Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K56a7. Greens in winter. .

In winter, a girl (rarely a boy) is sent to bring what is normally available only in summer. It brings.

Spaniards, Basques, Catalans, Italians, Ladins, French, Germans (Harz, Grimms), Irish, Koreans, Slovenes, Serbs, Romanians, Greeks, Slovaks, Czechs, Poles, Ukrainians (Hutsuls), Estonians , Finns, Swedes, Japanese.

Southern Europe. Spaniards (Extremadura) [the widower's daughter insisted that he marry a widow, who also has a daughter; a stepdaughter in paper shoes goes to buy strawberries in winter, comes to three dwarfs, shares with them with black bread; they give her strawberries, tell her that gold coins fall from her lips, that she marry the king and become prettier day by day; her own daughter comes in warm clothes, does not share food with the dwarfs, refuses to clean the snow to pick strawberries; they tell toads to fall off her lips, to go beyond the line and get uglier; the king saw his stepdaughter, got married, she gave birth to a son, stepmother she pushed her into the water, she became Galopín de agua, her stepmother replaced her with her daughter; the real queen came out of the water every day, came to see the baby; the king pinched her, she regained her former appearance; The liar was tied to the tail of a horse, scattered across the village]: Camarena, Chevalier 1995, No. 480A: 358-362; the Basques [after taking a new wife, the father dies, the daughter stays with her witch stepmother; she sends her in winter for strawberries; a girl meets three men, they say that she will find strawberries under a woodpile behind the house; one promises that with every word gold will fall from her mouth, she will become prettier every day, when she dies, she will go to heaven; a witch sends her own daughter; three men ask if one basket of strawberries was enough; they promise that toads will fall from her mouth, she will become uglier, after death, she will go to hell; a witch sends her stepdaughter to the frozen river to wash her skeins of thread; the king sees the girl, brings her to him, takes him as a wife; she gives birth to a boy; husband and mother-in-law bring him to the garden, to this time the witch replaces the queen with her daughter, throws the queen into the river; the bird sings, the king realizes what happened, saves his wife, burns the witch, drowns her daughter in the sea]: Azcua 1942, No. 2:18-22; Catalans [(parallel to the Basque version)]: Camarena, Chevalier 1995, No. 403B: 226; Italians: Roberts 1994:149-153; Ladina [the mill is baking bread; she is angry and does not like her ; her husband is dead; she has an ugly daughter Ursigna, and from her husband and his first wife a kind stepdaughter Maria; to get rid of her, her stepmother sends her in December for lingonberries; snow; M. comes to the house outside the forest ; the man calms her down; he is only one of the 12 bewitched ones speechless; the rest sit silently at the table; the man fed M. well, filled her basket with lingonberries; put something in her apron - let the godmother look at the house; leave everything with her, and then take it away; there are jewelry and jewelry; M. returned to her stepmother; she sent her to the mill for the night to protect bags of flour from the mice; hopes that Mary will be eaten by a dragon; an hour before midnight, a mouse with mice appeared and asked for them to eat; M. shared everything she had; mouse: the dragon would knock at midnight; I must ask: let her bring it to her first a brocade dress and everything that comes with it, then blue and then another one; you have to ask again and again to take time; then send water in two pots; in the dark, the dragon does not see that they are full of holes; it struck one o'clock in the morning and the dragon disappeared; after waiting for five in the morning, M. opened the parcels, wearing luxurious dresses and jewelry; when she saw this, W. went to the mill herself at night; her mother gave her the best food; she did not share with mouse; the dragon broke in, ate her; in the morning, on the roof of the mill, the mother saw her daughter's crucified skin; out of grief she jumped into a pot of boiling water; the godmother brought Mary the treasures given to her by that man; the biggest Let M. throw the parcel into the water; there was a rumble and those 12 men came out; this is the son of the Austrian king and his friends; the dragon's witchcraft was destroyed; M. stayed with his godmother, and then that prince came for her; wedding]: Brunold-Bigler, Widmer 2004, No. 6:53-69.

Western Europe. The French [one version of the ATU 480 plot (one sister is kind and beautiful, the other is evil and ugly; mother or stepmother sends good things to bring strawberries in winter]: Delarue, Tenèze 1964:189; Germans (Harz) [the widower has a 14-year-old daughter, an ugly neighbor has her own; the neighbor asked the girl to persuade her father to marry her; she began to tyrant her stepdaughter; she dreams twice that she must leave; she 7 giants come into the house, the old woman hides her, then shows her; the giants do not harm them, send them to others; they send them to 7 dwarfs, tell them to fix the jug at the well, clean the beds; the girl performs, dwarfs make her gold-haired; she returns home; stepmother sends her own daughter; she does not help the old woman in the giants' house, they tell her to break the jug, scatter the beds; the dwarfs tell her be lousy; stepmother wants her stepdaughter to feel bad too; pretended to be sick, sent for strawberries in winter; three men sit by the fire in the forest; they allowed the visitor to warm up, and she shared hers a meager breakfast; it was God, Christ and the Holy Spirit; after eating, Christ filled the girl's basket with strawberries, God made her even more beautiful, and let gold coins fall from her lips when she speaks; when he sees gold, the stepmother sent her own daughter for strawberries; but three people by the fire did not give her a seat, and she did not share their food with them; when she asked for strawberries, three said it was winter; God ordered that it should be on their heads the girls grew horns; the count saw the stepdaughter and married her; after giving birth to a child, she wrote a letter to her father, but it fell to her stepmother; she appeared in the absence of the count, pushed her stepdaughter into the lake and replaced her daughter ; when he saw his wife with horns, the count wanted to die; at night the real wife appeared and asked the poodle to bring her a child to feed her; she had a chain on her leg; says he would come twice more and if she did not released with a golden sword, she will be drowned forever; while she was speaking, gold coins fell from her lips; the servant heard this, told the count; the next night he saw and heard everything himself; collected the fallen gold coins and ordered the blacksmith to forge a sword from them; on the third night he cut the chain with a sword; ordered his stepmother and her daughter to be burned, and placed his wife's father in the palace]: Pröhle 1854, No. 5:13-20; Germans [after the woman's death, a neighbor persuaded her daughter to advise her father to marry her, a neighbor; she has her own daughter; the father promises to marry if the water poured into the leaky boot does not leak; but the boot is wet and the water did not leak out; in winter, the stepmother sends her stepdaughter for strawberries; she comes to the hut of three gnomes; she is polite to them, does not complain, sweeps in front of the entrance, shares bread; one gives her beauty, the other makes sure that at every word, chervonets will fall from her lips, the third promises to marry her king; sweeping the snow, the girl found strawberries; her stepmother's own daughter goes to the forest; she is rude, unfriendly; gnomes they make her uglier, toads fall from her lips, she will die a fierce death; the stepmother sends her stepdaughter to the ice-hole to be yarn, but the king pulls up and takes her away; she has given birth to a son, the king has left; stepmother and her daughter threw her into the river, stepmother's daughter lay down in her bed; the king is surprised why his wife changed; at night a duck came, turned into queen, fed the baby; on the second night the same; third, she tells the cook to call the king - let him wave his sword; the spell has subsided; the king asks the old woman what to do with the one who pulls the other out of bed, throws him into the water; the old woman: go down the mountain to a barrel covered with nails; this is what they did to the stepmother and her daughter]: Grimm, Grimm 2002, No. 13:45-50 (=Grimm, Grimm 1987:42-46); Irish: Roberts 1994:149-153.

China - Korea. Koreans [stepmother tyrannites stepdaughter; sends her in winter to bring greenery; she comes to a cave, finds herself in another world; meets a young man, he gives her fresh greens; the stepmother watched, killed the young man, burned down his house and field; the young man managed to give the girl bottles of elixir; she revived him; they rose to heaven by rainbow; the young man was a servant of the Heavenly King, responsible for the rain.]: Choi 1979, No. 451:194-195 .

The Balkans. Slovenes [in winter, stepmother sends stepdaughter to bring strawberries; winds give the girl strawberries and she brings a full basket]: Kropej 2012:177; Serbs [stepmother tyrannites stepdaughter Marica; sent her hair to bleach - she gave her own daughter white, M. - black; by the river, a beautiful woman comes up to M., turns black wool into white; in winter, stepmothers send M. for berries; to meet 12 yunaks, they ask what is the best month; M.: everyone is good, but especially March; the Yunaki are happy, they showed where to pick berries; when it got warmer, the stepmother sent her own daughter; she says that the months are all bad and March is the worst; it has begun thunderstorm, the girl barely reached the house; the master came to marry M.; the stepmother hid her under the trough, showed her daughter; the rooster sang: Maritsa is in the trough! the matchmakers took M. away; she died an easy death because she was friends with the pitchfork and for 12 months]: Tesic 2017:56-60; Romanians (Transylvania) [Docia has three daughters-in-law; at the end of February she sent the eldest for strawberries; she went and disappeared; the same from the middle one; on the last day of February she sent the youngest; she prayed to God for at least one strawberry berry; the Lord heard a prayer, she found a berry; she went with strawberries in her hand home, cheerful, because this time she escaped from the abuse and beatings of her mother-in-law; Baba Dokia saw strawberries, thought that there should be grass in the pasture, went with her goats into the mountains, wearing ninety-nine covers, she thought it was cold; on the way she felt hot, she began to throw off her covers until she threw everything off; when she climbed the mountain, the Lord froze an old woman with her goats; she can be seen petrified with goats lying next to her, near the commune of Rymec (on one of the slopes of the Western Mountains), from which a spring still flows; Gherman 2002:150-161]: Golant 2013, No. 1.1.2.: 185-186 (also other Romanian texts on the same subject, Golant 2013:174-218); Greeks: Roberts 1994:149-153.

Central Europe. Slovaks [stepmother does not like stepdaughter Marushka, loves daughter Holena; M. is more beautiful; in January O. and stepmother send M. to bring violets; M. comes to the fire, there are 12 men of different ages; January gives the staff to Marta, who creates spring for a short time, M. brings violets home; the next day he brings berries; the same, January gives way to June; apples - September; O. went for apples, January started to snow and wind, she froze; her stepmother went looking for her, she also froze; M. got married in the spring]: Dobšinský 1970, No. 35:182-186 (=Bogatyrev 1955:16-23); Czechs (Latin text middle of the 14th century) [boy sent in February for strawberries; comes to 12 old people sitting around the fire; tells them what's going on, they allow him to pick strawberries]: Roberts 1994:152; Ukrainians (Hutsuls) [in In March, Baba Evdokha sent her stepdaughter for raspberries; the Savior and Peter were sitting by the road, asking the girl, telling her to go home without looking back; the basket was full of raspberries; Evdokha herself went to Black Mountain, driving a herd of sheep and goats, taking 12 covers with her; shouted to March that she would spoil him in his mouth; freezing rain began, then frost, the covers did not help, Evdokha froze; since then, at this time of year, the fierce ones have been repeated cold; on Black Mountain there is an ice column, which Evdokha has become, at its foot there is a cold spring]: Golant 2013, No. 1.2:223-224; Poles [stepmother hates stepdaughter, sends in winter for berries; she is kind to those she meets, awarded; pearls and roses fall from her mouth or tears turn into pearls; her own daughter goes to the forest, rude, reptiles begin to fall from her mustache; the queen fell in love or falls in love with her stepdaughter from a portrait her brother has; stepmother drowns her with her child; stepmother or daughter drowns her on the way to the queen; stepmother's daughter takes her place; brother thrown into prison because the bride was not at all like in the portrait; drowned she takes the form of a golden duck, goose or other bird, flies to the royal court three times; on the third night, the Queen breaks the spell; when the queen grabs the bird; the brother is returned to court; the stepmother and her daughter are punished]: Krzyżanowski 1962, No. 403:130.

Baltoscandia. Estonians: J.Parijõgi in Raud 2004:294-296 [stepmother sends stepdaughter to pick berries in winter; old woman in the hut tells her to remove snow from under her window; girl finds lots of berries there; three the dwarf is asked to give them food, the girl gives her bread crusts; one wants golden eggs to fall from her mouth, the other wants her to marry the prince, the third to live happy; the stepmother sends her own daughter, who does not clean the snow, does not give the dwarfs her bread and honey; some want toads to fall out of her mouth, so that she does not marry, to be unhappy; the stepmother drives her stepdaughter away, the dwarfs lead her to the road, where a prince meets a girl; he marries her; stepmother's daughter is unhappy and lonely]; Normann, Lätt 1968:76-77 [in winter, stepmother sends stepdaughter for strawberries; she meets an old woman, shares breadcrumbs; the old woman calls to her, gives strawberries and a golden crown; the stepmother sends her own daughter with pancakes; she refuses to share with the old woman; she has a fox tail on her nose; from the box she has brought Resin is flying into the face of the audience, the black spots on the faces remain]; Mälk et al. 1967, No. 61 (southern Estonia; also Saaremaa, central part of northern Estonia) [the widow asks the girl to persuade her father, also a widower, to marry her; he sets the condition: to bring water in a leaky boot; but the water does not flow out, for the widow is a witch; now the stepmother tyrannites her stepdaughter, cares for her own daughter; in winter she sends for strawberries; she comes to the house where the old people; shares the dry crust that her stepmother gave; the old men tell me to take a shovel with a broom, clear some of the snow from the ground, there are strawberries; goodbye one of the old men wants gold to fall from the girl's lips; others: to make every day prettier; marry the king; every day would be better than yesterday; to wear warm clothes; stepmother is friendly about everything asked, sent her own daughter; she is rude to the old people, she grabs what they eat, refuses to remove the snow; they make toads fall off her lips, so that she does not get uglier every day, she does not get married would; a girl with gold on her lips was seen by a king, married; she gave birth to a boy; the stepmother was hired as a maid, turned the queen into a duck, replaced her own daughter; the servant noticed how at night A duck arrives, becomes a woman and feeds the child; she teaches the servant to tell the king: when a duck flies in, you must cut off the duck's head; this can only be done the next night, there is no further salvation; king he did so, brought his wife back, stepmother and daughter were lowered down the mountain in a barrel of nails]: 160-164; Finns [mother died; widow neighbor, who has her own daughter, persuaded the girl to advise her father to marry her; began to tyrant; sent in winter in one shirt for strawberries; the girl asked Frost to give her warm clothes, he gave her; she came to the house, there are three little men, the girl shares bread with them; they snow sent her revenge, strawberries under her; one gave the girl even more beauty, the other made gold coins fall from her mouth, the third promised that she would marry the queen; the stepmother sent own daughter; she refuses to take revenge on the snow; little men make her even uglier, toads fall from her lips, she is destined to die miserably; one day her stepmother gave her stepdaughter a piece of bread; he rolled, the girl behind him; a ram asks him to cut his hair, the cow to milk, the sheaf to tie; the girl does everything; comes to Hiishi's estate; his wife is at home, she orders to heat the bathhouse and at the same time weave cloth out of wool; while the girl was drowning, the mice hid and weaved everything; H. orders to milk the cows, these are she-wolves and bears, the cat milks; strain the milk - sparrows perform; Hiisi himself came, gives a bell, extinguishes the splint - he will catch by ringing bell; mouse runs around with a bell; in the morning H. gave the girl gifts, put her on the cart and sent her home; old woman H. tells the cow, the ram to detain her, they refuse; tells the oak to beat her with branches, sheaf her defended; the stepmother sent her own daughter to H.; she refuses to shear the ram, milk the cow, knit a sheaf; drives away mice, cats, sparrows; the mouse did not run with a bell, H. caught the girl and crushed her badly; on the way back, the oak whipped off, the cow beat her hooves, the ram butted; the girl returned barely alive; the stepmother sent her stepdaughter to wash her skeins of wool in the ice-hole; the Queen saw her and married her; she gave birth to a son; her stepmother came, cut off her golden hair, tied her daughter over her head, pushed the Queen's wife into the water; the horse pulled her out, hid her in a stable; the king found her there; asks the old woman what to do with those who replace their wife and push the real one into the water; old woman: put it in a barrel of thorns, throw it into the water; they did so with the old woman and her daughter; everything is fine]: Concca 1993:94-104; Swedes: Roberts 1994:149-153.

Japan. Japanese: Markova 2011 (Honshu) [stepmother tyrants her stepdaughter O-chiyo, loves her own lazy daughter O-haná; in winter she sends E. for strawberries; in the snowy mountains, the old man takes T. to the clearing, where strawberries; in the evening, stepmother sends for blue strawberries; the old man shows where to pick sparkling blue berries; stepmother and H. ate them, turned into foxes, ran away to the mountains; T. married successfully]: 87-92; Ikeda 1971, № 403B (Kanto) [I. In winter, the stepmother sends her stepdaughter for strawberries. II. The old man 1) shows where the strawberries are; 2) brings him to his home, where his 12 month-old sons are, June gives strawberries. III. 1) Stepmother sends daughter, old man shows purple strawberries, after eating them, stepmother and daughter die; 2) stepmother and daughter go for strawberries, freeze to death]: 98-99.