returned, they invited the Shah to visit; he admitted that his daughter was right]: 77-82; Turks [the padishah's daughter claims that a lazy person can be turned into a human and that a female makes a nest; padishah kicked her out, she married Lazy Hasan; she beats her husband, tells her to answer "I don't know", "didn't hear", "didn't see" everything, sent her to prepare and sell firewood; LH found gold in the mountains, his wife built it with this money palace, sent her husband with a caravan, he was asked to get water from a well; there two frogs asking, "Who are we?" , "did you see us?" , LH replies, as his wife told him; frogs turn into a boy and a girl, who gave a diamond ring and a golden apple for their father; LS comes with a caravan to the padishah, continues to answer everything "not I saw", etc., leads the padishah to the well, it turned out that the boy and the girl are his children; the padishah (jokingly) gives LH a paper ordering him to make him a padishah instead of himself; the daughter shows it to his father, he admits that she is right]: Stebleva 1986, No. 78:324-328; Kurds: Jalil et al. 1989, No. 86 [the padishah gives the poor lumberjack gold twice, but the first time he dropped it into the river and was swallowed by fish, and the eagle took her away for the second time; the padishah's daughter says that the lumberjack must be bad with his wife - everything depends on her; the padishah passes her off as a lumberjack; his wife gives him the last money, and he buys three tips with them: 1 ) stop not in a gorge, but in a high and open place; 2) your wife is the sweetest in life; 3) take your time to kill even the enemy; the poor man hired caravans - those who spent the night in the gorge were washed away by water; the poor man is asked to go down to the well, there is a young man and a frog; the poor man replies that the sweetest of all is wife; the frog has become beautiful; young man: you were the first to answer correctly, I ordered to kill ; gives 7 pomegranates, the poor man sent them to his wife; treasures in grenades, the wife is building a palace; the returning husband sees his wife and two boys, is going to hack them, but realized that they are his sons; the spouses invite padishah, who admits that his daughter is right], 87 [the daughter tells the padishah that the lazy man is lazy because he does not have a mistress; the padishah gives his daughter for him; the wife gives her husband money, he buys advice: 1) do not take on the matter is rash; 2) God's house is being built with patience; 3) they love not for beauty, but for the generosity of his heart; the poor man hired caravans, went down to the well for water, the young man asks if he or the frog is more beautiful; the poor man talks about the generosity of his heart, the young man gives him a bag of gems, the poor man sends it to his wife; after receiving the stones, the young man's wife sent his mother-in-law to ask him for a plot of land the size of a cowhide; cut it leather with straps, built a palace; the poor man came back, saw his wife with a young man, wanted to kill, remembered his patience, realized that it was his son; the wife called the padishah father, who admitted that his daughter was right]: 380-389, 389-393; Rudenko 1970, No. 45 [Ahmad came to Aleppo to look for a job, worked for a rich man for 7 years, bought 7 tips from his owner with the money he earned: 1) you need patience for everything% 2) the most beautiful one I love my heart; 3) do not give anything until you are asked; 4) do not reveal the truth to your wife; 5) if you are sitting in a place of honor, do not talk to the one on the opposite end; 6) grab it on the way home anything softer than a stone; 7) don't get up from where you sat down; A. hired a caravan man; he asks you to go down to the well to get water; when A. sent buckets of water upstairs, the door opened in the wall, young man dragged him into the room, there is a beauty and a frog, the young man asks who is more beautiful; A.: who his heart loved; the young man gave A. seven grants; the caravan gave A. gold; A. asked to take gold and grenades to his wife Seyran; seven-year-old son S. Ismail opened one grenade, and jewelry fell from there; S. bought ordinary pomegranates for her son, bought a palace and a garden for jewelry, got servants; when A. went to the house, A. noticed a dead snake on the road and, remembering the council picked her up, covered the house with earth by the porch; when he saw a young man next to his wife, he grabbed a dagger, but realized that it was his son; where the snake was buried, a tree grew; if anyone said it was a pear, on a tree apples appeared if the apple tree was covered with peaches, etc.; the guessing A. promises to give all the property, and not the guessing player would give him his own; everyone lost, A. became immensely rich; the huckster persuaded the old woman gain confidence, convince S. that A. should tell her a secret, leave a chest in the bedroom; he hid himself in the chest and found out about the snake tree; agreed with A. that he would give him three things if he will answer correctly; when he called the snake tree, it broke out and disappeared; A. asked for three days, came to his first owner, who took him to a feast with the padishah, told him to sit next to him; but A. everyone the one who entered gave way and was on the very edge; the padishah is looking for a knife to cut a watermelon, A. offers his own, the padishah liked it; the vizier said that this knife was stolen from the royal treasury; the owner asks to let go A. promises not to say anything to him for the night; tying his donkey, beats him and talks to him as if about the advice that A. had broken; tells him to say that his father was attacked by robbers, he pulled the knife out of his chest, let the padishah will now pay for blood; padishah: this is what the vizier said; the vizier was executed; the owner Ahmed: the three things that the huckster wants are A.'s life, wife and property; orders to put a high staircase near the house and get to the balcony with his wife; the huckster will take three steps - these are three things he touched, let him take the stairs; everything is fine]: 116-126.

Iran - Central Asia. Lura [the king has 7 wives, but only one daughter; he says that he owns everything because of himself, and his daughter because of God; he tells the vizier to kill her, he brings a handkerchief soaked in the blood of a dove ; the princess came to live with a poor old woman; she has a son Ali, who is dying of hunger; the princess bought the money she needed; Ali left, he became rich; went with 6 merchants; agrees to go down to a well to collect water if the merchants pay him well; below is a terrible demoness; Ali called her aunt; allegedly his mother was informed of her death; demoness: tell me I'm alive; she allows Ali to collect water and gives grenades; one of them gave the money and grenades promised by the merchants to his wife (i.e. princess); she built a palace of gold and silver bricks; in another parking lot, Ali pretended to be asleep, but became watch; the merchants fell asleep; Ali saw a woman holding something under her arm and then buried it; Ali grabbed her, it turned out to be a baby with her throat slit; Ali refused to take the money, but cut it off braid women; in the morning, merchants were accused of murdering the prince; Ali promised to find the true murderer; reported that the king's main wife was dead; Ali: she is pretending; she was brought in - this is her braid; she was tied to her tail kulana, they drove him until the evening, the remains were burned; Ali remembered that he had forgotten to buy bread and onions for his "aunt" (i.e. that demoness in the well) that he had promised her; when he bought it, he went down again, and she gave him another a bucket of pomegranates; Ali had a feast and invited the king; he was met by his daughter; he wanted to lay the crown on her, but she said that she was giving everything to Ali; the king handed over power to Ali; 7 days and nights Ali's wedding and princesses]: Amanolahi, Thackston 1986, No. 16:77-82; Persians (Isfahan, Khorasan, Hamadan) [the princess claims to be responsible for her own fate; the king passes her off as a lazy poor man; she sends husband to go with a caravan; the caravan comes to a well from which no one got out alive; the young man went down, there is a diva in love; he gives the young man a pomegranate that he sends home; the wife finds treasure grenade; young man returns; king admits daughter is right]: Marzolph 1984, no.*986:182-183; Baluchi [shepherd's wife died during childbirth, son Shutar Bacha became a camel driver, but not learned to speak; everyone answered the king that it was impossible to learn to speak at this age; the daughter objected; for this, the king gave her to the SB; the SB learned to speak, went with a caravan; went down to the well collect water; there the divas asks what he has on his hand; it is a frog, but the SB replies that the queen; the diva gave SB 4 grenades, the SB sent them to his wife; argued the king's caravan, correctly naming the suit of the unborn foal; when he returned, the house was not a hut, but a palace: the grenades contained rubies and pearls; SB and his wife come to his father; after learning the truth, he handed over the throne to SB]: Porozhnyakov 1989:63-69; Pashtuns [are there any the episode with the devil is not known, but rather, yes, since it exists in the neighboring Central Asian-Iranian traditions]: Borcherding 1975, No. 21 in Uther 2004 (1), No. 986:616-617; Uzbeks: Afzalov 1972 (2) [buy three times gives Nurulla money to trade; he buys advice at the bazaar: wake up his wife before going to bed; every lover likes his beloved; don't refuse the morning offer; his father is dead, the thieves took all N.'s property, took him to a cave, beat him half to death, left him outside the house; his wife tells N. to hire a day laborer; he leaves with a merchant; he is asked to go down to the cave for water; there is a terrible diva, killed everyone; asks who is more beautiful: a peri sitting next to him or a frog; N. says that his beloved is sweet to a lover, a diva gives a lamp with gems; tells him to buy more black pepper at the bazaar; from the cave water flowed; N. bought a kitten in one place; mice defeated merchants in the parking lot of the caravan; N. released the kitten, the merchants generously gifted him; N. wants to sell the lamp received from the diva to the padishah; the vizier advises persuade the gardener to kill the first person who came, send N. to the garden in the morning; on the way, the old man invited N. to drink tea, and the vizier went to the garden to check the execution of the order; the gardener blew his head off; the padishah decided that it was Allah's will and paid for the lamp; in Samarkand, N. released the kitten again; people whose mice gnawed through bags of flour paid generously; N. bought pepper and then sold it at exorbitant prices to Istanbul; when I returned, I saw my wife sleeping, and a horseman not far from her; slaughtered the cauldron, but remembered the advice; wife: this is our son]: 197-203; Uzbeks [generous Abduaziz gave everything to friends, became impoverished, his friends refused to help him; he left his pregnant wife and went to look for work; he was picked up by caravans; no one can get water from the well, those who descend without a head; A. went down; below divas and two frogs; divas: better white or black? A.: everyone has their favorite more beautiful; the divas were given water and precious stones, the caravans also rewarded, two lots of black pepper; his daughter is ready to give him a step for him, but he did not take it; sent jewelry and camels to his wife; she built a palace; A. returned, everything is fine; without remembering evil, A. continued to greet friends]: Afzalov 1972 (2): 35-41 (=Sheverdin 1980:341-343); Turkmens [Mamed replies to his father that he does not want to be neither a mullah (it's hard to study), nor a musician (too lazy to sing and play), but a merchant (he only drinks tea and makes money); his father gave him 100 gold; when he saw musicians at the bazaar, M. gave this money to them they taught him to play; his father gave M. money again, and this time he paid to be taught the knowledge of the mullah; M. spent the third hundred coins on learning to play chess; tells his father to sell him so as not to to be poor in old age, and he will be able to do something; his father sold M. to merchants; they let him down the well to collect water; there is gold; after receiving it, the merchants abandoned M. so that he would not demand his share; in M. saw a sleeping diva at the well and began to play the dutar; the diva is ready to fulfill his every wish; M. only wants to be with those caravans again; the owner Mammad sends him a letter to his sons; M . read the letter, ordering to kill the sent; M. replaced him with an order to give him half of the treasure; in the city, the padishah girl will marry someone who will beat her at chess, execute the losers; M. won, became a padishah; took the treasures from that caravan man, distributed it to the poor; his father began to live with him]: Erberg 1959:68-76.

Baltoscandia. Latvians [The wife embroiders beautiful blankets and sends her husband to the bazaar to sell them. The husband gives the covers for good advice: the diamond is harder than steel; judge the dispute in favor of his wife; raise it, but do not lower it. The wife chases her husband away for not bringing money. The husband hires a ship, sinks to the bottom of the sea, says that the diamond is harder than steel, and gets a lot of money. Returning home, he finds a young man sleeping with his wife, raises his sword, but, remembering the advice, does not lower his hand. It turns out that the young man is his son]: Aris, Medne 1977, No. 677:310; Lithuanians, Finns, Estonians: Uther 2004 (1), No. 677:372-373.

Volga - Perm. The Bashkirs [the tsar drove the beggar away, and his daughter greeted him; Tsar: and what should I give you? daughter: give it back; the girl caught up with the beggar, they settled in the city; she orders to buy silk, knitted a towel, tells me to sell; the husband sells for advice; 1) do not lower your hand rashly; 2) land is better than gold ; 3) do not give up your intention; the man hired a merchant, who sent him with the ship, the ship stopped; the man was sent to go down and find out what was going on; he was carried away by two divas; the king of divas asks for an answer is gold or land better; man: land is the mother of gold; divas is grateful, gave 30 barrels of gold, the man became richer than the merchant who hired him; well done at home near his wife; the man wanted to kill him, but remembered advice; it turned out to be his son; everything is fine]: Bessonov 1942, No. 75:325-329.

Turkestan. Kazakhs [after the death of Bai Köshpes, the clerks took possession of the property, but did not give their sons anything; the youngest Ahmed went with his wife; she let him sell a skein of thread and buy bread; he changed three times threads for advice; 1) no one will die before death; 2) do not go to bed before the owner; 3) do nothing when you are angry; wife is dissatisfied, A. went to wander alone; stayed in an old woman's yurt, with her a lot of gold and silver; he just pretended to be asleep and saw the old woman bake poisoned bread; when the old woman fell asleep, A. also baked bread and changed with the old woman; in the morning A. ate bread and moved on, and the old woman was poisoned and died; A. joined the caravan; there is no water, a person is lowered into a well, lifted up without a head; another without a lower body; A. came down, he was promised a third of the cattle; seven-headed jelmouth shows old and young women, asks which one is more beautiful; A.: beautiful is not what is beautiful, but what you love; jelmouth gave a sword, but did not give it a lamb: he cuts it every night, and in the morning the lamb was safe again; A. asked the caravans for a horse under the golden saddle as a reward; said that if he was not given it, he would not take the cattle; he was given a horse after he said that he had taken it from Jelmouth sword and hacked him; when A. returned home, he was told that the cattle he saw belonged to A.; he thought his wife married a rich man; there was a young man in the yurt next to her; A. wanted to slaughter him, but he restrained himself; it turned out to be his son]: Potanin 1917, No. 34:134-137; Kyrgyz: Brudny, Eshmambetov 1963 [the first person he meets teaches the young man to call beautiful not a beauty, but his beloved; the second not to be a rival from someone who has tasted bread and salt; the third is not to give up morning meals, do not wait for the evening; a young man is hired by caravans; a bucket lowered into the well, the worker who climbs after him disappears; climbs a young man sees a diva and two women, a diva asks which one is more beautiful, the young man answers according to the advice, the diva gives water; the merchant rewards him; he stays with a friend, his wife tries to seduce him, he refuses, she slandered him in front of her husband; the husband asks his baker friend to throw a man into the oven who will come for bread tomorrow; on the way, the young man comes to his friend's house for breakfast; the wife the owner comes to the baker first, she is thrown into the oven; the husband realizes that the young man is not to blame; after getting wiser and rich, the young man returns home]: 237-240; Kebekova, Tokombaeva 2007 [Khan has a wise daughter; once said to her father: "It takes a thousand days to be good, one day to become bad"; Khan was angry: if you are so smart, I'll marry Tuuruk Taman, try to make him a good person"; TT was miserable, who had not seen anything good in his life, did not listen to anyone, walked barefoot, causing his soles to crack (Tuuruk Taman - "Cracked Sole"); his daughter merrily went to TT's home; In the middle of an abandoned yard, a collapsed shack; the girl said: "I have heard of you before, and I have come to you on purpose to live with you. If we don't die, our life and life will improve. I'll take care of all the work in the house and you'll take care of the work outside. I had nothing to bring with me, so let's not waste any time and get to work. You go and get as much firewood you take at a time, sell it at the bazaar, buy flour and some salt for a couple of gas stations with all the money you get." TT went to do what he was asked to do. After his departure, the khan's daughter repaired the cracks in the house, plastered the walls, cleaned the house from the inside of the house, swept it, cut herbs and laid it instead of carpets, swept it; picked it up in the yard (tough grass), made a fire and heated the water; at sunset, TT came, doing everything she said; the wife washed it in cooked water, shaved her head, scraped out the soles, prepared food from the flour she had brought; tomorrow she also sent him to buy firewood; ordered him to collect more firewood and buy silk thread and a needle, then cloth; embroidered headscarves and handkerchiefs; TT became selling these scarves, their food began to improve day by day, their lives improved; then his wife began to save money, sent TT to the bazaar with an errand: "You will come across a gray golden eagle with a short tail and gray horse with a short tail. Give them whatever they ask for, buy them and bring them home." TT did just that. The Khan's daughter trained them, the golden eagle as the prey bird of prey, and the horse as a tulpur amble; TT began to enjoy hunting with a golden eagle. One day he says, "If you're setting up a household, shouldn't I go for goods away from home?" Wife: "Join the caravans, get on a horse, take a golden eagle, spend the night where they spend the night. On the way, there is one Barca Kelbes well in the desert ("Where They Don't Come Back"). No one says to go down to get water. Call, say you can get water, let them tie you with an arcana and let them let you down. When you get to the bottom, you'll meet two women and one man. They will argue - "Who is more beautiful?". Say to them, "Give me water and I will resolve your dispute." They'll agree to this. You will tell them: "Not the one who looks beautiful, but the one you love is beautiful to everyone the one he has chosen." If you say so, they'll give you water. You give water to the caravans, they'll give you in return for the good they're taking, you bargain it when you get to where they're going with them. TT did just that. When he took water from the well, the caravans were amazed and provided TT with three camels loaded with gold. Together with the caravans, TT reached their destination, traded well for the gold they had earned, and, having multiplied his wealth many times over, returned home. Having become rich in this way, TT and his wife gathered craftsmen and built a palace like a khan's, and ordered to write the words above the door of each house: "It will take a thousand days to become good, one day to become bad enough." After the preparations were completed, the wife sent her husband to where the khan usually hunted, instructing him: "When the ruler meets you, he will be most interested in your golden eagle and with a horse. Don't give them to him, invite him to visit. If he calls you to visit before you, you say, "They wear a sheepskin coat from the gate, and since you are a khan, I should be the first to welcome you." Say one and a half people come. When TT went hunting, it happened exactly as his wife said. Khan did not want to go, but he really liked the horse and golden eagle, and the request to come as one and a half seemed mysterious. Khan asked the viziers what it meant to be one and a half people. Viziri: "Take your wife with you and we'll get together with you one hundred and fifty more people." When they arrived, each guest was taken to a separate house, received and treated. Khan himself would not be able to receive guests like this. When everyone gathered in one place, they read what was written above each door, "It will take a thousand days to become good, one day is enough to become bad." Khan remembered his daughter and felt ashamed. He thanked his daughter and handed over his khanate to his son-in-law]: 284-287.