Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K38A. White and black sheep, F67.


Once in the lower world, the hero sees white and black horses, rams, etc. White will take you to the upper world, black will lower it even lower. Usually, the hero accidentally touches black. Sometimes a third, red or gray, ram or horse is mentioned. See motif K38. Dzhurtubayev 1991 ["Probably, the abyss where the brothers threw Sosruk was thought of as the end of the earth, past which two rams pass every day - day and night; and it was black (night) that throws him into the lower world"]: 67-68.

Sudanese Arabs, Berbers of Morocco, Arabs of Algeria, Maltese, Palestinians, Arabs of Syria, Iraq, Greeks (Lemnos, Asia Minor), Albanians, Bulgarians, Gagauz, Russians (Voronezh), (Kalmyks), Kabardian people, Karachays and Balkarians, Abkhazians, Abazins, Adygs, Ossetians, Chechens, Ingush, Nogais, Avars, Lezgins, Udins, Georgians, Armenians, Turks, Azerbaijanis, Kurds, Persians, Shugnans, (Yagnobs), Turkmens, Chuvash, Kazan Tatars, Bashkirs, Kazakhs.

Sudan - East Africa. The Arabs of Sudan (Jaaaliyin) [the Sultan has two wives: a slave with two sons and a free woman with a son Muhammad; every year a palm tree produces dates and a snake eats them; they went to guard the sons of the slave, did not notice anything; M. cut off the snake's head; two feathers fell from her head: gold and silver; M. brought silver to his father, gold disappeared; the father sends his sons to find him; at the crossroads the woman gives them food, explains: one road - if you go - you won't return, and the other is the road of peace; M. went the road of peace; the same snake appeared at the edge of the forest, ate the dates that M. took with him, spat in water; turned into a man with a sword; he said that the road would lead to the local sultan; he would give two chickens, black and white; they should be caught with eyes closed; a man with a sword would kill whoever catches a white one , but he will let go if he catches a black one; M. caught a white one, but asked him to let him go: he himself is the son of the Sultan; M. returned to the snake; she sends to the Sultan, who offers, closing his eyes, to catch horses with gold and silver harness; the one who catches a horse with gold harness will be punished; (the same as with chickens); the snake sends again to the Sultan: he will give the girl, but her whole body must be carefully wrapped in cloth; if visible even though her little finger, she will burn the village, and the Sultan will punish M.; fingers are visible, the village has burned down; the Sultan let go again; M. took the chickens, horses and the girl, finds the brothers who have gone the road of non-return; they ask go down to the well for water; there are black and white rams; if you say "white will knock down black", Allah will save; if, on the contrary, you fall down seven worlds; M. said so, the white ram threw him down; there is an old woman, M. asked for water, she gave it, a fly in the water, M. splashed out water, the old woman scolds him: there is not enough water, she is held by a crocodile, gives her in exchange for the girls one a day, the king will give her daughter to the one who saves her; M. fell asleep, the princess's tear fell into M.'s ear, he jumped up, cut off the crocodile's head; so all 7 heads; each was marked with blood; exchanged rings with the princess; the king checked whether the rings were the right, ordered M. raise his severed head; making sure that he was a hero, the king gave M. a daughter]: Hurreiz 1977, No. 9:85-87.

North Africa. The Berbers of northern Morocco [a seven-headed demon ravages the Sultan's garden; Muhammad, the youngest of two sons, wounded the demon, walked the bloody trail to the well, his brother lowered him down; M. frees two princesses, the youngest gives him a ring (if you turn, a white dog will appear and take him to the ground) and a rod (calls a black dog to carry him down)]: Cosquin 1922b: 493-494; Algerian Arabs: Belamri 1982 [Ghoul steals apples from the Sultan's garden; three sons are guarding; the youngest shot at the ghoul; the brothers came on a bloody trail to a crevice in the mountains; the youngest was lowered on a rope; below is the Gulya Palace, with three kidnapped princesses; ghoul offers to drink a pool of water and eat a couscous pool; the prince prays to Allah, his pools are empty; the ghoul decides that he and the prince are equal; the prince hacked down the ghoul; sends princesses upstairs; the youngest gives her ring; if you turn it, white and black rams will appear, they will start butting; you have to jump on the white's back, while black will take you to the seventh lower world; the brothers did not raise a young man, told the princesses to confirm that he was killed by a ghoul; the young man accidentally jumped on a black ram, was downstairs; came to an old woman, she has 7 sons; has lived there for 7 years, became bored; seven asked take the eagle to take the guest to the ground; the old woman cooked 7 pancakes and 7 servings of meat; with the eagle raised for each underground tier, the eagle must be fed; the young man dropped the last portion, cut off and gave the eagle a piece of his flesh; the eagle: the last portion is fresh, I would throw you off if I hadn't promised to take you to the ground; on earth, the young man saw the Sultan's daughter by the cave, she was given to be eaten by a 7-headed snake; every year, having received another sacrifice, the snake gives the townspeople a portion of water; the young man falls asleep, the girl's tear woke him up; after each head cut off, the serpent says that the young man cut off only the first (the second, etc.), and the one that the snake received only the first (second, etc.) blow of the sword; the girl picked up the shoe lost by the young man; after killing the snake, the young man came to the city, stayed in a madrasah; the sultan promises a reward to whoever proves that he killed the snake; many they come, but the shoe does not fit them, they cut off their heads like this; when a young man in one shoe came, a second one came to him, the sultan gave him a daughter and half a kingdom; unrecognized, the young man came to his hometown; there his brothers' wedding with rescued princesses; the sultan recognized his son; expelled his older brothers; the young man received all three princesses and lived with four wives]: 36-45; Cosquin 1922 (Blida) [three princes in turn they guard an apple tree, from which someone steals fruit; the younger one injures the efreet, comes to the crevice, goes down; the freed princesses advise you to get up by yourself first, but the young man sends them first; brothers cut off the rope; one gives a ring, tells him to return to the palace, there are two goats, you have to jump on white; a young man accidentally touches black, enters the lowest world, comes to the old woman; a bird brings a young man to the upper world]: 493; Filleul de Pétigny 1951 [Emhammed, the youngest of the Sultan's three sons, brings lions and panthers from hunting, the elders bring partridges; the brothers envy him; they tell his father that he can bring an apple stalk, whose fruits are rejuvenating; father sends E., who brought a stalk, the apple tree soon grew, brought three apples; the sultan ate and became younger; by the end of the year he aged again, but arrived in time new apples; once someone stole apples; the eldest son guards, efreet takes both the apples and himself; a year later, the same with the middle son; when E.'s turn, he cuts off the efrita's hand, but he took the apples away; On a bloody trail, E. comes to the hole; goes down the rope; there is a city; E. consistently meets three beauties, each on a golden bed, kidnapped on her wedding day; E. cut off the head of efrita, freed the brothers, whom he beat and walled up; found 9 stolen apples, divided them between beauties; sent brothers upstairs, then women; the youngest gave a ring: if E. is not picked up, let him open it a chest with two reeds, they must be thrown to the ground, they will turn into black and white goats; white will carry them to the ground, the black one will lower them even deeper; the brothers cut off the rope; E. touched the black goat, that took him down; there was an old woman with a dog, a donkey, two goats and a goat; straw in front of the dog, bones in front of the donkey, thistle in front of the goats; E. gave thistle to the donkey, straw, bones to the dog; the old woman said that goats should not be taken to good pastures, they have owners; E. began to herd goats there; lions, panthers, jackals attacked, but E. killed them all; saw a snake crawl to the vulture nest; chopped it into 7 pieces and gave them to the chicks; the mother bird is grateful, the snake was her worst enemy, the mother bird takes E. to the ground; the three rescued women do not want to marry the E. brothers, who called themselves saviors; the youngest requires a caftan sewn without scissors and a needle, let him stand and dance; the sultan tells the tailor to make a caftan; E. lives with the tailor, turned the ring given to him, 7 girls appear, they perform everything; now the girl demands a silver chicken with golden chickens; the same; the girl agreed with E. that at the wedding she would throw the apple not to the Sultan's eldest son, to whom he wanted to give it, but E.; E. appeared in white horse, cut off two fingers to his older brother; the next day against his middle brother on a black horse; the sultan slightly wounded E. with an arrow to identify; everything was clarified; the sultan gave the throne to E.; he forgave brothers, married them to older beauties, and married the youngest]: 39-63.

Southern Europe. Maltese (many options; it is difficult to restore specific texts in detail from the paraphrase) [someone steals golden apples; the elder, middle princes fall asleep (or for some other reason I can't grab the thief), the younger one injures a many-headed monster, follows a bloody trail to a cave, a failure, etc.; brothers lower him down on a rope; brothers leave and carry the rope; or companions, not brothers, they they throw a rope, but the hero tied a stone instead of himself just in case; each of the three rescued princesses gives the hero a small object in which her luxurious dress is an almond, a walnut and a chestnut; the hero the many-headed snake defeats, which glows because it eats gold; the last princess advises you to get up first and then pick it up, but the hero does not listen; the companions cut the rope; the shepherd tells the hero jumps on a white ram, but he accidentally jumps on a black sheep, falls even lower; he feeds the hungry chicks of the mighty eagle, they explain how to open the heavy iron door; or explains everything their grateful mother; this eagle is the guardian of three girls; one of them tells you to choose the rusty sword to fight the monster; his body glitters because he eats gold; the eagle takes the hero and girl to the ground, he feeds and gives her water, cuts off the last piece from her leg, the eagle puts it back; the elder prince wants to marry the youngest of the rescued girls; she requires the groom to have a seamless dress, etc. (it has it hero); the king asks the youngest son to punish the elders; they are boiled alive or their skin is peeled off, used as a rug or napkins]: Mifsud-Chircop 1978, No. 301:33-41.

Western Asia. Palestinians [the king gives a barren wife three apples to eat, she gives birth to a son three times; seeds grow three apple trees; every year the wind tears off their petals; the eldest sons Raid and Zaid they guard, flee from the cloud; the younger Said shoots, follows a bloody trail to the well, descends; the kidnapped princess Dumia explains that a sleeping wounded giant can only be killed with his sword; S. kills; D. gives his dress and ring, tells him to sit on a white ram; S. sends D. and treasures upstairs; seeing D., R. and Z. throw a rope; S. accidentally sat on a black ram, came to the seventh lower world ; kills a snake that tried to kill piglets; the pig promises to take S. upstairs if he prepares 40 rams and 40 wineskins of water; the water is covered by the evil spirit of efreet, gives for the girls; S. kills and., saves the princess; the pig takes S. to the ground; he puts lamb demand on his head, is hired as an apprentice; R. became king, expelled Z., is preparing a wedding with D.; she demands to make a ring and clothes; S.-apprentice gives them to the owner, D. recognizes them; during the wedding, the elephant trampled R., S. killed the elephant (and the bear), D. recognized him, he reigned]: Lebedev 1990, No. 19:109-117; Palestinians [the king sits on the throne; a bird flies in, takes the hair away from his beard; the same the next day; the third time the king managed to snatch the feather from the bird - it is golden; the vizier advises sending three princes to search for the bird; they reached the fork on the stove caption: Heir ist der Pfad dem der Feurbrand naht; hier ist der Pfad den trennenden Tat {what's in the original Arabic?} ; and if you follow this path, you won't return; younger Kasim rides the one they don't return on; everyone left his ring under the stove; K. reached the long-haired demon, took out a razor, cut off his hair and combed; became friends; the demon does not know where the bird is, sent it to his older brother; at the same time, he sent it to the oldest; he advises not to try to get the bird, but K. is adamant; then the demon teaches that do; bring to the garden, where there are different birds in cages; you have to walk by to the gazebo; there is a peasant with a bird in it; grab a cage and nothing more, then run; but when K. left the garden, he tried to capture another bird; then all the birds cried out: stranger! He was brought to the king; he agreed to give the bird if K. got him a horse; the same with the horse (K. tried to take a sword hanging on the wall); now he was told to bring a grenade; the same: K. tries to tear off the second; the local king demands to get the daughter of the king of Jews Badyat el-Husn wal-Jamal; the demon gives a lit one: as long as you hold her in your hand, you are invisible; enter B.'s chambers and if her eyes are red, grab her hair and drags away, and if yellow, then run and escape; K. dragged B., the demon brought them to the grenade owner, took the form of B., K. got both grenades, and the demon returned; the same goes on (the demon turns into a grenade and a horse; the demon took them to the place where K. broke up with his brothers; there are no rings; K. met the brothers in a neighboring city, they are day laborers with merchants; he took them with him; on the way there is a well; B. advises not to go down, but K. went down, sent water upstairs, and saw a beautiful woman with a sleeping demon on her knees; killed him; the same with the two sisters of the rescued beauty; K. sent them upstairs; the brothers envy K.; lifting it to half, cut off the rope; the girls below warned, the eldest gave a pistachio and a ring in it; the second gave a bracelet; the youngest gave a walnut with a robe in it; when K. fell, B. turned into a black woman, the bird was in a white feather, the pomegranate turned black, and the horse became a nag; his father was told that K. was dead; he began preparing for weddings; K. saw white and black sheep butting; asked who liked better ; K.: white; he immediately found himself below the 7th underground tier; reached the cliff; saw the dragon chasing the snake; killed the dragon with a stone; the snake became a girl and said that this fan wanted her and constantly chased; to escape, she became a snake, and then he turned into a dragon; a little more and he would grab her; for this she would take him to his father; gave him three hairs: burn it and show up right away; K. pulled his (mutton) stomach over his head and pretended to be bald; in the girl's father's city he hired a jeweler; every day he said he found gold or two and bought something for it; girls from the underground the kingdoms agree to marry the K. brothers on the condition that they bring them the same ring and bracelet as they gave to K.; jewelers cannot do such things and are waiting for execution; K. pretended to make a ring and a bracelet, but he simply had them; when the girls saw the things, they realized that K. was nearby; the third demanded the robe that K. had given in walnut (the same); before the brothers' wedding, the king arranged a horizontal bar; K. called the woman asked her for a horse; he easily defeated his brothers, appeared before the king and told him everything; forgave the brothers, the groom on two girls rescued from the lower world, but sent him to another city; a jeweler, whom he worked, made pasha; reigned]: Littmann 2016:136-160; Syrian Arabs [the king has a rare flower garden, it has an unusual only flower in the world; every night someone picks a flower; three the princes are guarded one by one; the two elders fell asleep; the youngest cut his hand and rubbed salt into the wound; a huge marid appeared, the prince wounded him with a sword; in the morning the brothers came on a bloody trail to the bottomless well; the older brother begins to descend, gets frightened, asks him to pick him up; the same middle brother goes down to the bottom; in the marble palace there is a girl: stolen flowers on her chest, the head of a sleeping marid on her knees; prince cut off his head; an old man appeared: he must sit on a ram to return to earth; the white and black sheep began to butt; the prince put the girl on white and he took her to the brothers' father's palace; the prince sat down on black, and he carried him seven tiers down; the prince lay down under a tree; a griffin's nest on a tree; a snake crawls to eat the chicks; the prince cut off the snake's head and fed its meat to the chicks; the griffin mother flew in, I wanted to throw a stone on the prince who fell asleep, but the chicks explained that the prince saved them; she agreed to raise the prince to the ground - you need to eat a sheep to fly to every next tier; after The sixth sheep slipped off and the prince cut off his leg for the bird; on the ground, the griffin put her leg back and it grew; the prince married the saved princess, and the older brothers were disgraced]: Bushnaq 1987: 104-108; Iraqi Arabs: Lebedev 1990, No. 20 [the king is blind, grass across the seven seas will help him; three sons drive along three roads, Muhammad on the middle road; kills a snake crawling to a bird's nest; a bird first thinks that M. killed her chicks, the chicks explain; the bird carries him across the seven seas, he returns with grass; meets brothers; goes down to the well, the brothers cut off the rope; the voice tells M. to grab a white ram, and if he grabs a black one, it will fall even lower; M. grabbed a black sheep; old woman: a black giant gives water in exchange for girls; M. wakes up from a girl's fallen tear, kills a giant, rolls back stone, water poured; the tsar gives him his daughter, brings him to the ground; the brothers repented, the father saw the light]: 118-123; Yaremenko 1990, No. 16 [the tsar divorced his first wife, her son Muhammad (M.); from the second wife sons Mahmoud and Ahmed; kicked out the first with M.; became blind, lion's milk will help; older brothers reluctantly allow the youngest to go with them; the old man points out three roads: 1] prosperity, 2) regret and remorse, 3) for which they do not return; each of the brothers goes his own way, M. goes last; the elders met again, wasted everything, hired workers in the city; the prisoner in the genie's castle advises M. venerate their mother's breast; now M. has become their brother, they took him to their middle aunt, that sons to their elder aunt; her sons tell them to remove the splinter from the lion's paw; a grateful lion gives a wineskin lion's milk, sends a young lion to carry it; M. also receives camels, gold and three girls; finds brothers, takes them with him, but puts a stigma on their shoulders; the brothers let him down into the well for water ; there is a girl and the eagle that stole it; M. kills the eagle (if you hit it a second time, she will come to life); the girl feels that the brothers will cut the rope; if M. touches the white goat, she will take it to the ground if to the lower one - will carry him down; M. sends a girl upstairs, the rope is cut off, touched by a black goat, he fell into the lower world of genies; there a witch gives water in exchange for girls, now it is the turn of the daughter of the king of jinns; M. kills the witch, the girl marks the savior with her blood; everyone brags that they killed the witch, but the girl throws grenades at M.; the genie flies with M. to the ground, who on the way throws fat tails and cakes into his mouth, one piece fell, he cut off the meat from his thigh; the genie belches him, puts it back; the older brothers and the stolen goods are waiting in an enchanted sarcophagus; M. defeats his father's army, speaks of all races, shows stamps on on the shoulders of the brothers, heals the father from blindness; he gave him the throne, imprisoned his eldest sons], 17 (all of Iraq) [the king has a tree with wonderful flowers, someone steals flowers; three sons take turns guarding; Ahmed, Mahmood fall asleep, younger Muhammad sees Marid (evil or good spirit) tearing flowers, following him to the well; the eldest sons are lowered, they ask them to be raised back; the youngest goes down to the girl, whom the bouquet; she points to the sleeping marid and the sword, the young man kills him; they go to meet the old man, he explains that the white ram will lift to the ground, the black sheep will lower him to the seventh lower world; the girl sat down On white, her older brothers took her to her father, said they had released her; she asked for the wedding to be postponed; Muhammad sat on a black ram; in the lower world he killed a snake trying to swallow an eagle; an eagle wants to kill M., eagles explain that he saved them; she takes him to the ground; older brothers run away, Muhammad marries a rescued girl, gains the throne]: 93-102, 103-105; Saudia: Juhaiman 1999: 37-47 [Muhammad is the son of the Sultan from his unloved wife, with whom he divorced; Mahmud and Ahmed are sons from his beloved; the sultan is blind; fortune teller: lion's milk brought on the lion's back will help; the brothers went to search; at the fork, the old man points to three roads: prosperity; regret and remorse; on which they do not return; Muhammad chose the latter; the other two roads came together, brought Mahmud and Ahmed to the city they squandered money, one went to work in a tavern, the other to a lamb head salesman; Muhammad came to the jinn's palace; a captive girl advises them to venerate their mother's breast; Jinnia hid Muhammad from sons; then they called him brother; brought him to their middle aunt; from her to her eldest; she teaches him to pull a splinter from a sleeping lion and ask for milk when he stops being angry with pain; genies A young man was rewarded, he returned with 15 camels loaded with gold, three girls and a lion carrying lion's milk on his back; Muhammad found brothers in the city and took them with him only after they they were allowed to stigmatize them; we must get water, only Muhammad agrees to go down to the well; there is a girl and a sleeping eagle at the bottom; he can only be killed with his own sword; the eagle asks to hit him a second time; Muhammad: Father and mother were not taught to finish off; the eagle is dead; Muhammad sent water and a girl upstairs; she gave a ring: if she rubbed it, she will come to the rescue; the brothers will cut the rope; you must follow this road; if a black goat will hit, you will descend into the seventh underworld, and if a white goat, you will go up to the ground; the goats fought, the white one missed, the black one hit, Muhammad found himself in a hot world where genies lived; old woman: a witch at the ditch lets water once a year when she is given one of the daughters of the king of jinns; today is the middle daughter's turn; Muhammad hacked the witch; rubbed the ring; that girl tells her to go to the palace of the king of jinns; there his daughter will throw a grenade at the one who saved her; this is what happened; the king ordered one of the genies to raise Muhammad to the ground; to do this, prepare 7 lamb fat tails and 7 servings of tortillas; the seventh fat tail Mohammed dropped and cut off the meat from his thigh; on the ground, the genno regurgitated the meat and put it on the wound; meanwhile, the girl covered her camels, the lion, herself and the other girls with an iron sarcophagus; Muhammad defeated the father's army, showed marks on the shoulders of the brothers; by agreement with the girl, destroyed the iron sarcophagus; the king saw the light, the sultan returned his first wife, the second sons were thrown into prison], 50-53 [the king has a tree, someone steals flowers from him; the elder, middle sons fall asleep; the younger Muhammad noticed Marida, followed him, he disappeared into the well; the older brothers are afraid, M. went down; there is a girl with flowers in her hands from the royal garden; a sword on the wall; M. hacked the marida with them; he managed to close the door, M. and the girl went and met the old man; he herded two rams; the white one would take them to the ground, the black one would lower them into the seventh underground kingdom; M. put the girl on white; the older brothers attributed her salvation to themselves; the girl asks to postpone the wedding; M. saw a snake trying to swallow an eagle; M. killed the snake, threw snake meat eagles; an eagle flew in, wanted to pick up a stone and kill M., the eagle told her everything; M. asked to take it to the ground; when they saw M., the older brothers ran away, and he married the rescued girl].

The Balkans. Greeks: Dawkins 1916 [the king has three sons, the youngest is bald; someone steals apples; the youngest guards, beats a maiden with a sword, he asks to hit me again; young man: my mother gave birth to me only once; the virgins disappeared into underground hole; the young man went down there; the woman tells him to sit on a white ram, he will carry it to the ground, and the black one will sink deeper down; the young man sat on a black one, lay under a tree; the snake devours chicks every year, young man killed her; the bird first decided that he was the one who killed the chicks, the chicks explained; the young man asks to raise him to the ground; the bird tells us to prepare meat and water {p. 375 is missing in pdf}]: 373-375; Paton 1899, No. 1 ( Lemnos) [the king's tree brings three apples a year; someone steals them; only the youngest son was not afraid of the roar, cut off the ogre's hand, brought it and the last apple to his father; the brothers are on the trail of blood, the youngest asks to let him down on a rope into the dungeon; consistently meets three girls; each says that the cannibal sleeps with his eyes open; the young man cuts off the head of cannibals, contrary to request, does not strike twice; the last girl warns that if the brothers do not pick him up, you have to jump on a white ram, he will take him to the ground; gives three nuts, dresses with flowers, fish, stars; the young man jumps on a black ram, falls even lower; the old woman says that the seven-headed monster gives water in exchange for girls; the young man cuts off all seven heads, cuts off his tongues; the king wants to marry him off his saved daughter, but he asks to be brought to the ground; he sleeps under a tree where all the birds rest at night; kills a monster crawling to the birds; birds carry him to the ground; he sits on an eagle, supplies run out, he cuts off a piece of his own leg; on the ground, an eagle puts it back on him; the young man's elder brother wants to marry the third girl rescued; she demands dresses with flowers, fish, stars; a young man pretends to be a merchant, hangs out dresses; this is how the bride finds out that he is back; wedding]: 495-498; Bulgarians; Lambertz 1952 [when he dies, the father tells three sons to guard the apple tree, the fruits from which kidnaps an evil spirit; the older, middle brothers are afraid, the younger Kjelani injures the kidnapper; on a bloody trail, the brothers come to the crevice; the older ones are afraid to go down, K. goes down the rope; three kidnapped girls give white, red, black scarves; fighting the spirit, you have to wipe the sweat off your face with them, the spirit will lose its strength; K. cuts off his head; sends the girls upstairs; when he gets up, the brothers cut off rope; old woman: the white goat will carry it to the ground, the black one will lower it even lower, there is still a red one; two slip out of his hands, K. grabs the black one, falls deeper; kills the snake that was going to eat chicks; Corshun mother is going to eat K. first, the chicks explain who their savior is; K. asks to take him upstairs, the bird tells them to prepare meat and wine; K. meets the princess, she is given to be eaten Kutschedra (a woman with a tail and 9 tongues, connected to black clouds), who closed the water sources; K. cuts off her head, the waters are free; the grateful king gives meat, wine; there is not enough meat, K. cuts off a piece of calf from his leg; on the ground, the bird puts a piece back, gives the pen to summon it; K. is hired as a servant; girls refuse to marry until they are given breastplates made without scissors and needles jewelry (they gave it to K. in the lower world); K. gives them; tells the bird to give him a white horse, clothes and a sword, wins the older brother's competition; the same goes to the middle brother (red horse, etc.); appears on white horse, marries the youngest of the girls]: 37-49; Bulgarians []: Leskien 1916, No. 18:73-77; Gagauz [brothers followed a strange trail, came to a dried well, white and black were fighting at the bottom rams; Wanchu's younger brother offered to go down, the elders refused, lowered him on a rope; wanted to sit on a white ram, but the black one pushed him, V. found himself on black, fell into the dark kingdom; saw like a snake crawls to the nest of a huge eagle, killed her; the eagle father is grateful; says that the five-headed fire-breathing Goguzhu-Moguzhu has closed the waters, passes it off as people given to him to eat, now it's his daughter's turn padishah; you have to wet your clothes so as not to burn; V. cuts off two heads, four grow up; V. suggests that the GM show how he sleeps; he puts his central head on two, covers himself with the other two; B . cuts off all 5 heads at once; the princess orders to cut off tongues; the impostor brings the padishah the heads of the monster, V. shows his tongues; the impostor is expelled, V. gets the princess; the padishah lets them visit parents V.; the bird carries V. and his wife, in flight he feeds her meat, bread, water; the meat ends, V. cuts the meat from its soles; the eagle did not swallow them, reaching the ground, put them back, but since then pores on people's soles; brings V. and his wife to V.'s parents; after staying, V. and his wife return to the lower world]: Syrf 2013:138-145;

Central Europe. Russians (Voronezh, Ertil district, p. Pike, 1965) [Cripple Ivan does not get up from the stove, his parents go to the forest, he stays at home. The old man knocks, asks to let him drink. I. says he can't walk, he orders. He gives me a drink of water twice, I. gains strength, "Yes, if there was a pole in the ground, I would turn the ground upside down," the old man gives a third drink and his strength becomes a little less. I. brings lunch to his parents and easily uproots trees. He goes "to look at the white world, show himself", on the third day he sees sleeping heroes, wants to kill them, but thinks about it, wakes them up, asks him to take him with him to save the girl from the snake. He says that the oldest will be the one who lifts the big stone, becomes the oldest. They approach the crack, one of the heroes descends on a rope, refuses in the middle of the way, and I. He walks into the hut and learns from the old woman about three girls and three snakes (3-, 6 and 12 heads). He comes to the first girl, hides, the snakes return, they go out to fight, the snake drinks water from under the oak tree, Ivan offers a drink from under the birch tree. The serpent blows, Ivan kneels into the ground, Ivanov's whiff of snakes leaves him to the waist, Ivan knocks his heads down with a baton. She frees the girl, takes her personalized ring, defeats the second and third snakes more easily (she drinks water from under the oak tree), the girls give him personalized rings. The heroes raise the maidens, and leave Ivan behind. Baba Yaga: If she catches a white sheep, it will fall to the ground, if the black sheep falls down to two more lands. And enough black. He sees a nest with chicks on an aspen tree, asks their mother to carry it to the ground. She agrees on the condition that he has a vat with animals to feed her on the road. I. flies to the tsar, goes to the wedding, shows his personalized rings, the rescued girls recognize him, the tsar gives Ivan his daughter as his wife]: Kretov 1977, No. 42:81-83.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. (Wed. Kalmyks [old woman Nalkhan-Tsagan-eeje gave birth to a hero son named Naikhal; her 7 brothers persuade Zagir-Bogdo Khan to destroy him; he sends a Crimean cauldron and a tripod to bring him; N. cuts with a staff of Musa, the lower part falls into a hole; N. descends, where the kidnapped daughter of Hormust-Tengri explains that parts of Musa's body are now held together with steel, it remains to make one eye, one ear, one hand; N. Musa and his mother kill, if Musa's body were full, he would be invincible; you can climb to the ground on a hairless horse, N. takes off on it, but towards the mousse, N. beats him, but falls down himself, breaks his hip; the mice want to eat it, he broke the mouse's thigh, the other brought white clay, cured it; N. ate clay himself, recovered; mousse arrives every day, people don't know who he will eat tomorrow, who today; when he sees N., he turns into a hare, N. into a dog; grain is a chicken with chickens; mousse takes its form, N. defeats him, cuts his stomach, live people and cattle come out from there; the yellow-headed snake always eats eagle chicks; N. kills the snake, the eagle swallows it, the chicks tell her to regurgitate; she takes N. to the upper world, which feeds it with horse meat and koumiss, cuts off the last piece from its thigh; the eagle puts this piece back; N. kills the hare, but the guy takes him away; N. wants to kill him, he says that N.'s mother suffers from Zagir-Bogdo Khan; N. covers Khan and Khansha with a Crimean cauldron, they die]: Basangova 2002:67-81); Abkhazians; Abazans; Kabardian people; Karachays and Balkarians; Ossetians; Ingush; Avars; Lezgins; Udis; Georgians: Bogoyavlensky 1892a, No. 4 (Akhalkalaki district) [at the king's request, his three sons erected a temple; the old man says that the temple lacks Queen Peri's singing bird; the sons are going in search; at the fork there is an inscription: you will return on the right road, maybe on the middle road , if you come back, you won't come back on the left; the older brothers go right and straight, becoming employees of an innkeeper and baker, the younger George to the left; heals an abscess in the deva's ear by piercing him with an arrow, he sends him to a three-headed maiden (he needs to throw lead to chew), three-headed to an old Davy, whose beautiful daughter was kidnapped by 12 devas and seven brothers can't be repulsed; G. kills 12 devas, the old woman teaches what to do ; 1) there is something like milk in one spring, blood in the other, both liquids are disgusting, you should drink and praise; 2) go through the thorny bush and praise it; 3) swim across the salt lake, praise it; 4) the yielding feathers around the palace look like pillars, you have to bow to them; take a cage with a bird in the queen's bedroom; the queen tells the guards to hold the thief, but everyone says that G. praised them; G. found brothers; they came to the crevice; the elders can not go down - it's hot; G. went down, the princess kidnapped by the seven-headed devil below; gives sabers against the deva and against the peri; after killing the deva, G. does not strike a second blow; brothers they raise the princess, leave G. below; give her father a bird, but she does not sing; they imprison the princess; G. sees two rams, sits on a white one, rises to the ground on it; returns, marries the princess, forgives brothers]: 57-70; Kurdovanidze 1988, No. 31 [younger brother kills devas, marries a woman they have kidnapped; the elder deva takes her away, falls into hell; the older and middle brother let the younger brother down rope, pick up a woman, throw a rope; his wife warned that the white horse would take him to the upper world, the black horse even lower; the white one runs away, the hero sits on the black one; there the gveleshapi gives water only in exchange for people given to him to eat; the hero kills G. with a bow; the king says that only the Eagle can take him to the upper world; the chicks hide him, explain to their father that the man killed G.; in flight, the Eagle swallows pieces meat put in a basket, which the hero throws at him; the meat runs out, the hero cuts off a piece of his leg; when he reaches and finds out what he has swallowed, the Eagle says that he would not lift the man to the ground if knew what he would feed him; the hero killed his traitor brothers, married his betrothed]: 79-83; Armenians; Turks; Kurds; Adygs [Yesmuko Eskhot herds horses pshi (prince); bastard (snake) He cordones off the herd with his body; lets HER go for promising to come to him; gives him a daughter; tells him not to turn to the left road on the way to his father; she turns; his wife's two sisters died there; Aliregu-Algoj ( pshi devils) kidnapped the youngest, but he defeated him, nailed him to the ground with seven hooks; HER is weakened by one hook, AA jumps up, takes his wife; three men at the bridge tell HER that she will now come on a boar giant; wins by driving him into the ground; the giant advises to tie his gut around his waist; SHE throws his gut on a tree, which cuts the trunk; SHE cuts off the giant's head, she hides in failure; three men they lower HER in the basket; SHE finishes off her head, sends three girls upstairs; the youngest warns that the rope will be cut off, tells her to sit on a white ram, he will take it upstairs; the rope is cut off, SHE sees fighting rams, jumps on black, he lowers him down into the AA world; SHE throws his wife's ring into the maid's jug, meets his wife, tells him to find out where AA's soul is; in willow (wife decorates willow); in three flies in in a box, she is in a hare, a hare in a fox, a fox in a boar in reeds; Tlepsh makes three arrows for HER; SHE kills a boar, a fox, a hare, presses one fly; AA asks to finish him off as soon as possible; SHE presses others flies after AA gives a flying carpet and a stone and towel that make old people young; on the carpet SHE and his wife rise to the ground; forgives companions, marries rescued women; makes the mother young; frees his father from his pads, kills a psha tyrant]: Karashev 1957:131-141; Ingush [the bear forces the ploughman to meet her; on the same day his son, who was immediately born and grew up, approaches him; the son became an abrek, takes as his comrades the one who pulls trees and another one; each one in turn remains to guard the hut; the man himself is six quarters, the beard of seven ties the guard, takes what he needs; the guards are sick; the bear son drives the bearded man into the tree like an ax; he breaks out, they follow the bloody trail to the tower, the woman picks them up; the bearded man comes, they kill him; Bear the son chains his comrades, he cannot; the woman warns that three rams will come; if he jumps on black, he will fall into the third underworld, on red - into the second, on white - he will fall into the third underworld, on red - into the second, on white - he will be on the ground; he falls on black; in the lower world, a woman is going to knead dough in urine; the snake Sarmyg lay down by the spring, gives water in exchange for the girl; the bear son takes water twice, the third time S. his swallows, he cut it from the inside with a sword, went out; tells the sword that no one but him can remove it from the body of the snake; the king, whose daughter was supposed to be eaten, tells him to turn to the eagle in the tree among seas; chicks ask their father for a man; on the way, the Bear Son throws buffaloes and rams to the eagle, finally cuts off the flesh from his thigh; on the ground he belches a piece back; the bear son finds comrades, marries a woman from the tower, marries his comrades]: Potanin 1883:782-784; Chechens [the young man goes to face off with seven Nart-Orsthoys, who marry his sister; when he goes home with his wife, her brothers they warn that a mirror will be placed at them at the river crossing; the young man held on, and the horses and wife fell into the lower world; the young man made a hut, two more came to live; it is seen how a girl went to the lower world; the companions can't go down - it's hot, the young man came down, there are three girls, he sent them to the ground when he started to climb himself, the companions cut off the rope; the old woman says that by the stream Sarmak lies, does not provide water, the young man cut it into 9 pieces; old woman: there are white, gray and black sheep on the road, if you touch black, you go even lower; the young man takes white, goes up to the ground; finds his father; insidious companions were expelled, the young man married the one raised girl he liked]: Malsagov 1983, No. 25:126-128; Azerbaijanis: Akhundov 1955 [Shah apple tree annually brings one rejuvenating apple, someone takes it away; the older, the middle one falls asleep, the younger Melik-Mamed injures the diva, the brothers are on the bloody trail; the elders cannot go down to the well because of the heat, MM consistently meets three girls and three divas at the bottom; each points a bubble with the soul of a diva, MM breaks it; sends the girls upstairs; the youngest says that if the brothers cut the rope, MM must jump on a white ram; cuts the rope, the white ram drops MM on the black one, which takes him to the realm of darkness; there the dragon devours the chicks of the Zumrud bird every year; MM kills him; the bird promises carry MM upstairs if he gets forty oxen carcasses and forty wineskins of water; MM kills the dragon that covers the water for the girls; the king gives him meat and wineskins full of water; the last piece of MM cuts off from his thigh, the bird puts it back; MM is hired by a tailor; in his true form on horseback, cuts off the head of his older, middle brothers; opens, marries, the other two girls are given for courtiers]: 50-63 (=Mazaev, Kasumov 1997 (2): 463-474);; Bagriy, Zeynally 1935 [someone is ruining the royal vineyard; the elder, middle prince falls asleep, the younger shoots an arrow at the diva, he disappeared into a hole under with a stone; the prince asks his brothers to lower him into the hole; there are three girls; the prince broke the vessel in which the soul of the diva, the diva, died; the prince sent the girls upstairs; the youngest warns that the brothers may try get rid of it; if you sit on a white ram, it will throw it into the world of light, and the black sheep into the world of darkness; the brothers cut off the rope; the prince accidentally sat on a black ram, found himself in a world of darkness; there the dragon closed water, they feed him, collect water while he eats; the prince killed him; the girl who was carrying food to the dragon dipped her hand in blood, left a mark on the prince's back; the prince fell asleep under a tree; killed a snake that crawled to ruin the nest; mother's chicks: this man saved us; the bird told us to cook meat and milk to feed and water her on the way up; the prince asked the local king for the girl who left mark; the king was convinced that the mark was there, gave it back; the prince cut off the last piece of meat from his thigh; on the ground, the bird put it back; the wedding; the king punished the elder brothers]: 103-110.

Iran - Central Asia. Persians [Malek-Mohammad, Malek-Jamshid, Malek-Khorshid are the sons of the Shah; MM's mother is dead, others are alive; someone steals grenades; MM cuts off a finger stretching from the clouds; On a bloody trail, the brothers reach the well; only MM goes down to the bottom, kills three divas, frees three girls, marries a third; brothers pick up treasures and girls, cut off the rope; betrothed before that, he tells the white ram to jump on the back, he lifts seven tiers up; MM jumps on the black one, falls seven tiers down; the lion lets him approach the water if he is given a girlfriend that day; MM harnesses a lion into a plow; the ploughman says that only the Simorg bird can help him; MM kills a lion; kills a dragon crawling to eat Simorg's chicks; the chicks tell their mother that MM is not an enemy, but a deliverer; on the way MM throws Simorg meat, gives MM water; cuts off the meat from his thigh, Simorg hides it under his tongue, puts it back on the ground; gives MM his feathers, if burned, he will come to the rescue; the named MM is passed off as the son of a vizier; MM pretends to be tailors to sew dresses for brides; Simorg sews his youngest dress for him; girls recognize MM, forgive his brothers]: Osmanov 1987:56-71; Turkmens [bay's son, merchant's son and orphan see at the well traces of a virgin; the son of a bay, the son of a merchant cannot go down because of the heat; an orphan descends, kills the deva, tells his companions to pick up the released peri; they throw away the rope, the son of the bay takes peri, the merchant's son takes treasures ; in a dream, someone tells a young man that white and black sheep will fall from above, he must jump on the white one, he will take him upstairs; he jumps accidentally on black; the daikhanin lets him plow, tells him not to make noise, at him tigers rush, he harnesses them; the dragon crawls to eat the chicks on the plane tree, the young man kills him, Simurg gives him his feathers; in the city, the dragon has locked the water, demands the girls to eat; the young man kills him the grateful padishah adopts him; Simurg takes him to the ground, he throws meat and water to her, cuts off the last piece from his thigh, she hides it under her tongue, puts it back; at home, the young man turns into old man, restores his mother's vision with Simurg's pen, becomes young again, his mother recognizes him; he kills the sons of a merchant and a bay, takes both wives]: Stebleva 1969, No. 33:170-179; Shugnans [bear takes the hunter away, makes her husband; she has a son Bear (M.), 3 years later as a 20-year-old boy; he kills the Bear, comes to his house with his father; kills the royal hero who offered move his leg off the gold bar; forced; meets, wins, takes Saxifram, Tree Uproot, Mill Straightener with his little finger; twin brothers live in the fortress, cook in turn; every time an old woman comes, eats all the pilaf, beats the cook; everyone is silent about what happened; when it is M.'s turn, he cuts off the old woman's head, she hides in the crevice; his companions lower him on a rope after him; sends the princess and treasures upstairs; the companions leave, leaving M. below; there is a horse: whoever whips twice will take him to the upper world, some once to the lower world; M. hit once, is below; sends a peasant to buy bread, tames lions, plows lions, kills them; they killed two people a day; he is made king; Simurg sees the chicks of the bird, one cries, he will now be eaten by a werewolf; M. kills a werewolf, Simurg takes him to the upper world; he takes the rescued girl, drives away his brothers, becomes king]: Grunberg, Steblin-Kamensky 1976, No. 3:74-84; (cf. Yagnobs [an unloved wife pushes her beloved into the pond; she feeds her son well, her stepson poorly; the ram tells him to feed him rough bread, gives him delicious things from her horn; the stepmother pretends sick, will recover if he eats his stepson's meat; he goes to the pond, complains to his mother; she makes the knife turn into a nightmare and dough; the king orders to drain the pond, the wife is alive at the bottom, there are twins on her knees Hassan and Hussein; feast; divas took the king's daughter away from another wife and the daughter of another king; princes Soka and Boka find them, B. kills one, the second diva; S. envies, lowers B. into the abyss for a gun, cuts off the rope , he falls on a gray horse, with sulfur on a bull, from a bull in front of an old woman; kills foxes that ate her chickens; kills tigers who ate plowman's bulls; wolves who ate shepherd's cattle; they all send to the plane tree on which the Simurg bird's nest; the dragon comes out of the pond, kills chicks every year; B. kills the dragon; Simurg asks for meat for 40 lambs, 40 wineskins of wine; the shepherd, the plowman gives; Simurg brings it to the ground, There was not enough meat, he bites off a piece of B.'s leg, regurgitates and takes root on the ground; B. takes his gun, which S. could not take away, kills a dragon in a village on earth, which provided water in exchange for those left for eating people; the tsar asks B. not to kill his brother, marries the vizier's daughter]: Andreev, Peschereva 1957, No. 10:79-87).

Volga - Perm. Chuvash [(description of fragments of a fairy tale); after sending the rescued girls up, the young man prepares to get up by himself, his companions cut off the rope; he breaks to the bottom of the crevice; in his dream he appears an old man, gives a handkerchief; you have to look through it, grab a bull rushing towards the right horn, he will throw it to the ground; the pattyr grabs the left, thrown seven layers deeper]: Salmin 1989:50 (=1994:233); Tatars: Zamaletdinov 2008a, No. 40 [=Yarmukhametov 1957:39-61; =Bulatov, Sharipova 2000:49-89; three daughters of the padishah are carried away by a whirlwind; Kich-batyr brothers (kitsch - evening), Ten batyr (night), Tan-batyr ( morning: younger) play; the old man advises them to better look for the daughters of the padishah; they come to the cave where the divas have disappeared; only Tan-B. pushes the stone away; the elders do not reach the bottom of the cave, Tan-B. cuts the rope, jumps ; mice undermine the walls of the well, send Tan-B. through the passage to the copper palace; Tan-B. kills the diva, frees the eldest daughter of the padishah; the same with the silver, gold palaces, middle and eldest daughters, two other divas; during a fight with the last diva, T. replaces barrels of strong and weak water, the divas weakens, is killed; the younger sister puts palaces in copper, silver, golden eggs, gives Tan-B; brothers They pull out the girls, cut off the rope, pick up Tan-b; the mouse man tells you to sit on a white goat, not a black goat; Tan-b. sits on white, taken to the upper world; brothers tie a sword in front of the tent, Tan-batyr cuts off his legs; blind and armless come to him; they kidnap the daughter of the padishah, make him a sister; the fire goes out, she comes to the witch Ubirly Karcik; she tells her to pour ash behind her so that she can come to visit; when she comes, she tells her to look for a girl's blood in her hair; three brothers in turn they guard, Tan-B. ties the witch, hits; she swallows everyone, regurgitates healthy; Tan-B. does not burp; others chop her, see a finger running away, find Tan-b in him; at home he hires a shoemaker; to for the wedding of the youngest daughter of the padishah, with the help of copper and other eggs, creates boots, dresses, palaces to order; opens, marries; drives away brothers; passes off his wife's sisters as his brothers], 41 [poor son Turai-Batyr women go to look for a bride; meets, takes Tanazar (throws mountains) and Kashkazar (squeezes oil out of the stones); they take turns cooking; Sam-s-pyad-yes, the beard hits five inches cooks, eats everything; Turai fights for five days, wins; mother finds her son, revives her son; at his request, revives his brothers; they came on bloody trails to the well; Turay went down; old woman says that the padishah of the divas, who stole the royal daughters, was wounded; the old woman indicates what to take with him to avoid the guards; Turay threw hay to a bull, lamb carcass to dogs, clothes to a thin beaten man; kills a dwarf, frees three princesses; pulling out Turay, the brothers cut off the rope; the old woman tells me to go to the lake, where white and black goats are butting; Thuray grabbed the white one, who carried him to the ground ; Turay comes disguised as a beggar; breaks his sister's bows; pulls his own, kills traitors; marries a younger princess]: 103-127, 128-138; Bashkirs [(description of a fragment of a fairy tale); in in the underworld, an old woman tells the hero to grab a white cow by the horns, because two butting cows will be carried to the ground by a white cow, not a black one]: Khusainova 2014:104.

Turkestan. Kazakhs.