Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

K8c1. It was swallowed by a herbivore and then by a wolf.


The tiny little man was first accidentally swallowed by a large herbivorous animal, and then carried away by a wolf who began to eat the animal's carcass.

Spaniards [pea boy to ox then wolf], Catalans [pea boy swallowed by a goat, then by a wolf], Basques [tiny boy into a cow], Italians (Tuscany) [boy- pea to a horse, then a wolf], the French (Gascogne) [a boy with a wheat grain to an ox, then a wolf], the French (Dauphine) [a bob boy swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Germans [Boy with a finger swallowed a cow, then a wolf], Scots [a boy with a finger swallowed by a bull, then a fox and a dog], Bulgarians [a boy with a finger swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], the Gagauz people [a tiny boy swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians [a boy with a finger swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Ossetians [a boy with a finger swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Turks [a pea boy swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Turkmens [half-ear boy swallowed by a camel, then by a wolf], Persians [Peas swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Latvians [boy with a finger swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Lithuanians [boy-s- a finger swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Lutsi [a tiny boy swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Estonians [a boy with a finger swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], a setu [a boy with a finger swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Karelians [boy with a finger swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Chuvash [boy with a finger swallowed by a cow, then by a wolf], Bashkirs [boy with a finger in a horse, then a wolf], Kazakhs [boy- tail or ear to camel, then wolf], Kyrgyz [boy with finger or tail boy to camel, then wolf], Mongols [tail boy to camel then wolf], South Altai Tuvans [boy s- kneecap into a camel, then into a wolf], Altaians [tiny Dyarym-Fist into a camel, then into a wolf].

Southern Europe. Spaniards [childless spouses ask for a son like a pea; he is born; eats 90 loaves; in the donkey's ear he goes to the field to his father; an ox chases in the ox's ear; the ox swallows Pea, he asks To slaughter his father by an ox, promises to return 20 of these; the wolf eats the intestines, the Pea calls the shepherds, they kill the wolf, make a drum out of the wolf intestines, the Pea in it; the robbers take the drum when they hear the voice, they are frightened, Pea brings their parents their treasures; Pea's mother gives the robber water in a precious bowl, he recognizes her; at night, the robbers are going to enter the house through the chimney, the Pea boils resin, chieftain cooked]: Malinovskaya 2002:228-231; Catalans [childless spouses dream of a son the size of a grain; a son is born; he takes lunch to his father, swallowed by a cow; she was stabbed, or he came out with manure; swallowed by a fox (wolf, dog); goes outside; swallowed by a goat, then by a wolf; by a pig, then by a rooster; scares thieves, takes their money and brings them to parents]: Oriol, Pujol 2008, No. 700:153; Basques: Barandiaran 1962a, No. 19 [grandfather sent Kukubiltxo to herd the cows; he hid from the rain under the leaf, the cow swallowed it along with the grass; he went out with the manure; his mother went to him wash, the river took them both away; the maid tried to pull them out, she was also carried away; the same with grandfather], 20 [~that (21, 22); not a boy, but a Barachuri girl], 21 [Barbancho the size of a pea; mother sends take him lunch to his father, he leads the donkey sitting in his ear; the boys think that the donkey is alone, kick him, run away in fear when he hears a voice; goes with the boys to steal lard from a priest who has stabbed a pig; sitting in the pig's ear, screams loudly, how delicious it is; the boys run away, afraid that they will be found; the priest comes running, B. hides in the grass, the cow swallows him; hearing the voice, everyone thinks that the cow is bewitched; B. gets out with manure, returns home], 22 [an elderly childless couple gives birth to a tiny boy Ukabiltxo; one day he falls into a cauldron with the fat and blood of a slaughtered pig; another time his swallows the cow along with the grass, he comes out with manure; then he rides a goose]: 82-83, 83-85, 85-88, 88-93; Italians (Tuscany) [the carpenter always scolds his wife for childlessness; the beggar gives her a hundred peas, they turn into kids; the husband hits them with a stick, but one pea rolled off, became a tiny Cecino boy; he invites his mother to take lunch to his father; people think he's crazy, because talks to himself; he shows them C., leaves an ox on his horn, goes to work; thieves try to steal oxen, C. raises the alarm, his father comes running, the thieves persuaded him to sell them C.; they go to steal horses in the royal stable; asking C. to give the horses oats, the horse swallows C.; thieves killed two horses, pulled them out into the field; the wolf began to eat the horse's carcass, swallowed C.; C. calls a shepherd from his stomach, the wolf got rid of C.; thieves come to share money, C. repeats their words, thieves fight with each other, are frightened, run away; C. brings their money to his mother]: Crane 1885, No. 77:242-247.

Western Europe. The French (Gascony; extremely popular story) [elderly spouses are childless; the wife asks God to give her a son the size of wheat grain; the son is born, his name is PZ; his mother tells him take the oxen to the meadow (var.: take lunch to his father who works in the field); when it rains, he hid under a cabbage leaf, the ox swallowed it along with the grass; he gave a voice, the old man beat the ox, but the liver threw it away, and the PZ was just there; an old woman picked up the liver; the PZ started screaming from there, the old woman threw the basket, the wolf swallowed the liver; then went to the herd of cows, but the PZ began to call the shepherds; told the wolf go to the house where the sheep are, but let him out there; at night two thieves came there; when they heard the voice of the PZ, they ran away; the owner of the sheep came, too frightened; two women were frightened, but returned, brought the PZ almost to at home; three thieves came, PZ gave a voice, thieves ran away leaving money; PZ returns to parents]: Arnaudin 1967, No. 20:196-214; French (Dauphine) [woman with many children advises childless cook beans: those that fall to the floor will turn into children; everything has fallen, there are many children, everyone demands something; the woman swept them out with a broom, but one bean remained in the crack; his mother sent him to herd the cow and Watch the cabbage; he sat on a head of cabbage, the cow swallowed it; his mother is looking for him, he answers from a cow's belly; the cow was stabbed, his intestines were thrown away, eaten by a wolf; when he farted, the boy flew out of it]: Joisten 1991, No. 47. 2:270-271; Scots [Thomas the size of a thumb went for a walk, hail began, he hid under a leaf, swallowed him along with the grass by a colorful bull; his parents heard him voice, stabbed a bull, but threw away the gut that T. was in; it was carried away by a fox, dogs bitten to death by a fox, T. ended up in the dog's stomach, but eventually returned to his parents]: Campbell 1809 in Paris 1875:33-35; Germans : Grimm, Grimm 1987 [childless spouses ask their son the size of a finger; he was born, he was named Boy with a Finger; in the horse's ear he goes to take lunch to his father; tells himself to sell himself to two people they meet who they are going to show him for money; he hides from them in a mouse hole; hears the thieves talking, offers to take him to open the pastor's pantry; deliberately makes a loud noise, the thieves flee; he hides in the barn, the cow swallowed it along with the hay; the maid hears a voice from the cow's belly, the pastor orders that the cow be slaughtered, the stomach was thrown away, swallowed by a wolf; the MP invites him to enter a house with plenty of supplies; This is his father's house; he makes a fuss again, shouts to his father not to hurt him; the wolf has been killed, the parents are happy that the MP is back]: 118-122; Hubrich-Messow 1988, No. 45 (Baden-Württemberg) [childless spouses ask a son the size of a finger; he was born, he was named Boy with a finger; he drives her in the horse's ear when something needs to be carried; the father agrees to sell him to two strangers; he hides from them in a mouse hole, they get it; they go to rob the pastor; they push the MP into the keyhole so that he can then unlock the door; the pastor wakes up, the thieves run away, the MP hides in a box of salt; the maid threw salt to the cow, she swallowed the MP along with salt; when the maid milks the cow, she hears a voice from the cow's belly; the pastor also hears, the cow was stabbed, the stomach was thrown away, swallowed by a wolf; in the forest, the MP got out of the wolf's belly, but it was swallowed by a deer along with the grass; he started screaming, the deer ran in horror, fell off a cliff and crashed; MP screamed until he died]: 78-80.

The Balkans. Bulgarians [childless parents miraculously have many children (they come out of a chopped pumpkin; they come from grain poured into a vessel; etc.); there is not enough food, they kill them, the smallest one is saved (as tall as a finger; in one version, two are saved, adventures are distributed between them); the hero takes food to his father in the field; rides in the wild, getting into his ear; sold to robbers, takes their money; he is accidentally eaten with grass by a cow; when she is milked, he makes obscene noises from her belly; a cow is slaughtered, a wolf eats its entrails with the hero; he warns those against whom the wolf wants to attack, about his approach; the wolf dies (on the advice of the fox, after eating sand and drinking water, lay down in the sun), the hero goes outside]: Daskalova-Perkovska et al. 1994, No. 700:236; Gagauz people [the old people have a (tiny) son; they sent him to herd a cow, she accidentally swallowed him; old people hear a voice from the cow's belly; the old man stabbed a cow, went to wash the intestines, the wolf swallowed his stomach; the boy screams the shepherds, the wolf is starving; the woman advises the wolf to eat sand, drink water, ride on the mountain; the wolf burst, the boy is out]: Moshkov 1904, No. 79:142-143.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Ossetians [Boy with a finger: helps his father on arable land; master (tsar) buys a boy; he helps thieves; gets into the stomach of a cow and a wolf]: Sokayeva 2004, No. 700:96; Turks [because of her An ill-conceived wish, the poor man receives many children the size of a pea; throws them into the fire, only one remains; getting into the donkey's ear, a pea boy brings lunch to his father in the field; a cow fell on him a cake; people collected a dung, began to drown it, the pea boy also burned down; options: the boy was eaten by a cow, he goes outside (through the ass); giants find him; he puts the dead lamb between the girls ties two men with beards, dies laughing; thieves tell him to steal a cow; he says so loudly that the owner came out but saw no one; he was given cow giblets and he hides in them; he pecked a rooster, then a cow ate; he climbed into the giblets (into the dough), they (him) were eaten by a wolf; he screams from the wolf's belly, he can't get anyone; the parents killed the cow, threw out the heart, and there was a boy in the heart, went out]: Eberhard, Boratav 1953, No. 288:332-333

Iran - Central Asia. Turkmens: Sokali et al. 1955 [his wife gave birth to a son half an ear tall, Yarty Gulak; he went to his father's mill in a camel ear; went down to the grass, fell asleep on the grass, the camel ate him with grass; parents killed a camel, did not find a son; the wolf swallowed it with guts; from the wolf's belly, YAG warns the shepherds; the wolf asks the Fox to help, she tells him to eat unripe grapes, the owner of the vineyard Hits the Wolf, YAG jumps out; on a basket of grapes, YAG arrives at the owner's house; at night he holds two guests by the beard; they accuse each other, fight; the owner fights with his wife (YAG held him by the beard, her for braids); at night, YAG smears ishan's (mullah) pants with pumpkin porridge, puts jug covers on his daughters' heads, turban on his wife's head, calls for prayer; general stir; etc.; YAG gets sheep for the promise to leave home, tells the father to pick them up at home; (beginning, including the wolf episode, pp.28-31)]: 28-39; Stebleva 1969, No. 44 [approximately like in Sokali, more episodes in the second part]: 225-237; Tajiks [a boy the size of a pea was born, he was named that; brought his father lunch; he squeezed most of the wheat in the field; on the way back, the wolf swallowed it; G. screams from the wolf's belly that he wanted to attack the sheep ; so several times the wolf became exhausted from hunger, G. fell out, could not get out of the ditch; asked the old man to hand him a staff; returned home]: Amonov 1972:200-201; Persians [the lumberjack's wife asks Allah give a child the size of a pea; gives birth to a boy the size of a thumb, he was called a Pea; he drives a drawn horse sitting on her head; tells the Oltz to sell him to two people he meets; hides from them in a mouse hole; hears a conversation between two robbers, leads them to the mullah's house, deliberately talks loudly, the robbers run away; G. goes to bed on a clover, the servant throws an armful of cow, she swallows G. , he speaks from her stomach; the cow is killed, the stomach is thrown away, the wolf swallows it; G. promises the wolf to take him to a place where there is a lot of food; brings him to his parents; Father G. kills the wolf, gets his son]: Rosenfeld 1956:66-72.

Baltoscandia. Latvians [a childless woman accidentally cuts off her toe, asks her son to be even as tall as a finger; her finger turns into a boy, takes breakfast to the woman's husband, mows for it; the master buys him for a hat of money; the boy hides in a mushroom, he is eaten by a cow; the hostess hears a voice from a cow, the cow has been slaughtered, the boy hides in a ham, gives it to the beggar; he is frightened of his voice, throws a ham, ate the meat wolf; the boy inside the wolf screams that he got to the cattle; tells him to take himself to his father in the kitchen; the father killed the wolf, the son got out; they live well]: Aris 1971:148; Lithuanians: Lebite 1965:66-60 [The wolf tells the old man to give the sheep; so all five sheep; then the dog, goat, cat, daughter, wife; swallows it; the old man cuts his belly with a knife, all swallowed go out], 250-254 [ a neighbor advises a childless old woman to cut off her little finger, throw it behind the stove; in the morning, a tiny boy offers to take lunch to his father in the field; while the old man eats, he climbs into the horse's ear, plows like this; the master wants it buy, little finger tells the old man to agree; hides under the mushroom, the master does not find it; offers thieves to help rob his master; asks loudly on purpose, the owners wake up; hides in straw, her the cow eats; hearing a voice from her belly, the cow is slaughtered, the wolf swallows the demand, the little finger from his belly warns the shepherds; tells the wolf to carry it to the father's yard; there the wolf was slaughtered, sewn from the skin Toe coat]; Lutsie (West 1893) [the couple is old, there are no children; the old man brought a mushroom leg from the forest, wrapped it, put it on the stove; the leg became a tiny boy; went to harrow, sitting in his ear horses; the merchant wants to buy, the boy to his father: sell it, I'll be back; the boy ran away, the cow ate it with a bath broom; the boy speaks from the cow's belly; the owners are frightened, the cow was stabbed, giblets They gave me to a beggar, boy: Where are you taking me? the beggar threw out the giblets, the wolf ate them, the boy from the wolf's belly warns those whom the wolf wants to attack; the wolf asks him to go out, but the boy is all the same: eat from his mouth, get dirty from his ass; tells him to collect wolves and come with them to his father, who has many sheep; go last, you will get the fattest; the wolves went into the empty barn, fell into the hole, the boy came out of the wolf's ass and locked the door; selling wolf skins, earned a lot of money; feast]: Annom et al. 2018:283-286; Estonians [a childless woman wanted a son even the size of a finger; father cuts wood; son carries them sitting by a horse's ear; three want to buy boy, he tells his father to agree; refuses to sit in the bosom (hot), in his pocket (dark), sits on the floor of his hat; ran away, hid in a rat hole; climbed into the landowner's pantry; thieves came, he raised the alarm; he found himself in a barn, the cow swallowed it; the maid hears a voice from a cow's belly; the cow was stabbed, his stomach was thrown away, swallowed by a wolf; the boy tells the wolf to go to the house where the father with mother - there is plenty of food there; the wolf is full, overweight, cannot get out; the boy's father killed him, found his son, made his son a fur coat out of wolf skin]: Mälk et al. 1967, No. 103:339-340; seto [elderly the spouses are childless; the wife accidentally cut off the tip of her finger; wrapped it in a rag, put it behind the stove; the husband went to harrow, the wife regrets that there was no one to take lunch; the severed finger turns into a boy, says he will carry it; harrows, sitting in the horse's ear; tells his father to agree to sell it to thieves; they sent him to steal meat, he asked loudly whether to take fat or lean, chased the thieves, boy hid in the chaff, the cow swallowed it with the chaff, he sings in her stomach; the owners hear, are frightened, they slaughter the cow, wash their intestines in the river, a piece with the boy has swallowed, it has been swallowed by a wolf; from the wolf's belly the boy screams to the shepherds; the wolf has to agree to take him home; the boy jumps out of the wolf's nostril, calls his mother and father, who kill the wolf]: Normann, Tampere 1989:109-112; Karelians ( Tver) [the old people have no children; the old woman cut off her finger, put it in the stove; a tiny boy came out of the stove, took breakfast to his grandfather; sitting on the plow plows; the boyars ask to sell, the boy tells his grandfather agree; on the way he spoiled his pocket, ran away, fell asleep under a flower, a cow ate it; he got sick, stabbed her, her intestines were thrown away, eaten by a wolf, came to the boy's parents to steal something; boy: grandfather, don't shoot, I'm in a wolf's stomach; I got out of the wolf, the wolf was caught, everyone is living well]: Makarov 1963, No. 85:182-183.

Volga - Perm. Chuvashi [a childless old woman complains that there is no one to take pancakes to her husband in the field; a little boy emerges from the log; rides a mole, falls, his father finds him, glad; the boy sits between his ears horses, plows; prompts his father to sell it to the merchant, runs away from his pocket; sells it to the thief, not to run away from his pocket; the thief lets the boy through the hole to open the door of the rich man's pantry; takes the stolen goods, oh He forgets the boy; the cow eats him along with the oats, the boy speaks from her belly; the cow has been slaughtered, the giblets are thrown into the ravine; they are eaten by a wolf, the boy screams from his belly "hold the wolf!" ; the wolf runs, frightens the thief, the boy comes home on a horse with the goods looted by the thief]: Eisin 1993:262-255; Bashkirs [the old woman was making dough, cut off her thumb, a boy appeared Bashbarmak ("thumb"); began to straighten his father's horse, she swallowed it with hay; the horse was stabbed, his intestines were thrown away, the wolf ate them; B. screams from his stomach every time the wolf tries to attack the herd; the wolf was exhausted, the hunter shot him, took off his skin, B. got out, came to the place where the cattle were slaughtered, got a skin and a calf, spent the night in the same house; put the skin on the floor, the calf between the owners; those they began to argue who gave birth to him, the old woman slipped on her skin, the old man at her; B. laughed so much that he died]: Barag 1992, No. 49:99-100.

Turkestan. Kazakhs: Divaev 1909 (Syr-Darya) [the old woman asks her husband to bring her 40 lamb ears, eats her ears, gives birth to 40 ears; they are at peace, the old people have nailed them, one ear is hidden; goes on a camel for salt; the old woman warns not to hide from the rain under the leaves, the ear hides, the camel swallows it; the old man cuts it but does not find his ear, throws away his stomach, it is swallowed by the wolf; every time rushes at the rams, his ear screams from his stomach; the fox advises him to run and sit on the ice; the wolf froze, the traveler killed him, took off his skin, his ear hid in his pocket; with this man two more, they stopped at overnight stay, the ear made a hole in the cup, ate everything, the owner's daughters are surprised (the guest must leave food to the owners); night puts the lamb's head between the girls, ties his wife's braids to the owner's beard, the maid to the oil mill, the shepherd to the wormwood bush; shouts that the wolf attacked the sheep; each girl accuses the other that she has a miscarriage, everyone is fighting; the ear steals sheep to the elderly]: 90-95; Marchenko 1993 [ a childless old woman milked a goat, she knocked over the bucket, the old woman tore off her kuyirshyk {tail?} , he turned into a son; rode a camel to get salt; hid from the weather under a leaf, the camel ate grass, swallowed it; the camel was brought home, the old people heard K.'s voice, stabbed the camel, the Wolf ate giblets; when he approaches the herd, K. screams from his belly, calls the shepherds; The fox advised him to sweat, sit on the ice, sit until morning; The wolf froze, the travelers killed him, ripped off his skin, quietly took K .; stopped for the night; K. blew out the fire, ate everything; others began to blame each other; went to bed; K. put the slaughtered ram between the guests, tied braids to the master's daughters, put braids on the owner's head cauldron, a tripod hung above the door, filled nails into the ground at the door; shouted that wolves were coming; the owner hit the cauldron, tripod, sat on nails, screamed; the guests accuse each other that the other had turned into ram, girls - that the other is holding her braids; everyone is fighting; K. burst with laughter]: 81-84; Kyrgyz [childless spouses have only five goats and a camel; once a black goat hid between the horns of a black goat A boy with a finger; the old woman said that if she had a child, she would feed him foam from milk; MP asks to be her son; herds goats sitting between the horns of a black goat; rides a camel for salt; that swallowed it along with the burdock; the camel returned home, the old man stabbed him, hung his gut by the yurt; the wolf swallowed it; when he approached the flock, MP began to scream to the shepherds; the wolf died of hunger; the traveler took it off his skin, MP got under the saddle, tells him to go faster; at the bus stop he steals an awl, then stabs his horse; he threw off the rider, the MP returned to the old man and the old woman in it]: Brudny, Eshmambetov 1968:77-80; Kyrgyz [the tiny boy's name is Kuyirshik - a tail; he rode a camel to the city; on the way back it rained, K. hid under the leaf, the camel began to pinch the grass and swallowed K.; approaches the master's yurt , and K. screams from the stomach: take purchases from the cart; the father stabbed the camel, the women began to clean their intestines, but did not notice K.; the wolf swallowed the camel's stomach with K.; approaches the sheep, and K. from it the belly raises the alarm; the shepherd let dogs at the wolf; the wolf starved to death; K. got out and climbed onto the horse of one of the riders passing by; they came to bay; when everyone ate, K. stabbed the goat, took it out unborn lamb; tied Bai daughters with braids, put an unborn lamb between them, covered the eyes of Bayu and his wife with gastric fat, tied wooden hammers to the door, raised the alarm: wolves they stole rams; everyone jumped up, fell and quarreled; the sisters blame each other: she gave birth to a lamb instead of a baby; K. got on the guest's horse and returned home]: Muchnik 1944:68-69.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Mongols [the old woman tore off the goat's tail, which turned into a boy; the camel swallowed it along with the grass; the old woman stabbed the camel, but threw out the cecum where the boy was; swallowed the gut wolf; when the wolf approaches the cattle, the boy screams, Catch; the wolf asks the fox to help, she tells him to defecate at the crossroads of seven roads; the boy goes out, kills the sheep, puts the premature lamb between two sleeping girls, fat from the peritoneum covers the old man and the old woman, fluid from the peritoneum pours between two guys; when they wake up, the girls argue whose miscarriage is; the old man and the old woman take fat for a fur coat, the old man beats the old woman for tearing her fur coat, pulling it towards herself at night; the guys also quarreled; the boy laughed, his ass cracked, he died]: Potanin 1883, No. 166:550-551; South Altai Tuvans [an old boy is as tall as a kneecap; volunteered to go for a dung; hid from the hail under a leaf, the camel swallowed it; the camel was eaten by a wolf, the boy from the wolf's womb screams shepherds that the wolf attacked the flock; the fox advises the wolf to drink water, run along the steppe; the boy came out with a litter, clung to the tail of someone else's cow, brought it to his parents; one sleeping girl put it under half a lamb robe, the other was cow droppings; the girls began to accuse each other that one gave birth to a lamb and the other did it; both laughed, their guts burst, they died]: Taube 1978, No. 45:239 (= Taube 1994, No. 44:263-264); the Altaians [tiny Dyarym-Kulak scattered garbage near the threshold of the house where his grandparents lived (apparently put the last one), hung a mallet above the door, around the vessel wrapped the snake, in the place where the spirit figure stood, placed a bumblebee, buried an egg in the ash, stuck an awl on the couch, hid himself in the folds of felt; the grandmother, entering, slipped, hit the mallet, was bitten snake and bumblebee, the egg burst into her eyes, the awl pierced when she sat down, she ran out, slipped again at the end, hit the mallet; DK laughed, rode a camel, climbed under the rain leaves, the camel swallowed it along with the grass; he screams for the camel to be stabbed; the owners stabbed, the gut in which the DC was swallowed by one of the seven wolves; when the wolves try to approach the prey, the DC screams wolves are starving; the fox tells them to eat fat falls; the wolves have eaten, cleaned their stomachs, the DC offers three thieves to serve them; they send him for an ax; he hides in the dog's ear, asks the boy to give bone marrow; the boy tells his mother that the dog asks for bone marrow, the mother tells her to hack, the ax flies off, the DC brings it to the thieves; DK puts a bundle between two sleeping girls, ties a blind man to the pigtails of two guys the gut, the old woman and the old man spread interior fat; everyone woke up, the guys started fighting, the girls blaming each other for giving birth, the old woman and the old woman that the other tore their skins (they hear a crackling fat); The Palace of Culture laughed and dried up]: Sadalova 2002, No. 37:361-365.