Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

L37b1. Toad under a rock.

. (.65.)

To cure a sick person or save the house from other misfortunes, it is necessary to kill (get, expel) a toad, frog or snake hiding in the house (in the garden, under the roots).

Italians (Piedmont), Portuguese, Catalans, Aragon, Basques, Bretons, French, Germans (Harz, Grimms, Swabia), Tibetans (Ham), Kachin, Bengalis, Chinese, Lisu, Luzhitans, Poles, Belarusians, Russians (Arkhangelsk, Pskov), Estonians, Lithuanians, Norwegians, Danes, Komi, Kazakhs (including Xinjiang), Dungans, Japanese (including North Ryukyu).

Southern Europe. Italians (Piedmont: Monferrato) [on the occasion of his son's graduation from school, the father has a feast; guests ask what the young man has learned; he replies that the language of dogs, frogs and birds; everyone laughs, the father tells take his son to the forest and kill; the servants let the young man go, bring the dog's heart to his father; the young man found shelter with the prince's treasurer; dogs have gathered around; the young man explains that dogs are talking about an impending attack on treasurer; the treasurer has set up guards, the robbers were killed, the treasurer offers the young man a daughter, who asks for a delay of one year and three days; in the city, the princess is sick; the young man hears frogs croaking; realizes that he makes the princess feel bad; the frogs are unhappy that the princess threw a cross into the pond; the cross was found, the frogs fell silent, the princess has recovered; the prince wants to give it to the young man, but he again asks for a delay a year and three days; goes with three companions to Rome; hears birds talking: among those who are walking one will become a pope; a dove sits on his head, he is elected pope; calls his father, treasurer and prince; all of them says; forgives father]: Crane 1885, No. 43:161-163; Portuguese: Braga 2002 (Algarve) [a wealthy merchant hired a soldier; he wanted to marry one of his daughters; the merchant put the condition to go to hell is to bring three curls of the line; on the way, one king asks the hell to know where the ring he lost is; the second is how to cure his daughter; at the fork, soldiers follow the road where traces of people (on the other, traces of sheep); the hermit gives three beads; they must be thrown at the carrier across a dark river; in hell, the mother hides the devil; when the hell falls asleep, his mother pulls out a bundle of hair from him, hell wakes up, she explains that she had a dream about a king who lost his ring; hell: it's in the garden under a stone slab; next time: under the sick princess's bed, a toad; on the way back, the bird gives throw beads at the carrier; kings were awarded for their help (the ring was found, the princess recovered); the young man married the merchant's daughter]: 237-241; Catalans [a young man who has the ability to understand the language animals and birds, leaves home; overhears the conversation of a toad, a snake and a mole; these creatures are to blame for the princess's illness and the disasters that befall the city, tell you how to get rid of misfortunes; young man saves everyone from disasters, marries a princess]: Oriol, Pujol 2006, No. 671:134; Aragon [one of the two travelers agrees to be blinded in order to beg more successfully; leave others in the forest; climbed a tree, hears animals talking; learns how to regain vision, get water in a waterless village, cure a princess (there is a toad under her bed); generously awarded; meets a former companion and tells him what happened; he climbs the same tree, his animals tore him to pieces; also witches instead of animals]: González Sanz 1996, No. 613:89-90; the Basques [two mule drivers, Petri and Sokur, they argued that P. lost, gave up his mules; fell asleep under the bridge; heard witches talking; a sick woman would recover if a stone was raised in front of the church, a piece of bread was taken out of the toad's mouth; 7 years ago, that the woman threw this piece on the floor; P. heals the woman, receives 7 mules as a reward; S. goes to spend the night under the bridge, the witches found him, beat him, threw him into the water]: Kustova 1987:81-88.

Western Europe. The Bretons [older brother Cochenar and younger Turken are begging; K. suggests that one of them be dazzled so that alms are better given; makes T. draw lots; K. takes all the food for himself, leaves T. in the forest; he climbs a tree, hears a conversation between Leo, Wolf and Pig; learns that the root of this tree will open a spring in waterless Luxembourg; the bark will restore sight and cure any disease; The Spanish king will give his daughter to whoever cures her; she is sick because the toad swallowed the wafer after communion; you must drink the toad's blood with wine, fry its meat and eat it; T. sees the light, opens the water in Luxembourg, he is thanked and gifted; he finds a toad, heals a princess, she falls in love with him; he secretly goes to Luxembourg, where a golden castle awaits him; marries a poor girl who is the first sheltered him; finds a beggar K., makes him rich, marries; after learning the story of T., K. climbs the same tree, animals tore him apart]: Lopyreva 1959, No. 44:193-208; the French [{very similar to German Grimm variant}; the king drove through the village; he was told that the lumberjack's newborn son was predicted to marry the royal daughter; the king asked for the baby to be given him, gave him gold; he wrapped left the child in a cloak on the river bank; 16 years later, the king visited those places and realized that the peasant's adopted son was that boy; sent the young man to his wife, asking him to kill bearer; the young man spent the night with the robbers, they replaced the letter with an order to marry the young man to the king's daughter; when he returned, the king tells his son-in-law to bring three golden ecus; on the way, the young man is asked to know why the fountain of wine in the city square has dried up; why the apple tree no longer brings golden apples; on the river, the carrier asks when it will be replaced; the devil turned the young man into a cricket; the devil falls asleep, the devil three times takes an ecu from him, he wakes up every time, the devil says that she dreamed of this and that (a fountain, an apple tree, a carrier), the devil answers; under the fountain stone there is a toad; a rat gnaws on the roots of the apple tree; let the carrier will give oars to another; the young man gives the news to the carrier only when he is on the other side; the king himself went to get ecus gold, the carrier gave him the oars, he remained working as a carrier] : Delarue, Tenèze 1964, No. 461:147-149; Germans (Harz) [two brothers shared the inheritance but then agreed that whoever is right will get everything; younger: there is gratitude in the world; elder: there is only ingratitude; the youngest protects the girl from the groom who beats her - both begin to beat him; separates two fighting coal burners - the same; beats off the snake from the bear - she began to strangle him; The elder brother saves him every time, and then dazzles him and goes to collect all the inheritance; at night, the blind man climbed a tree; a lion, a bear and a fox have come; the bear will fall dew in the morning, which restores sight; lion: in the city, a rich man fell ill due to his wife's fault; there is a crust of bread behind the closet; it must be cooked and eaten - he will recover; fox: the king's well has dried up; a toad is sitting there; she must be killed, the water will flow again from spring; in the morning, the man washed his eyes, took precious moisture, cured many blind people in the city and they gave him a gift; he cured the rich man; he took a dagger from the king and went down to the well; there the toad spit with fire, but he pierced her with a dagger; the king handed him a crown; he sheltered poor wandering people; one day an older brother was among them; he went to that tree; the bear hit the fox, believing that it was she who revealed the secrets; but the fox fell and saw him hiding in the tree; the lion and the bear tore him apart]: Pröle 1854, No. 1:1-8; Germans [the royal daughter will recover if she eats an apple; apples the eldest son of the peasant carried; the little man asks what he is carrying, the guy replies that they are frogs; when the basket is opened, the frogs in it, the guy was driven away; the same with the middle son (pork stubble); younger Hans the little man is polite, the princess has recovered from the apples he brought; but the king demands 9 boats to walk on water and on land; the older and middle brothers make boats, answer the little man what they carry wooden dishes; G. is polite again, sails to the palace in one of the boats; the king demands that a hundred birds be herded without loss; the little man gives a horn to the sound of which they resort; the princess sends the maid - let G. give the hare urgently; G. demands that the princess herself come; she comes, gets a hare, he runs back to G.; the king demands a griffin pen; on the way, the owner of a castle asks to know where he is lost the key to the chest of money; the inhabitants of the other - how to cure the owner's daughter; the man by the river - how many more people should he carry to the other side; the griffin's wife tells G. to hide, at night G. pulled out his pen; the griffin's wife says that a Christian really came in and told all sorts of nonsense; then asks questions and the griffin answers them; the key is under the threshold outside the door; the toad in the cellar made a nest out of the girl's hair ; the man by the river must throw off the one he is carrying; G. took out the toad, found the key; when he saw that G. was rich, the king himself followed in his footsteps; the man threw him into the river, and G. married the princess]: Grimm, Grimm 2002, No. 185:482-485 (=Grimm, Grimm 1987:382-387); Germans (Swabia) [the count became angry with the young servant and sent a letter to his wife ordering him to kill the messenger; the innkeeper replaced him by order to marry the young man to their daughter; she is happy; when she returned, the count ordered the young man to bring a feather from the tail of an ostrich bird, believing that she would tear it apart; the Countess asks to know where her ring is; on the way, the inhabitants villages ask to know why there is no water in the well; the ferryman - how long it takes him to transport people across the river; the old woman hid the young man behind the bed at the ostrich bird; asks the ostrich to answer questions; ring the Countess is under the threshold; the frog has closed the spring, we must pull it out, then the water in the well will appear; the ferryman must push the passenger into the water and tell him to take his seat; the old woman makes a promise from the ostrich he has to give his pen; when he jumps ashore from the boat, the young man tells the ferryman what to do; the peasants took out a frog and gave the young man money; at home, the young man indicates where the ring is, and the count says that an ostrich is waiting for him to visit and presented him with a golden pen; the ferryman left the count in his place, and the young man became count]: Meier 1852, No. 79:273-279.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans (Ham) [Palden spends the night in the forest, climbing a tree in the form of an umbrella; animals gather; a monkey says that a daughter is sick in the same house; we must get a thirsty daughter from under the stone take a frog to the river; P. comes to that house disguised as a doctor, pulls out a frog, the girl recovers, he receives gifts; sleeps again in an umbrella tree; Tiger says that there are people in one village they suffer without water, and water is under a stump; P. asks for yaks and a rope, yaks pull out a stump, people dig, soon find water; P. is chosen as an elder; Kunjo asks P. to tell us how he achieved success; when he finds out, he climbs a tree, but falls, the animals tore it to pieces]: Hyde-Chambers, Hyde-Chambers 1981:156-162; kachin [the sage predicts the peasant son to be king; the king throws the boy in a chest into the river, he is picked up; the king meets the young man, finds out, tells him to take the letter; it is ordered to kill the giver; on the way, the robbers replace the letter, the giver must be married to the princess; the king tells his son-in-law 1) bring three golden hairs of the naga; on the way, the young man is asked to know why the spring has dried up, the golden tree does not bear fruit, how can a carrier across the river get rid of this work; an old woman (apparently nata's mother) pulls out golden hairs from a dormant nat, every time she says that in a dream she saw that the spring had dried up, etc.; nat replies that it is necessary to drive away the frog that sat on a stone near the spring, drive the rat out of the roots wood, the carrier must give the boat and paddle to another; the young man heard the answers when he became an ant; the greedy king himself goes for hairs, receives a boat and a paddle from the carrier]: Kasevich, Osipov 1976, No. 31:109-114.

South Asia. Bengalis [the king's daughter fell ill; healer: she must eat an orange; only one peasant who brought it from afar grew an orange tree; it should just bear the first fruit; Jadu's eldest son bore fruit; a finger-sized man (Hüpf-auf-Meinen-daumen) asks what's in the basket; the young man replies that frogs; when he opens the basket in the palace, there are frogs in it; he is strong beaten; the same with Gostha's second brother (trichosant seeds (pumpkin seeds, Trichosanthes cucumber, Schangenkürbis in the basket); the younger fool Mānik is kind to the dwarf, replies that he carries oranges princess; after eating an orange, the princess recovered; the king does not want to give her for the son of a peasant, comes up with new difficult assignments; 1) build a ship that moves on water and on land; I. takes the ax, responds to the dwarf, what makes the barrel; the barrel turned out; the same G. (it turned out to be a plough); M. is polite to a dwarf again, it turned out to be a peacock-shaped ship painted in appropriate colors; 2) Nāgapakshvara's dragon feather decorate the royal crown; the dragon lives far away in golden palace, easily swallows people; on the way, a rich man asks the dragon to know where the lost key to his iron chest is; another asks to know how his daughter can be cured; by the river a man, who carries travelers on his shoulders, asks him to know how much more he must do this job without sleep or rest, which he has been doing all his life; the dragon's wife hides M. under the bed; the dragon I smelled a man, but believed his wife that there was no one; when he fell asleep, M. pulled the feather out of his tail; the wife tells the dragon that his feathers were just pinched; that a man came in asking for the key sick girl and carrier; dragon: the child put the key in the mattress; the toad bit off the girl's curl and sits in the corner of the house, she must be removed from her hole; the carrier must leave the one he carries in the water, and Let him go home himself; M. gave the carrier the words of the dragon after he was on the other side; as soon as the toad was found and the curl was taken away, the girl recovered; opening the chest, the owner gave M. gold; the king He gave his daughter for M., but envied the treasures he had brought from the dragon's land; he went there himself; the man by the river left him in the water and the king began to perform his duties]: Mode, Ray 1967:309-320.

China - Korea. The Chinese [Prince Lan Dan throws a gold ball, whoever finds it will become a son-in-law; finds a shepherd, the prince demands to bring three hairs of the Sun; the shepherd goes, meets people who ask him to know why 1) the fruits of a tree can no longer raise the dead; 2) the living water in the well has dried up; 3) no one has come to replace the carrier boatman for 60 years; the mother of the Sun hides the young man in the chest; pulls it out three times sleeping son in the hair; every time she says what she dreamed, asks for an answer; The sun explains that a snake has settled under the tree, a frog in the well, whoever takes the old man's oars will replace him; young man tells all this on the way back (telling the old man, he runs away so that he does not give him an oar); the young man was gifted, the prince gave him his daughter; he went to the Sun himself, got oars, remained a boatman]: Tishkov 1954:32-35; fox [Badu is lazy, his wife tells me to trade, he goes on a journey, three days later he accidentally returns without immediately recognizing his wife; finds a buffalo horn in the cave, making it supposedly magical wand, decides to become a predictor; tells his wife about what happened in his absence (his wife does not know that he was eavesdropping); the king sends him to find out why there is a fire in the capital; on the way he hears a conversation crow and crows: a frog is walled up under the palace column, it cursed the city; the frog is pulled out, the fire ends, B. gets half of the kingdom]: Zapadova 1977:153-157.

Central Europe. Luzhitsy (Upper Lusatia) [a young forester argued with a stranger whether lawlessness could be turned into law for money; three sworn attorneys answered that it was possible; the stranger burned his eyes, left on the road to the gallows; night has come, the road is over, the forester heard three spirits talking; one says that he has deprived the residents of the city of water; in order for the spring to clog again, it is necessary to remove the one sitting on it toad; the princess will recover if you remove the silver carnation hammered over her bed; a person whose eyes are burned can regain sight by moistening the eye sockets with water from a spring near the hang; in the morning the forester asked about the spring, an old woman brought him to him, he saw the light; he found and removed a toad in the city, the water flowed, the forester was rewarded; pretending to be a healer, the forester began to give medicine to the princess , and quietly took out the carnation himself; the forester found a stranger, told him everything and married the princess; the stranger went to the gallows at night, his spirits tore him apart and hung pieces on the three corners of the gallows]: Lifshitz- Artemyeva 2017:172-176 (=Wratislaw 1890, No. 14:92-97); Luzhitans [the miller's beautiful daughter suddenly fainted; a young worker who liked her went to the dragon to ask why this happened; on the way, people ask to know why the water in the well is not drinkable; the ferryman - how long does he take to transport people; the woman hides the young man; she pulled out the dragon's pen at night; she dreamed that the miller's daughter was beautiful, ugly; dragon: priest dropped his wafer, Padde {toad?} I swallowed it, we need to find and get a wafer; next time, a well; we must get and kill Padde, which is at the bottom; third time: the carrier must push the person he is transporting into the water; in the morning, the woman is all told the young man and gave him three dragon feathers; on the way back, the young man answered the carrier and the people at the well, received an award; took out a wafer from Padde, gave it to the girl to eat, she became beautiful; old the miller went to the dragon himself, the carrier pushed him into the water and he drowned]: Veckenstedt 1880, No. 13:237-240; the Poles [option: Shcherbakov 1980:135-137; two companions (brothers) argue which is better: true or crooked; a truthful loses and is blinded; or a hungry poor man receives bread from a rich man (brother) in exchange for his eyes; a blind person overhears the conversation of spirits (animals, birds) and learns how to regain his sight, cure the queen (kill the toad that swallowed the wafer), get water in a waterless place, revive a dried tree, etc.; marries the queen; when he learns about this, a supporter of Krivda goes to the same place and kill with spirits (animals)]: Krzyżanowski 1962, No. 613:197-198; Belarusians (Mogilevskaya, West 1888-1891, d. Budino, Bratkovichsk vol., Klimov. u., from kr. Fedor Fedorova, 60 l, illiterate) [The king has 3 sons, 2 smart ones, the 3rd fool, in another kingdom Princess Nastasi has a garden with apples; the king sends his eldest son for apples, he reaches a fork in the stone, one road leads to the robbers, to the second will be eaten by animals, on the third road there is food only for the horse, the eldest son returns; the king sends the second son, he also returns; the youngest asks to go, the father is against, but lets go; he goes from the fork on the third road, she spends the night at Baba-Iga's place, leaves her horse and takes her stupa; spends the night at the second Baba-Igi, changes her stupa to hers; leaves the third Baba-Igi's stupa, takes her horse; comes to the kingdom of Nastasi, there everyone sleeps for 12 days; he walks in the upper rooms, searches for Nastasya among the sleepers, finds Nastasya in the 3rd upper room, commits a sin with her, tears apples in the garden, leaves a sign that he (Ivan Tsarevich) was here and what he did; horse refuses to take him back, because Ivan is heavy because of sin, sends Ivan to wash his sin into the bathhouse three times; the horse hits the fortress with its tail on the way back (the horse flies), everyone wakes up, Nastasya reads a sign and shouts to Ivan to "wait" for her for 12 years; Ivan visits the first Baba Iga, picks up his horse, returns to his father's kingdom; goes to bed, his brothers find him asleep, pick up apples, gouge out Ivan's eyes; blind Ivan comes to the river, lies under the shuttle, 3 demons come out of the water, sit on the shuttle and talk, one talks about how dew heals the eyes, the other about a kingdom where there is no water (water they bring), where (under the bush) the spring is hidden and how to open it, the third demon talks about the sick princess and how to cure her; demons go into the water, blind Ivan wipes his eyes with dew, sees the light; Ivan goes to a kingdom where there is no water frees the spring under the vine bush, refuses the reward; goes to the kingdom where the princess is sick, heals her: disassembles the bridge, finds a toad that has eaten crumbs from communion, opens it, the princess covers the skin, the skin grows to the princess, she recovers, Ivan refuses the award (the princess as his wife and half the kingdom to boot); returns to his father, he is not recognized, Ivan is hired as a worker , 12 years pass; Nastasya comes with her son and army, stands on the other side of the river, Nastasi's son demands that Ivan Tsarevich, his father, be brought in, his elder brother comes out, the son identifies him as his uncle who stabbed him Ivan's eyes, throws him "unknown where"; the second brother comes out, but the son demands Ivan Tsarevich, the tsar asks for help, Ivan is summoned, takes money from the tsar, scatters it among Nastasi's soldiers, leads her from son and army to father, becomes tsar instead of father]: Romanov 1901, No. 41:378-382; Belarusians []: Romanov 1887, No. 70:320-321; Russians (Arkhangelsk or North Karelia) [childless old man caught a box, a boy in it; they called it the Water Finder; the king hunted, stayed in the same house for the night; two women came: grandmother and godmother; she says to V. that he will marry the princess and sit on royal throne; the king bought V. from the elderly, raised; he wants to marry the royal daughter; king: go to Grandfather Vseved, bring three golden hairs; on the way, the carrier asks what should be done to stop being a carrier; gardener, why did the garden dry up; man at the well, why there is no longer living and dead water in it; V. came to his godmother, she lives with Grandfather Vseved, and this Grandfather is the sun; she successively pulls out by the hair and asks questions; let the carrier jump out when someone gets on the boat; there is a frog under the roots in the garden; the well should be deepened; V. received an award from the owners well and garden; when he returned and told the tsar, he went himself; became a carrier, and V. married his daughter and became tsar]: Razumova, Senkina 1987:50-54; Russians (Pskov) [the boy was born in a shirt saying that he would be happy with Mark Bogatov; MB found out, bought the baby, left him in the snow; he was picked up by peddlers and brought to the same MB; he forgave them their debt, took the baby and let him into the sea in a barrel; she sailed to the mill, the miller raised the boy; when he was 15 years old, MB found himself at the miller, understood from a conversation who the young man was; sent him to his wife ("to the nobleman", "to the elmozhi") with an order throw the giver into the cauldron at the distillery; the young man stopped by the old woman, the robbers came there, replaced the letter with an order to marry the giver to the MB's daughter; when he returns, MB sends his son-in-law to bring three the hair of an ogre snake; on the way, a person asks to know why water has disappeared in the well, the carrier - how long it takes to transport him; at the cannibal snake, the old woman turned the young man into an ant, hid it in the fold of clothes and ordered listen; when the serpent comes and falls asleep, the old woman consistently wakes him up and asks him to solve the dreams she supposedly had; the snake explains; there is a toad in the well; the carrier must give the oars to another; the old woman the snake also pulled out three hair, gave it to the young man; the owner of the well took out the toads, rewarded the young man; he replies to MB that he took the gold across the river; he hurried there, the carrier gave him the oars; MB is still working by carrier]: Chernyshev 1950, No. 15:32-36.

Baltoscandia. Estonians: J.Kunder in Põder, Tanner 2000 [in order to take possession of all his property after his father dies, the older brother blinds the younger brother in the forest; he hears two men talking in the bushes; finds out that you can see the light by wiping your eyes with dew; that there are many blind people in the copper city, the well in the silver city has dried up, because the water veins were crushed by a stone; in the golden toad climbed under the altar, so the princess is sick; young man He sees the light himself, helps the residents of three cities; he is paid in gold; his older brother goes to listen to the conversation of little men, who say that last time someone overheard them, finds and kills him]: 82-89 (=Raud 2004:171-176); Mälk et al. 1967, No. 65 [the king comes to the miller from time to time to chat; the miller has a young assistant; the king is told that he is destined to marry the king's daughter; king writes a letter ordering the applicant to be killed and gives it to the young man; the robber replaces him with an order to marry the young man to the princess; when the king returned, he drove him away, but promised to recognize him if he brought three Satan's hair; the young man set off; the sailor asks to know why his ship has not moved for 7 years; the owner of the birch tree - why juice does not flow from it anymore, although milk used to flow; old man - why did the water disappear in the well; the damn mother tells the young man to hide, and she pulls her son's hair three times and asks questions; the captain of the ship must lure the king at him, and jump ashore himself and ask the king to throw his rod to him; the king will remain on the ship and the ship will sail away; a rotten root must be extracted from the birch tree; a toad at the bottom of the well; the young man told the owners of the well and the birch tree what to do, returned, the king married him to his daughter; then he went to that ship himself; the ship sailed with the king, the young man reigned]: 176-181; Lithuanians: Kerbelite 2014, No. 77 [two brothers went with Jonas to the forest; gave food to exchange for eyes, a blind man climbed under the bridge; hears three devils talking; one persuaded two brothers to dazzle the third (you have to wash your eyes with water from a neighboring spring), the other deprived the city of water (we must destroy the dam), due to the fault of the third, the king's daughter fell ill (you have to get a toad from under the floor); J. saw the light, received an award from the townspeople for returning the water, took out a toad, married the queen and became king; the brothers gouged out each other's eyes and climbed under the bridge, the devils tore them]: 172-174; Lebite 1965 [the poor brother asks for rich bread, he gives it in exchange for his eyes; the blind comes into the forest, climbs a pine tree, Animals gather under it; a rider rode, asks them about life, tells them three news himself; 1) a blind poor man will see the light if he washes himself with dew from this pine tree; 2) the queen will recover if he kills a toad under her floor; 3) if you move a stone, water will flow into the waterless city; the poor man sees the light, kills the toad, the king, then the townspeople reward him generously; at home he sends his son to his brother to measure gold and silver, some coins remain on the measure; when he finds out what is going on, the rich man goes to the forest, hides in a pine tree; animals say that someone overheard their conversation, finds a person, tears them apart]: 233-239; Norwegians [two brothers named True, Untrue); on the way they agree to share their food; eat V.; O. refuses to share, pulls out his brother's eyes, leaves him in the forest; he climbs at a tree, hears animals talking; Bear: the King of England is almost blind, and the dew of this tree cures blindness; Wolf: his daughter is deaf and dumb, because a Toad sits under the floor of the church and altar, swallowing a piece of it wafers; bread must be removed from the Toad's belly, given to the princess, she will recover; Fox: there is no water in the king's palace, you have to dig in the yard, score the key; Hare: the king's garden does not bear fruit because it is underground around it a gold chain lies; V. regains his eyesight, digs up a spring, heals the king for blindness, digs up a gold chain, heals the princess, gets her married; during the wedding, the beggar O. comes; finding out what case, goes to the forest, climbs a tree; The bear says they were eavesdropped last time, so now it's better to keep quiet and leave]: Dasent 1970:1-7; Danes [father makes and sells sieves, but that's it drinks; the son goes to sell sieves instead of him, gets lost in the forest; sees a portrait of a beauty on a tree, but cannot reach it; a horse appears, tells him to obey, then the portrait falls into his hands; in the castle the young man is hired by a groom; his purse is filled with money, and his doodles turn into portraits; the servant sees a portrait of a long-missing princess, the one found in the forest; the king does not believe that a young man did not see her, since he has a portrait of her, sends her to get it; the young man goes to the phoenix bird; on the way, the horse turns into a dog; people he meets ask to know 1) why the pear does not bear fruit; 2) where the missing princess (the other); a young man throws meat to two struggling snakes; millet to two struggling swans; they let it in; at the lake crossing, the ferryman asks to know how long he will stay as a ferryman; in the house the phoenix princess (the one in the portrait) hides the young man under the bed; asks the phoenix questions on her own behalf; in the morning, the young man and the princess, taking gold, run away; after crossing the lake, the young man says that the ferryman must tell the person he is transporting to take his position; the phoenix in the form of a dragon pursues but attacks the nails that cover the ship; swans bring the princess (the one they asked for find), she was in a castle hanging in the air; the young man tells him to dig a huge toad from under the pear, generously rewarded; when the young man returns, the princess from the hanging castle visits him; they say The king also tells him to get the castle, for the princess misses him; the swans raise snakes into the air, they snack on gold chains, the castle falls on the ship, is delivered; the servants continue to slander the young man, him and his dog is going to be burned; the dog tells him to take the dragon fat that the young man has kept on the fire; when smeared with it, the young man and the dog do not feel the heat of the fire; both turn into handsome men; the servants themselves rush into fire but burn; the young man marries the princess from the padlock, and his assistant marries the one who was kidnapped by the phoenix; the king objects and goes to the phoenix; remains a ferryman]: Holbek 1987:567-568.

Volga - Perm. Komi [the wanderer tells the poor spouses that their newborn Ivan will become king; the wife talks to her neighbors, the king buys the child, puts it in a bag, throws it into the river; he catches the baby, raises the baby a bachelor miller; the king asks him, understands everything, sends a young man with a letter to the queen, telling I. to kill; in the forest, the robbers read the letter, replace him; after reading the letter, the queen passes her daughter off as I.; The king tells his son-in-law to bring three hairs from the ogre's beard; on the way, a digging well asks why there has been no water for ten years; bird cherry why it dries and does not bloom; the carrier why he works carrier; in the cannibal's house, his wife hides I.; consistently pulls out the hairs of her sleeping husband; he tells a dream about a digging well (you need to remove the frog from the well), bird cherry (kill mice under roots), the carrier (you have to give the paddle and the whole one to another, jump ashore yourself); on the way back, I. sets up the merchant, who is made by the carrier; kills mice and a frog; these three were brothers old woman; she is grateful, gives a ring; the king orders I. to be executed, he tells the ring to send an ax to kill the guilty; the ax kills the king, I. reigns]: Doronin 2004:27-32.

Turkestan. Dungane [the peasant died, the youngest son of Zhinduan took everything for himself; the youngest Zhinchan got his own farm; both houses burned down, the brothers went on a journey; the youngest pushed the elder into the well, took the silver he had earned together; at the bottom, the eldest hears a conversation between two guev (humanoid creatures) who came to the well; the daughter of a wealthy peasant will recover if you kill a frog living under ricks of hay; a healing tree in the same garden withers away, for there is a treasure chest under it; there is almost no water in the village, a well must be dug, there is an underground river; Zhingduan pretends to be a healer; the girl says how at night a lover in a green robe with cold hands comes to her; ricks are burned, a genie frog dies, a girl recovers, marries a Jinduan; he digs up a chest, gets water; goes for former wife and children; Zhinchan asks to let him down the well; Guevo say that someone overheard them, filled the well with stones]: Yusurov 1970:57-65; Kazakhs: Lin Lin, Ustin 1959 (Xinjiang) [Khan learns that the son of a peasant is predicted to marry the khan's daughter; tells him to throw the boy in a box into the river; the box is found by a miller; Ada reaches the age of 18, the khan sees him, sends him with a letter, it says to kill bearer; the robber replaces the letter with the command to marry A. to the khan's daughter; the khan demands three hairs from the head of the king of the jinns; the city guard asks why the spring has dried up, another city why it has dried up an apple tree; a boatman crossing the lake to the city of gins - why he is not replaced; the grandmother of the king of genies turns A. into an ant, hides it in his sleeve; pulls his sleeping grandson three times by a hair; says three times that she had a dream, in dreams questions from those whom A. met; genie: under the source, a toad, a mouse under an apple tree, a boatman must hand the steering wheel to a man in a red coat; A. kills a toad and a mouse, tells the khan to wear red robe to take treasures across the lake; Khan becomes a boatman]: 299-305; Sidelnikov 1958 (2) [Khan traveled incognito around the khanate; in one village he was told that the boy he was born would become Khan's son-in-law; the khan persuaded the poor man to sell his son, ordered him to be thrown into the river in a box; the miller picked him up and raised him, his name was Ada; when he accidentally arrived there, the khan understood who the young man was and sent him with a letter to his wife; in a letter order to kill the messenger; at night, the robbers replaced the letter with an order to marry the man sent to the khan's daughter; the khan returned and sent his son-in-law to bring three golden hair from the head of the prince of giants; on the way to In one place, the guards ask why the spring has dried up; in another, why the apple tree no longer brings golden apples; the transporter on the lake when he is on his shift; the old lady turned A. into an ant, hid it in her sleeve; wakes up the sleeping giant three times, each time pulling out his golden hair and asking a question; giant: there is a toad at the bottom of the spring; the mouse gnaws on the roots of the apple tree; the carrier must hand the paddle to the person in red clothes and leave; on the way back, Ada received an award from the owners of the spring and apple tree; Khan said that the lake had a treasure, but you had to come for it in red clothes; Khan became a carrier]: 36-42.

Japan. Japanese: Ikeda 1971, No. 671 (all of Japan from Tohoku to North Ryukyu) [a man saves a turtle (sometimes a mouse, a fox, etc.); the god of the sea sends a messenger with a reward, who advises you to choose kiki-mimi, a person gains the ability to understand the language of animals; after overhearing the conversation of animals, he heals the emperor's daughter (a live snake or frog is buried under the palace or the cause of illness in a growing nearby area tree); warns of a tsunami; marries a princess, gets wealth]: 162-163; Japanese [in the mountains, a poor man saw a crane pinched by a fallen tree; he saved her, and soon came to live with him beautiful; to cook rice, she puts only two grains in the pot; she woven an extraordinary cloth and ordered it to be sold for 300 gold; she gave birth to a daughter; when she grew up, the wife said that she had woven cloth pulling out her feathers; she became a crane and flew away]: Markova 1956:44-47.

(Wed. The Central Andes. European borrowing. Uarochiri (dep. Lima): Salomon, Urioste 1991, Chapter 5:54-57).