Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K61A. Find out the secret, ATU 500*.


To find out the exact number, a specific object in a set, the name of a particular character, or the reason for a phenomenon, the character tries to surprise (or unintentionally) surprises) the owner of such knowledge. He begins to talk to himself, involuntarily giving the hero nearby the necessary information.

Malawi (?) , Douala, Bidogo, Von, Krachi, Sicilians, Italians (Ticino), Basques, French (Dauphine), Walloons, Ancient Greece, Croats, Bulgarians, Romanians, Slovaks, Poles (probably), Balkarians, Ossetians, Kumyks, Latvians, ( Lutsi), Lithuanians, Kazakhs (China), Tubalars, Khakas, Tuvans, South Altai Tuvans, Tofalars, Buryats (Alar), Darkhats.

Bantu-speaking Africa. Nyasaland (Malawi?) [Serval promises to give the Hare an ax if he finds out his name; the hare puts the fish in a bird trap, the partridge at the top; hears Serval's son calling his father in perplexity]: Wright 1960:104; duala [ only a wild cat (chat-tigre) owns an ax, animals cannot cut down the forest on the site; a wild cat will give an ax only if its name is called; the spider advises the antelope to put the bird caught in the snare at the top, and the fish from top to snare; two cat sons come up; "Oh Mbanga-jo, have you seen anything like this!" ; the wild cat had to be given an ax; the animals thanked him and congratulated the antelope]: Paulse 1976:176-177.

West Africa. Bidyogo [the chief's daughter promises to marry someone who finds out the names of her garments; the stray singer tells his dog to dump the girl's clothes in the dust when she washes them on the river; the girl screams for the dog to give it to Nansaba and Nankia; the dog runs to the owner, but on the way he sees a bone, gnaws, forgets the names; runs again, this time remembers, gives it to the owner; the young man sings, saying the names of clothes, gets a girl]: Nikolnikov 1976:133-136; von [Hunsi is pregnant for three years, has given birth to a boy, he has a gun, a machete, a hoe; he gives his mother hunting prey, that goes to sell, the Sagbo and Zinzu twins give a low price, revive animals and birds, they run away and fly away; the boy brings them back, defeats the twins in witchcraft; to find out which path leads to Z.'s house, divides herself in half, leaves herself on both sides of the path; the old woman walks, asks aloud who put the parts of the person along the trail into Z.'s house; extracts poison from the food offered; the twins cook the boy, that comes out of the cauldron, replaces himself with the father of twins; they eat their father, chase the boy; he turns into stone by the river; one of the twins throws a stone across the river; the boy takes on his appearance]: Herskovits , Herskovits 1958, No. 62:265-271; kachi [Ananse (trickster spider) asks god Wulbari to give him one corncob, promises to bring a hundred people in return; consistently changing one supposedly missing an object on another (he feeds the cob to the chickens himself, gets a bag of grain, because this is God's cob!) , buys a dead young man for 10 sheep, passes him off as his sleeping son V., tells the children to beat him to wake him up, accuses him of murder, takes a hundred young men as witnesses to what happened; V. is offended to learn that A. thinks he is smarter than him; tells him to bring "something"; A. feathers every bird, climbs a tree, no one understands what it is; everyone says A. would have guessed; V. explains that he sent him and that "what then" means sun, moon and darkness; after learning the secret, A. slowly gets off the tree, brings what he needs; first darkness is complete darkness, then the moon comes out, finally the sun; those who looked at him straight are blind]: Belcher 2005:111-116.

(Wed. Sudan - East Africa. Lango [Abira promises to pass off his daughter as someone who will name him; the hare frightens A.'s cattle, hears his wife calling her husband to help; then A. stipulates that the Hare must kill the lion himself moves to the top of the mountain; fulfills the condition, hiding in a pot, also finds himself on the mountain; gets a wife]: Wright 1960:104).

Southern Europe. Sicilians [the fortuneteller told the king that when his daughter was 14 years old, she would be pregnant by the Sun; the king placed his daughter in the tower, the maid brought her food; when the girl was 14, she found a bone in the meat, dug a hole in the wall, a ray of sunshine penetrated her bosom, she became pregnant; the king returned her daughter, telling her to leave the newborn girl in the garden among the salad; the prince found her, named Lettucia; when she grew up, the prince fell in love with her, asked her whose daughter she was; she answered every time that dogs and cats; he got married; after the wedding, his wife asks what he cares about; the prince replies that his sister is unhappy; his wife sends that food; the servant who brought the food sees the prince's "sister" tell the fire to catch fire, puts her hands in oil on a hot frying pan, where two fried fish appear; Upon learning about this, the prince's wife tries to repeat the trick, but the fire does not light up; she burns, dies; the same with her second wife (sister climbs into a hot oven, gets out, pearls fall off her braids and jewelry, wife burns); third ("sister" puts the chair on the edge of the roof to enjoy the passing sun; the wife falls, breaks her neck); the old woman advises the prince to pretend to be sick; when "sister " will start preparing the medicine, you must hide it, hold the gold pot tightly; the "sister" tells the pot to fly up to her, but the prince does not let her; she is indignant that she is the daughter of the Sun, and the miserable pot does not obey her ; this is how the prince finds out who the girl's father is, calls her the daughter of the Sun, she marries him]: Gonzenbach 2004a [1870], No. 29:195-201; Italians (Ticino) [the poor have 11 children; the father goes to look happiness; comes to a forest crossed by many paths; a gentleman appears (this is hell), gives gold on the condition that in a year and one day a person will return and tell you how many paths there are in the forest, the so-called" Babylonian trails"; before the expiration of her term, the wife smeared herself with honey, lay in feathers, pretended to be an unprecedented bird; when she saw her, the devil said that she lived 700 years and trampled 366 paths in the forest, and so on did not see; the husband came and named the number, the devil disappeared in the smoke and flame; the gold he gave did not disappear]: Keller 1981:116-120; Basques: Azcua 1942, No. 123 [the man sold his soul to the devil; he promised it let go if he guesses how old the devil is; the old woman promises to arrange everything; lies down on the ground with her ass up; the devil says he lives 150 years, but he has not seen anything like this; so man was able to break pact with the devil]: 343-344; Barandiaran 1962b [the devil volunteered to solve all problems if a man gives him his soul; the contract will be terminated if the man says how old the devil is; the wife undressed, she smeared herself with honey, lay in feathers, removed the door threshold and lay down in this place with her legs lifted; the devil said he had been living for so many years, but he had never seen such a threshold (barrera); her husband overheard, said the devil, he had to leave]: 101-102; Webster 1879 [someone gives the poor money on the condition that he later answers the question of how old the devil is; a person becomes rich but becomes sad; when he finds out the reason, the wife tells you to smear honey, lie in feathers, walk around the devil when he comes; the devil says that he has been living for so many years, but he has never seen such an animal; when he learns the secret, the person was not afraid devil]: 59-59.

Western Europe. The French (Dauphin) [to find out the age of the Devil wandering along the roads, a man climbs a tree with honey and rolling in feathers; when he sees him, the Devil says he has been living for a hundred years and not I've never seen anything like this]: Joister 1991, No. 67.4:362; walloons [the woman did not listen to the advice to put a rosary around her newborn daughter's neck; the fairy took the girl and gave her care to another fairy, and herself turned into a baby and lay down in a cradle; the mother is horrified, but not sure whether something has happened to her daughter or is it a substitute; a friend advised me to start doing something absurd in the presence of the baby, namely: split 12 eggs, pour out the contents, pour water into the shell and put the stove in ash; fairy: I'm at least 900 years old, but I haven't seen it; a woman threatens to throw a fairy into the fire if she doesn't return her daughter ; she says that Marie Colin (she herself) took the baby because he did not have a rosary around his neck; now he is with a different fairy; the baby will come back if you promise to rip your daughter's hair every day; If you miss the day, MK will pick it up again; the fairy took on her true appearance and, flying through the chimney, again commented on the eggshells lying in the ash with the water boiling in them; her daughter is again in the cradle]: Carnoy 1883:4-8.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece [Praxiteles promises to give his mistress Frina the best work, but does not say which one; F. sends a slave to say that P.'s house is on fire; he runs out, shouting that if they died Satyr and Eros, there will be nothing left of his work; F. chose Eros]: Pausanias 1.20, 1-2 (1994.1:54-55; Croats (Dabrna) [the person is guilty to hell; he agrees to keep him alive if a person will tell you how old he is; the old woman promises to help; smeared herself with honey, rolled in colorful feathers, climbed a tree and began to sing; hell: I have been living for 365 years, but I have never seen such a bird; man named the line his age and the devil is gone]: Eschker 1992, No. 89:281-282; Bulgarians: Daskalova-Perkovska et al. 1994, No. *500 [The Archangel promises to enrich the poor if in three years he tells how much he has years; otherwise he would take his soul (and the souls of his wife and children); twice the poor man answered incorrectly; the third time he told his wife to undress, smear honey and hang in feathers; the Archangel says he lives 720 years, and I have never seen such a monster], 500* [the king promises a daughter to anyone who counts the lakes (peaks) in the Pirin Mountains; those who tried to find out were killed by witches; a poor young man with a friend or brother go to the mountains and go to bed feet to each other; hears witches come and one says: I swear by Pirin's 77th (366th) lakes (peaks), but I have never seen such a two-headed beast; the witches run away in horror, the young man gets a princess]: 177, 177-178; Romanians [the fool went to sell a cow, bought a goose with the proceeds, used this money to buy a pipe and tobacco, and lost them; but his wife did not scold him; went to the forest, the wagon got stuck; the dragon promised to pull it out if a person guesses how old he is; the wife consults people; the old woman limits his wife to smear herself with honey and lie in feathers; dragon: I have been living for 180 years, but I have never seen such a chicken; a man told the dragon he was 180 years old]: Bîrlea 1966:463-464.

Central Europe. Poles [the prince's fiancée must hide a huge amount of yarn or gold yarn; the demonic character promises to do the job for her if she finds out his name or his age , otherwise she will take her or her child; by luck, the girl finds out the answer, the demon disappears]: Krzyżanowski 1962, No. 500:156; Slovaks [students must count the number of mountain peaks; they go to bed one next to the other; mistaking them for one many-headed creature, the monster says that he has climbed all (calls a number) the mountain peaks, but has not seen such a thing; students hear this and give the right answer; {this the general definition of the motive, but since the Bulgarian and Polish versions are slightly different, it can be attributed specifically to the Slovak version}]: Uther 2004 (1), No. 500*: 286.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Balkarians [no one knows why the prince is losing weight; the old woman promises to find out; brought fat and thin sheep into the room of the sleeping prince; when he wakes up and sees the sheep, the prince speaks for himself with him; a skinny ram - like himself, love for an unknown beauty exhausts him; the king let his son look for a beautiful woman, with him a slave; at night he hears two spirits, mother and daughter, talking; mother: to get a beauty, you have to turn to such an old woman; the slave brought the prince to the old woman; she explains that the maiden and the dragon who guards her sleep for 7 days; you have to tie the sleeper to the bed and carry away; untie after the girl swears by her black horse; the horse must also be picked up; the dragon did not catch up with the fugitives, only tore off the black horse's tail; the slave hears the spirits talking again; the prince marries, a son will be born; a serpent will come out of a pole in the bedroom, swallow everyone; the snake can be killed; whoever talks about it will petrify; the slave cut the dragon, took out the pieces; the prince woke up, began to demand an explanation; the slave told and petrified; the wife demanded that the prince learn from those spirits how to help, otherwise he would leave him; mother spirit: the stone must be sprayed with her son's blood; the prince's wife stabbed her son, the slave came to life; in the wife's cradles found a living baby; everything is fine]: Tulchinsky 1903:76-80; Ossetians [sledges needed to know the exact number of the magic army; Syrdon knows her; Shatana sews pants for three pants, hangs out in a prominent place; S. says that there are a thousand and a thousand thousand people in the army and a hundred more, but not a single three-legged one]: Dumezil 1976:131; Kumyks [khan's son is losing weight; to find out The reason is that a neighbor slaughters a thin ram for him, hides; the young man wonders out loud why the ram is thin, because there are plenty of herbs; he himself is thin because of love for Bermes, the daughter of Almas Khan; the khan lets his son go looking for B., the khan's stepson accompanies him; they spend the night in the house, the stepson does not sleep, hears the devils talking; after capturing B., you must throw nuts to the ants; along the way, the stepson collects nuts, throws them at ant heaps; when they bring B., the brothers spend the night in the same house; hell says that when they return, they must destroy the Kunatskaya room, protect B. from Azhdah, who is in love with her, who will arrive on their wedding night; if anyone overhears and passes the words to another, it will turn into stone; the stepson hides in the ticket that when they return, they must destroy the Kunatskaya room, protect B. Nschikhudal the ram, for the herbs are abundant rest, Azhdakh kills; the khan's son thinks that he was going to kill him, his stepson has to tell everything, he turns into stone, the khan's son grieves]: Khalilov 1965, No. 66:178-180.

Baltoscandia. Latvians: Arys 1971 [Damn promises three bags of money if a farmer guesses his age; a peasant hides in the bushes, cuckoo; Damn says he hasn't heard a cuckoo in 99 years of his life puppet in winter; the farmer replies that the Line is 99 years old, gets paid]: 180; Aris, Medne 1977, No. 500.III [The devil promises the peasant a lot of money if he guesses how old the line is, otherwise he will take it soul. The farmer comes to the specified place earlier, climbs a tree and cuckoes. The devil is surprised: "In all my 999 years, I have never heard a cuckoo puppet at such a time"]: 292; Lithuanians [people raise a child who does not speak; they make a fire in the middle of the hut, pour water into eggshells and put them around the fire; the child says that he is older than a 300-year-old oak tree, and has not seen such things; the woman is going to throw the child into the oven/scald it/hits him with a roller; laume him takes and gives the woman's replaced child]: Kerbelite 2001:308; (cf. Lutsie (Western 1893) [it is warm and spacious in Riga, but no one left it alive in the morning; three haulers: the man is not afraid of devils; stayed overnight with their heads in a bag; devils came, marveling at what beast: six legs, no head; you must call kõvver (species, est. "kyver", crooked) - he was present at the creation of the world, he must know everything; the oldest kõver has come, his eyelids are supported by rays; raudsüld (iron helmet?) with 9 horns; the haulers are scared, but they pretend to snore; the devils bring another book, open it - nothing has been written about it; the old devil says he doesn't remember that; the devils ran away - through the door, walls and roof; the oldest caught on the timber connecting the rafters, knocked the horns off his head]: Annom et al. 2018:337-338).

Turkestan. Kazakhs (China) [Aolar has a particularly valuable horse; two she-wolves lifted him up; A. caught up with them, but the bow fell out of his hands and they brought him to the old man and the old woman, became girls; the old man ordered him to be married one of the three daughters, A. chose the youngest; she cannot be shown to people in human form; but A. began to laugh at, he showed his wife; but covered it again; then he burned the veil and the wife said that she was waiting for misfortune; Khan decided to take away A.'s wife; ordered to find a bear and find out when he was born and how old he is; his wife teaches me to wear a demon's horned mask and appear to a bear; bear: I am 99 years old, I was born in the year of the sparrow {yes such a year?} , but he did not see such a monster; the 95-year-old hunter confirmed that the bear was already there before he was born; now the khan orders to bring 7 rubies, which are in the dragon's mouth on top of the poplar reaching heaven on Cheese- Daria; father-in-law: in front of the poplar, you need to sprinkle 20 bags of cookies for the dragon; for this, the dragon gave rubies (or rather pink pearls); khan: bring from his late father a foal gray in apples, who sacrificed to him; his father-in-law teaches him to come to the tomb of the late khan; he gives a foal that does not have enough buttocks; it was eaten by the current khan and his wife instead of giving meat to the poor; if the khan starts object, we must throw a handful of yellow earth at him and at the hansha (gave a bag); A. did so, Khan and Khansha turned into pigs; the people made A. Khan]: Coyaud 2012, No. 69:152-161.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Tubalary [Oskus-Uul ("orphan boy") works for the rich, his wife is T Ÿ lg ě nok ("fox"); Karatykaan threatens take away the horse and wife if he does not complete the tasks; 1) find out how old the bear is (T. tells O. to take 60 dolls she made to the den; the bear says he is already 62 years old, but has not seen such a people); 2) hide (T. turns it into a comb); 3) count trees on the mountain (T. tells you to anoint trees and a hare trap with salt flour; the hare says that there are 80 trees on the mountain, 30 in the pit, he has never eaten such a tasty thing before); 4) find son K. (O. cuts a birch tree, my son screams, it's me); 5) bring the two black horses given to Erlik; E. gives them, K. cries, lets O. go; E. sent a flood, took K. and all his property; O. took his wife 7-headed Diellbegen; O. killed him, brought his wife back]: Baskakov 1965:55-60; Khakas: Balter 1986 [Hara Khan took the hunter's only horse; he took the girl and began to live with her in the forest; son H. saw her, wants to take it for himself, asks his father to take it away from the hunter; H. demands 1) to play hide and seek; the wife tells her, when he enters the bay, turn everything over and break it, choose a horse with his eye covered, rusty bits, drive him, hit him in the eyes; the horse turns into son X.; when son X. comes to look for a hunter, his wife turns him into scissors, son H. does not recognize him; 2) ask how old the bear is; the wife gives seven hats, tells you to lie in the forest, put them on your feet, knees, arms, head; The bear comes up, argues that poplars have been standing under them for 300 years, he has lived under them for 60 years, but he has not seen anything like this; 3) go to Erlik Khan, bring a black fur coat from the deceased father, a black handkerchief from the mother; the wife gives the ball and the skull of the dog, tells him to go after the ball, then throw the skull; the shadows of father and mother H. reproach the son for greed, tell him to turn black a woodpecker, his wife a blue woodpecker, their son is forty; they ask to pick up the dog's skull, he barks, haunts; the hunter returns, ashes on the site of the yurt, son H. is preparing a wedding with the hunter's wife; the hunter turns H. with his wife and son into birds, returns his wife, is chosen by khan, distributes cattle to the poor]: 46-52 (=Dachshund 1988:218-223); Torokova, Sychenko 2014, No. 23 [fishermen caught strange fish like gold and silver; Yoxes-Ool gave his only five sheep for it; after feeling sorry for the sheep, threw the fish into the river; at night they came to call him to the owner of the river, old man Sugdayigan; he saved his son, let him not ask for gold and silver, and a blue dog; S. tells her to water and feed her what YOO eats and drinks himself; in the morning there is a girl in the house, and the dog's skin hangs on the wall; the girl creates food and property; once YOO quarreled with his wife and threw his skin into the fire; his wife tells us to wait for misfortunes; the arrow of Khar-Khan's son accidentally hit YOO's house, he went to pick her up, saw a beautiful woman, decided to take her away; demands that his father come up with something; he orders that YOS they played hide and seek with his son: if you lose, I'll cut off his head; his wife turned YOO into a broom, the Khan's son did not find him; now the Khan's son hid; wife: three brown one-year-old calves are standing, over the middle Twist his tail and hit him on the head; Khan's son admitted that YOO found him; next time his wife turned YOO into a thimble; then again; Khan's son lost all three times; now Khan sends to Mount Hara-tag find out how old the black bear is; the wife gives 7 black fox hats; you need to drive the black bear out of the den with a stick, put the hats on your arms like a creature with seven heads; the bear looks and says: the three poplars standing above me have reached three hundred years old, and I myself have reached the age of sixty, but I did not see the creature with seven heads; frightened, he left; now the khan orders me to bring his clothes and shoes the deceased father and mother in which he buried them; wife: now you have to run; in the morning she called a winged dark brown horse; when you hold on to the lower reason, she will walk on the ground, when the upper one will fly along sky; he knows where to run and fly; in the far land, rose hips and hawthorn branches should be attached to the toroks; when YOO was driving, he saw fat cows and sheep grazing on pebbles, in the sand, without water; horse: this deceased was a good man, and the cattle were slaughtered at his wake; then on lands with good grass and water, animals were skin and bones; they were slaughtered to the bad man; then the horse on a rope , there is no water or grass, but frolic - this man treated the horse well; the other horse is skinny, although there is a lot of water and grass, he looked after the horse badly; the old woman pours from bottle to bottle - diluted milk with water; another man stuck to the sharpener, spins with him - he regretted the sharpening; they arrived; the khan's father's clothes are on the sunrise side, the khan's mother is on the west side; Yoo took the clothes, the Khan's father ran after him, Yoo threw a rosehip branch, Khan's father cannot cross; after learning why YOO needs clothes, he tells Hara-Khan to become a black woodpecker, his son a spotted woodpecker, his wife a house mouse; back the horse delivered YOO with speed of thought; Yoo gave his father's "blessing" to Hara-Khan, who, his son, his son's wife, became woodpeckers and mice; YOO became khan]: 403-423; Tuvans: Katanov 1907, No. 1995 (Khemchik) [=2011:262 -265; the orphan has 7 horses; the wolf eats them one by one; invites the orphan to his place; the wife of the Wolf Tsar Shibishkin teaches to ask, when leaving, as a gift for a puppy, a skinny lamb, 3 upper sticks from the yurt; they turn into a beauty, a palace, cattle; Karatta Khan's son sees an orphan's wife, faints, asks his father to marry her; K. tells his son and orphan 1) to play hide and seek; an orphan's wife turns him into a needle, ring, fire, son. K. does not find it; explains to her husband that K.'s son became a birch, a hat, an arrow; an orphan takes a knife to cut them, son K. admits defeat; 2) count the hares (give sugar; the hare will say, "I am one of 50 thousand birds with one stone, and He never ate such a sweet"); 3) K. wants to kill an orphan, but shoots a feather grass; puts up with him; K. gives the orphan the throne]: 128-132; Orus-ool 1997 [part of an epic tale; khan tells the old man to know how old a black bear from the Kara-Khem River and a white hare from the Ak-Khem River; his adopted daughter advises attaching two skulls to his shoulders and sprinkling salt; a bear came and saw an old man; bear: I have been living for 50 years, like this I did not see a nasty old man; hare: I have been living for 60 years, I have not eaten such delicious salt; they caught a bear and a hare, they began to try it out, the old man's words were confirmed; now the khan orders to bring a whole baked ox so that there was no sewage inside, and wool outside; girl: give salt water to the ox, drive for a long time; then bake in hot sand; then khan orders to make tarak from bovine milk; when the khan came, the girl says you can't go in - father gives birth; khan: how much hair do you comb on your head? girl: How many steps did your horse take? Khan married a girl; tells her not to say many ordinary words; she is expressed in allegories]: 449-461; Samdan 1994, No. 9 (Toja) [old man SMeldey tells his daughter that he will go to Ai-han's drink milk; she teaches what to do and how to answer; A.: 1) "In the middle of a blue lake, a sandalwood without a top, 15 branches are raw, 15 are dry"); if S. does not guess, A. tells him to cut off his arm and head (moon in first and second half); 2) count the years of a polar bear with a black head (the daughter sewed three dried human skulls to her father's clothes on the right and left; the bear says he is 110 years old, and this I did not see a seven-headed creature); 3) weave a rope of ash (weave it from a sedge, pull it between the poles, set it on fire, it will be covered with ash, but will remain tight); A. tells S. to drive home 6 oxen, milk, cook tarak; daughter tells me to drive them into the pen, sits down in the morning to comb her hair; A. comes and asks how much hair she has; she: how many steps your horse has taken; forbids entering the yurt - there her father gives birth; if the father cannot give birth, then how to get milk from oxen; A. tells S. to come with his daughter; writes the names of all living beings on the pole, and deliberately misses the falcon and the kite; S. I did not notice this, the daughter noticed; A. married daughter S. to his son; he came to Saryg Khan, who put gold and silver under his pillow, accused him of theft, crucified him on four stakes; sent him to his camp four soldiers; crucified A. asks to convey obscure words; daughter-in-law understands, orders to kill three soldiers, let one be a guide, go with the army; they release A., Saryg Khan was captured]: 307-321; South Altai Tuvans [Haraat Khaan and Jechen Haan hate each other; DH has an unfit son; he left a sign on the ovaa with the inscription; the poor girl read it and said: If an eagle is painted, why write "kite" if a woman is drawn, why write "man"; khan decided that she is fit for daughter-in-law; khan: how many times did she stretch out her skin under a leather stick? girl: how many steps did your horse take? khan orders to latch a rope from the ashes; the girl burned the rope; khan: make tarak from bull's milk; girl: the father is now having labor pains; since a man cannot give birth, then the bull does not milk; khan: let the father will come and be neither inside nor outside, naked or dressed; the girl tells her father to wear pants, shirt and stockings and climb between the wooden lattice wall and the felt of the yurt; the khan tells the girl's father to count years of a bear's life; daughter tells me to bring her two skulls that have turned white in the sun; painted them red and tied them to her father's shoulders; bear: there are 75,000 trees on the mountain, and I'm 75 years old, but I've never seen one; find out hare age; daughter: smear honey and sugar on trees in a hare meadow; hare: 60,000 trees on the mountain, and I am 60 years old, but I have never tried such sweets; XX married my son to a girl; was captured; two heroes and XX was tied to iron stakes, XX was given one louse a day, heroes two lice; XX said that his people were warlike; to take prisoners, you must send his son a letter: you need to gather people with the lower reaches of a large river and from the upper reaches of a small river; the droppings of a sheep and a neutered goat are a value, it cannot be left; daughters-in-law say: let sheep and goats with horns go ahead, and without horns follow them; in front 4 iron poplars with my doors; let two cut down and uproot two and bring them here; I win, I lie on 9 blue silk carpets, lean on 4 iron backs on all four sides of the world and eat every day sheep soup; son is going to saw poplars; daube: gather warriors, they will need weapons sent to kill two at once, take two with them; the soldiers freed the khan and brought the loot]: Taube 1978, No. 50: 254-259 (=Taube 1994, No. 39:255-258); Tofalars: Katanov 1907 [the king told the old man to know the age of the bear; the daughter put 2 hats on his shoulders and 1 on his head, sent him to the bear; the bear says that lived 88 years, but did not see a three-headed creature; the king tells you to know the age of the hare; the daughter puts sweet berries on the hare path, the hare tastes, says that he has lived 66 years, and has never eaten such sweets yet]: 644 ( about the same on p. 619-620); Rassadin 1996, No. 35 [khan tells the guy to know the age of the hare; sister tells me to guard where the sweet berry is; hare: I have been living for 63 years, but I have not tried such a sweet berry; tells me to know bear age; sister: put one hat on your head, the other two on your knees; bear: lived 70 years, but did not see a three-headed creature; khan orders to train a black stallion with 9 stirrups; sister gives 3 iron whips, tells the stallion to be beaten; he turned into a khan]: 81-82; Buryats (Alar) [dying, old man Taryash says that he put snare on hares overseas; his son Gong Sezhe has grown up and goes test his snare; Genan Erhe, the son of a wealthy merchant, joins him on the way; each time he acts rash, stupid; overseas Dalai Bayan Khan suggests 1) cutting goby meat dried 25 years ago; HS does this easily, GE cannot; 2) find out the age of the bear; Khan's daughter, Dangir Shara, tells me to put round bread on his shoulders; bear: I have been living for 97 years, I have not seen a two-legged with two heads; 3) build iron bridge across the sea; DS gives his handkerchief, GE waved it, a bridge has appeared; Khan gives his daughter to GE, they return to GE's parent, Children's School creates a palace there]: Barannikova et al. 1993, No. 10:167-181 (=Dugarov 1990:32-38); Eliasov 1959 []: 35-52; darkhats [Yerlik Khan's envoy had been looking for Andzyn-Khurumchi for 70 years; approached him without knowing how old AH was; he advises him to go to an old man grazing white horses, start watered the horse backwards; old man (he was a reborn AH): I have been living for 180 years, and have not seen horses watered backwards]: Potanin 1883, No. 49.4c: 245-246.