Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K65D. Wrong marriage and the birth of spirits.


The first human couple first has only miscarriages, or their children are spirits or unpleasant and dangerous animals. After a formal marriage ceremony or its repetition under the new rules, a woman gives birth to real people or gods.

Muongi, punk, ngaju, ami, paiwan, ancient Japan, Ryukyu (?) , Kodiak.

Burma — Indochina. Muongi [initially an undivided lump of earth and sky; after a terrible drought, clouds swirled, rain poured in, lightning struck, the sky separated from the ground, and water appeared between them; ficus (Cây Si, Ficus benjamina) grew and then collapsed; large and small branches became Muong villages, crumbling leaves became birds, roots became fish, and a pair of first-ancestor birds Chim Ây and Cáy &# arose from the stump 7912; a; they laid thousands of eggs, from which various animals and humans arose; the latter (or the last two) had two brothers and sister, they are the ancestors of the Muong; the younger brother became the first Muong ruler; he tried to marry the daughter of the lord of heaven; then to the daughter of the lord of the underwater world; then married his sister; because they broke heavenly law, all the children were freaks: without arms, legs, deaf, dumb; the old man advised his brother to go east and his wife to the west; when they meet, let them not recognize each other; let the woman eat in the chicken coop for the time being, and the man in the pigsty, because chickens and pigs do not know these the ban on incest; after that, the right marriage ceremony must be performed]: Grigoreva 2019:54-57.

South Asia. Punk [Earth and Sky got married; during the wedding ceremony, they walked around a pole, slipped on the moss that grew up in the yard, fell; Nanga Baiga told them to bring some grass, make a broom out of it and sweep the yard; after that, they went around the pole again]: Elwin 1949, No. 14:311.

Malaysia—Indonesia. Ngaju [by Mallinckrodt 1924; after creating the land, Mahatara threw a piece of garing wood on it from the sky, carved the figure of a man at one end and a woman on the other; the tree split, masculine the image fell into the water, the woman on land, both came to life, began to live in the boat on which the woman went down to the sea; the first miscarriage fell into the water, turned into evil water spirits, the second to land, into evil land perfume; the third was wrapped in a banana leaf, left on a tree, it turned into wood perfume; then M. went down, taught a man and a woman marriage customs, the woman gave birth to three sons named Maharadja Sangian, Maharadja Sangen, Maharadja Bunu; the sky was near the ground and served as food; Mahatara gave the first the seeds of all edible plants, the second “floating” iron, which kills only for a while, the third” sinking”, killing iron; in the end, Mahatara stopped carrying living water to the ground, reviving the dead, the sky moved away from the ground, MB was left alone on earth; made a woman out of clay, Mahatara promised her revive; at this time, angoi (chameleon) offered his services; Mahatara returned with living water, was upset, explained that since the figure was revived by a mortal being (chameleon), people would also be mortal; from this Hantelo Petak (“three times earth”) and MB women happen humans; M.Sangiang M.Sangen also took wives, gave birth to Sangian and Sangen air spirits]: Schärer 1966:76-77; (cf. Schärer 1966 [by Hupe 1846:138; first water, God created the snake Nagapusai; he is unhappy that his body is too small for his head; Hatala sent his servant Praman to find out what the serpent is complaining about; gave he had a huge body, covered him with earth, protecting him from the sun; the son of Hatala Batu-Djampa (more precisely Ratu Tjampa) saw two earth eggs on the ground, went down, broke them, of which a man and a woman appeared, gave birth to seven sons and seven daughters without signs of life; DB gave her husband a porcelain vessel, ordered him to go to the snake for children's souls; when leaving, the husband told his wife not to go out from under the mosquito net at that time; she looked out a gust of wind revived bodies; now people are mortal, because their lives are just wind (breath); the husband is angry, drove the children out in pairs; from those who fell into the water comes the water god Djata, from those who fell into the fields, into the forest — corresponding categories of water spirits; the rest flew to heaven, settling on three rivers, gave rise to categories of immortals; the man left the last couple on earth, people come from them; Hatala gave they have everything but rice; his son stole rice, iron, fire, dropped it to people; the fire fell on the rocks, from which they extract it]: 71-73).

Taiwan — Philippines. Ami: Ho 1964 [During the flood, brother Rarakan and sister Roche escaped in a wooden mortar; married but gave birth to snakes and frogs; the Sun sent gods to teach the couple religious ceremonies; the couple then gave birth to normal ancestral people]: 39-40 (=1967, No. 94:268-269; apparently the same text as Matsumoto 1928:122-123); Matsumoto 1928:122-123 [brother and sister during the flood they escaped in a mortar; they first gave birth to a snake, threw it into the bushes, then a frog, threw it outside the house; when they smelled a strange smell from the ground, the goddess of the Sun sent her sons to find out what was going on; they reassured their brother and her sister told her mother what was going on; she sent two messengers to earth to bring bamboo; there was a pig inside; she was sacrificed to heaven, gods, young spouses, then everyone danced; after that brother and sister gave birth to normal children—daughter, son, daughter again, etc.], 123 [brother and sister escaped the flood of boiling water, asked the Sun for permission to marry; after receiving permission, they gave birth to monsters, one became a crab, the other a fish; then they asked the Moon; she replied that brother and sister are not allowed to converge, and to circumvent this prohibition, they must have sex on a mat; after that, the sister gave birth to a white one a stone, he grew up, with four babies in it]; Walk 1949 [(retelling the same text as Matsumoto 1928:123; Shinji Isjii manuscript referring to Fraser); due to the earthquake, hot waters flooded land; brother and sister escaped in a wooden mortar; after the flood, the brother asked the Sun if it was possible to marry his sister, received consent; first there were two miscarriages; one was thrown up the river, and an ancestor appeared fish; the second, downstream, was the ancestor of the crabs; after that, the brother asked the Month if it was possible to marry, which strictly prohibited it; but finding no one else, brother and sister copulated through a mat; the wife gave birth to a stone, it was swollen, two pairs of children came out of it, one barefoot (ancestors), the other wearing shoes (Chinese ancestors)]: 96; paiwan: Ho 1967, No. 62 [bamboo split, four fell out of it eggs; during the day they were separate, at night they joined into one; five or six days later, snake-like men and women came out of them; they did not know how to copulate; the woman saw a man pee, asked write to her between her legs; their first child was a freak, their second was beautiful, normal, became the ancestor of men], 93 [brother and sister escaped during the flood, clinging to the grass; from a worm cut in half excrement fell, formed a mountain; brother and sister got married, but their first children were blind, freaks; the next ones became less ugly, and the latter were born healthy and normal; so now incest banned]: 243, 267-268

Japan. Ancient Japan: Kojiki 1994, vol.1-6 [At the beginning of time, seven generations of gods appear, the first two are alone, the rest are in pairs, brother and sister; the last pair is Izanagi and his Izanami's younger sister; they stand on the Sky Floating Bridge (probably a rainbow), an island emerges from a drop of water that falls from their spear; they build a pole and chambers; Izanagi: How does your body work? - I grew up, did not grow in one place; - Mine has grown too much in one place; you have to put what I grew up in where you did not grow up, have children; Izanami walks around the pole on the right, Izanagi on the left; when he meets Izanami, the first one says: What a handsome young man; Izanagi replies: What a beautiful girl; they give birth to a leech child; The heavenly gods recommend repeating the wedding ceremony so that Izanagi is the first to say; now they give birth to the islands of Japan, gods and goddesses (wind, rivers, sea, trees, mountains, plains, food, etc.); Giving birth to the god of fire, Izanami dies]: 38-45; Nihon Shoki 1997 (1), scroll 1, 4 [after descending to the island, God the Man (M.) and the Female Goddess (J.) erected a palace and a pillar of heaven; M.: what part Is it created in your body? J.: There is one place in my body, called the source of the feminine, which was created. M.: There is one such place in my body, called the source of the male, which was created; I want to connect the source of the male in my body with the source of the feminine in your body; they began to bypass the Heavenly Pillar — J. on the left, and M. on the right; when they met, J. said: what a beautiful young man; M.: what a beautiful maiden; when they joined together, they gave birth to a leech child Piruco, put him in a reed boat and let him sail; then They gave birth to the islands of Apa no Sima, who is also not included in their children; they went up to heaven, the gods began to wonder and said that J. should not speak first; M. and J. repeated the ceremony and M. was the first to say: what a beautiful maiden; after which they gave birth to various gods, islands, etc.]: 119-121; Ryukyu (Hateruma Island from the Yaeyama Group) [the motive “there is no wrong marriage”, but the text is very brief; it is likely that the full version resembled ancient Japanese; cramped in food and a place to live, people became oni (devils), killed and ate each other; the gods sent a rain of burning oil; brother and sister in this time they collected shells on the shore and escaped; got married; first gave birth to a poisonous snake, then a centipede, then a gecko, and finally a human child]: Maruyama 2009:34 (a brief retelling in Matsumoto 1928: 119: The island is mistakenly named Pateruma; people are destroyed by the fiery rain; surviving brother and sister give birth to new people).

The Arctic. Kodiak [recorded by Finnish naturalist H.J. Holmberg in 1850-1851; Shilam Shoa, the lord of peace, created the earth and sky but there was no light; sent brother and sister to earth and forbidden eating grass; the sister offered to eat herbs, maybe it would be light then; the brother did not want to, but the sister ate, it was light; both were ashamed, they went in different directions, could not escape, met in the sky; on the steps leading to heaven, they met, fell in love; five children born died; Shilam Shoa promised to sing a song, after which the children will not die; so it happened; they returned to earth, gave birth to people]: Holmberg 1985:61.