Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

L9E. Copper nose. (.15.) . (.47.)

In an anthropomorphic character, the nose is like a copper or iron beak.

(Italians), Tibetans (Amdo), Hungarians, Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Kyrgyz, Teleuts, Tuvans, South Altai Tuvans, Khakas, Eastern Khanty, (Keddo).

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans (Amdo) [a mare gave birth to a boy, an old woman adopted him; with two friends he hides from the rain in a cave; they see three turtles fly in, become girls, pray, again flew away; the same day, August 15, the following year; two years later, the young men grabbed and destroyed the pigeon bodies, took the girls as wives; the wives withered; the young men watched the kite fly in, became a copper-billed witch, she drank the girls' blood, flew away, the mare's son managed to injure her with an arrow; the young men follow the bloody trail, the companions let the mare's son go into failure, cut off the rope, his garuda picked it up; a local shepherd says that a witch was wounded by an arrow; another shepherd herds many goats; this is the son of a witch; replies that in order to tie up goats, you must tell them to "Contact"; to transport them through the river, we must tell the river to retreat up and down, cross the dry; after bringing goats, he will lick the wound on his mother's back caused by the mare's son; the mare's son offers to remove his lice; the son of a witch: around his neck I'm a black mole, my mother's strength is in him, be careful; the second part of my mother's life is at home in a needle in a salt bag; a mare's son crushed a mole {and apparently killed a shepherd}, put on his clothes, took it with him yak tongue; told the waters to part, the goats to contact; the witch mistakes him for a son, asks him to lick the wound; he explains that his tongue is hard because he did not drink water today; breaks the needle, the witch dies; coming out the witch's house, the son of a mare killed a snake that was going to eat a garuda chick; the chick explains to the mother that the man saved him; the mare's son asks to be brought to the ground; the garuda asks to prepare 100 birds carcasses and 100 wineskins full of water; carries a mare's son across the sea; he forgives his companions, reigns, everything is fine]: Kajihama 2004, No. 28:117-123; (cf. garo [sisters Anok and Ronje went to collect water snails; a giant snail chased them; they climbed the vine into the tree, and the snail chased the elephant and both fell into the abyss; the sisters came to the ogre's house; he has a sharp bone nose with which he kills victims; A. fell asleep, and R. put a log on the bed, covered it with blankets, ran away; at night, the cannibal pierced A.'s nose, but broke it against a log when wanted to kill R.; chased her; the rodent hid R. in his hole, replied to the ogre that he had not seen anyone; grateful R. brought him 6 bags of rice and millet; since then, rats and squirrels love rice and millet]: Rongmuthu 1960:95-96).

The Balkans. Hungarians: Ortutai 1974, No. 8 [the king's apple tree blooms in the morning, apples by night, but someone steals them; the king will recover if he eats an apple; promises his daughter to marry; Janos undertakes to guard; climbs by apple tree to heaven; there Queen Etelka picked apples; I married her; she tells me not to open the 12th room; I opened it, there is a seven-headed dragon chained there; promises three kingdoms if I give him water; freed himself and carried away E.; I. The follower takes three horses, finds E. and takes him away; for the first time, the dragon's horse says that he will have time to eat, drink, chop a bag of nuts - we will still catch up; every time the dragon takes away one kingdom from Y.; the fourth time he tears it to pieces, puts them in a bag, ties them to a horse, lets them go; the horse sees a snake dragging a blade of grass to revive the snake that the cart has run over; asks half a blade of grass, I revives; he asks E. to find out where the dragon got his horse; the dragon first hits E., but the third time replies that the old woman Iron Nose asks to herd her own three days a year horses; whoever can do it will give him a horse; along the way I make fish, duck, fox healthy, they promise to help; the old woman makes horses fish (fish brought), white crows (birds brought), eggs (the fox grabbed rooster, the old woman chased her, I broke the eggs; the best horse warns that he will be a lousy foal, you must choose it; teaches you how to avoid death when the old woman gets up to cut the bed at night I. teaches ask for a foal as a reward, a dirty saddle, a bridle, an old sword; the dragon can't catch up, his horse is the horse's uncle Y., threw off the dragon; wedding; I brought apples and a similar guy I married to the king on the queen of earth], 16 [eagle - Grandma Iron Nose's husband took the king to the top of the mountain; returned him for promising to give what he did not know at home; this is his son Rosan; the eagle took him to his grandmother; she demands 1) tame horse; her daughter Violet: this is her father, we must sharpen the spurs; 2) cover the sea, grow grapes and wheat in this place (everything is fulfilled by order of F.); F. and R. run, leaving a spit to answer; chipped in as a mill and a miller, the eagle did not recognize; with a lake and a duck, the mother recognized and cursed: if you are separated, R. will forget F.; three bosses go to marry the bride for R., F. does not mind if everyone visits her; one opens and closes the door all night; the second moved the view in the chimney; the third opened and closed the window; the king and R. go by themselves; the old woman shouts: did R. forget F.? R. remembered everything, the wedding]: 164-189, 301-306.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Crimean tatas [(fairy tale episode); Copland caught Albanians in the mountains, made an ax out of her nose and asked his wife to hide it]: Zherdeva 2020, No. 49; Kalmyks: Vatagin 1964:39-60 ( Orenburg merchants) [Zalta-Mergen-Baatr is vulnerable only in sleep, sleeps three days a month; a copper-billed witch on goat's feet and Ak-Sakal have been guarding his sleep for 377 years; Alachi Khan persuaded them skip it to Z.; horse Z. Zol-Tsookhor saved him by taking him to bed; Z. took the form of a 15-year-old boy, instead comes to Khan's daughter to lick her heels before going to bed, uses a severed dog tongue; while sleeping, accidentally time takes on its true form, the princess decides to marry Z.; the father settles them on the edge of the ulus; tells her sons-in-law to find out who is kidnapping foals; sons-in-law see how the born is carried away by a haruda bird, Z. (all in the guise of a shepherdess) cuts off the foal's tail with an arrow; the khan sends his sons-in-law to find the kidnapper; in the guise of a hero, Z. promises his older sons-in-law to get the foal from across the sea, for which he cuts off from his right hand thumb and forefinger, cuts off the belt from the back; Z.'s winged horse flies across the outer ocean; a white serpent eats Garuda's chicks, which she hatches every three years; Z. kills him, Garuda spits Z. in her mouth, making her mouth three times stronger; she kidnapped foals so that a hero would come to pick them up one day; carries Z. with his horse and foal back across the sea, the herd follows; sons-in-law throw Z. into a hole; the horse Zol-Tsookhor tells the dogs Khasyr and Basyr to drive animals into the pit, the owner's two talking parrots to drive fresh air into the pit; resorts to Nomin Khan, allows herself to be locked; the khan's daughter finds out about the horse, asks for permission It seems that the horse is taking her away; she has a braid of 99 fathoms, only it can be used to get out of the pit; Z. takes the girl as his second wife; for the holiday on the occasion of the return of her sons-in-law with a herd, Z. is in true form; at the feast, he tells what happened, shows the cut off tail of the foal, fingers and skin of his sons-in-law; tells them to shoot up, the arrows of his sons-in-law kill them; Z. returns home with his wives, it's empty; comes to Alachi- Khan, takes his stolen wife and property; persuades his wife (now A.'s wife) to cry, asks the father to tell him where his soul is; a deer goes to the spring, with three sparrows in it; Z. rips open a deer (he is grateful for relieving him of the burden), kills sparrows; unites uluses; finds his son who has fled from A. in the steppe, who becomes a hero], 160-167 [shulmuses kill a girl, one shulma takes her form; Khan Umke shot a duck, sent servants for her; they do not return; senior adviser: there is a girl in a kibitka who can't take his eyes off; khan married her; she pretends to be sick, asks feed her hearts and kidneys to the children from her first wife, son Ayu-Chikte and daughter Avha Tsetsen; the khan sends a servant to kill children; the late mother in the form of a cloud threatens that the murderer will die in agony; the servant brings the hearts and kidneys of dogs; Shulma says she has recovered; the children come back, everything repeats itself; this time the children come to their maternal grandfather; they grow up there, the young man gets married; AH goes to visit their native places; sister tells her grandfather to take her sword and bow; a black bird attacks, Achn cuts off her paw; a copper-billed witch with a severed foot clings, he wounds her in the neck with a sword; at home sees hooks with human hearts and kidneys; only his father is alive; the witch feeds him human, then sucks blood; AH killed her, threw her into the cauldron, she flew out as a bird, he pierced her with an arrow, scattered the ashes; transports his wife to her native places , sister and people].

Turkestan. Kyrgyz [younger brother Omurzak is going hunting, elder Zhanuzak decides to go instead of him; he knows that O. met not an argali yesterday, but a copper-bearing Gestyrmak; he sleeps in a cave, a young woman comes up, hides her nose and fingers, Zhanuzak throws a smut at her, she runs away; he hides in a tree, leaves a log by the fire, covered with a chapan; the copper-nosed comes up, takes the log for a sleeping man, stabs his claws and nose, the hunter shoots, kills her]: Ledenyov 1987:218-219.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Teleuts [episodes of a long epic tale: Algyr-Mergen, captured by enemies, walks around his palace three times and mutters a spell; preventing AM from completing his palace tour for the third time, Tielbegen takes him away; they look from the top of Belaya: there is no palace, the field remains open; fearing the consequences of this witchcraft, the enemies bring shaman Alashkam with six tambourines and tell him to find out where the palace has gone; he is not copes with the task; her name is Thieric Shulyudya with a seventy-cut copper nose; she sticks her nose into the ground seven times, trying to sniff out something, but she also fails; A. and TS punish; enemies decide to return to their land; on the way to the entrance to the lower world, Arger-Aru gives birth to a hero boy; AA squeezes milk from both breasts to form a milk lake; here, in the deserted on the ground, by the lake, a baby remains]: Funk 2020:156; Tuvans [a hungry hunter returns to his hut; his wife meets him there; feeds him, but he does not eat enough; one day he came up unnoticed; in a hut shulbusikha: an old woman with copper claws, a copper nose, one eye, two teeth, her belly is like a bag, cuts off meat from her rib, expresses milk from her breast, fed it; interferes with a copper nose fire; the hunter shot, the shulbusikha turned into yellow felt, he burned it; his wife is alive and well at home]: Alekseev et al. 2010, No. 65:165-167; South Altai Tuvans: Samdan 1994, No. 2 [son of a woman and Iygylak-Kara takes the bear as sister cities of the Uzun-Saryg Larch Uproot and the Ulug-Kara Rock Urover; each one takes turns cooking; the Adygyr-Kara shulba comes with copper claws and a nose , heats them, fights with the cook; younger brothers do not talk about what happened, YK wins, injures the shulbus, he goes to the cave, to the lower world; the brothers lower the YK on the arcana; below the woman speaks that her daughter should give the shulbus to be eaten; YK finishes off the wounded shulbus, marries the youngest of the sisters, takes the other two for the brothers, lifts them upstairs; the brothers cut off the lasso; the girls' mother advises help the Khan-Hereti bird, which lives on the middle of three iron poplars; every year a fifteen-headed serpent crawls out of the lake, devours chicks; YK cuts off all 15 heads with an arrow; one chick cries, the other laughs, the third sings (thinks he will be the last to be eaten); the wind and rain are the breath of wings and the tears of the mother of the chicks; she carries YK on her back to the upper world, he throws her shot ducks; over, threw his hat; the lasso cut his mustache, he also took his younger sister as his second wife; YK killed him against larch; with the UK and both wives, they came to his mother YK]: 227-248; Taube 1994, No. 35 [the hunter sees a beauty, remains in her yurt, forgetting his wife and children; the wife asks him to give a sign when she drives up to the yurt; he comes up unnoticed, sees a shulmusikha with a copper nose and an eye in her forehead; she cut off the meat from her caviar and cooked; the hunter does not show; asks the llama for advice, he tells him to tear out his wife's hair; this fails; then he advises asking his wife to bring green lamb skin; the wife was lying in ash, became a wolf, broke into the herd, brought lamb, its skin is green; the llama advises to ask for a golden tirchik hat from a thousand Burgans; the wife promises to return in three months with red fire, we need to light a bunch dog droppings; llama orders to put together a bunch of juniper droppings, not dog droppings; the wife rushes into this fire, dies; the hunter returned to his wife and children]: 245-248; Hadahane 1984:72-78 [the bear took it a woman, closed the exit from the cave with a stone; she gave birth to the Son of the Bear (SM), he grew up, pushed back the stone, went to wander; meets, wins, takes the Mountain Raising, the Forest Uproot; they live at the koshars, they eat sheep, take turns cooking, the rest hunt; Albys (a witch with red claws and a copper nose) takes meat; both companions say they are sick and did not have time to cook; SM stabs the witch, she disappears into the crevice; SM asks him to lower; below two princesses bandage Albys's leg; SM killed Albys, sent the princesses upstairs; The mountain-raiser cut off the lasso; SM sees poplar, it has three chicks, one cries (his mangys will eat it today), the other sings (tomorrow), the third sleeps (the day after tomorrow); a six-headed serpent crawls out of the lake, SM kills him; a bird takes him to the ground; he kills Raising mountains, the second princess takes for himself]; Khakas [The daughters of seven "irliks" were called "huu hut" - a letter. dried old woman (i.e. skin and bones). In Khakass, the word "huu" has several meanings, including "white swan". But in this case, the term "dried, faded, dry" is used. For example, "huu pass" - skull (letter: dried head), "huu chazy" - dry steppe, "huu söök" - skeleton (letter. bare bones), etc. form: demonic (Aina Chillig) - with tin eyes, with awl-sharp copper noses and flat bridge of the nose, like a grinded bar. They had bald heads, with ears the size of a winnower. In addition, they had lush breasts dragging along the ground and a clumsy face that looked like poplar bark (Head of the Hakniiyali Foundation. D 58. L. 122). Because of their copper faces, "huu huts" have additional names: "Chis Hanzar hu-hut" - Copper Bone Dried Old Woman, "Number Sibeldey Huu Hut" - Copper Skinny Dried Old Woman , "Chis Hyyazin Huu Hut" - Copper Spiteful Dried Old Woman (Head of the Hakniiyali Foundation. D. 146. L. 79), The images of witches with copper noses "zhez tumshuk" are characteristic of the mythology of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan, which indicates their ethno-cultural ties with the Turks of Sayano-Altai. The head of all the "huu katas" was the eldest daughter of seven Irliks, "Chik Cheekei Huu Hut" ("Eating Demon"). She lives on the seventh underground "tama", at the confluence of the seven seas, in a heptagonal copper yurt with seven Irliks. She has a disgusting appearance that she can change (khubulgat töreen). Her nose is bronze and her teeth are copper. Cheek-cheekei is so full that she can't be covered by seven armfuls. She wears steel shoes and a shabby leather coat. Chik-cheekei sweeps seven braids of colorful snakes and adorns himself with diamond earrings (Hakniiyali Foundation. D. 91. P. 75). She is the mother of seven daughters, who are called "saryq khys" (letter: yellow maidens). The eldest of them is named Chilben-Saryg. The hair of the "yellow maidens" looks like yellow hemp. Virgins ride salt horses. At night they are mischievous and steal people's souls]: Butanayev 2003:104.

Western Siberia. Eastern Khanty: Kulemzin, Lukina 1978, No. 98 (b. Agan) [the woman does not tell her nephew to shoot killer whales; he shoots, misses, tries to pick up an arrow, sticks to the ground; Iron-nose-stove-nose-woman takes him home in a basket, He nails him to the wall, goes behind the cauldron; the young man tells the son and daughter of the cannibal to let him go, promises to make spoons, kills, cooks, climbs a tree himself; the cannibal cuts the tree, lies down to rest, the young man asks her open your mouth, promises to jump into it, sprinkles sand into your eyes, runs away]: 89; Chepregi 2015, No. 8 (b. Trom-Agan) [an aunt and a tribesman lived; my aunt does not tell me to go to the sacred side of the house, the young man's father's relatives disappeared there; but he went, reached a huge house along the giant's path; a witch with an iron nose snores in the house ; she jumped out of the house, sang "I have a two-pointed aspen hammer to kill a man"; the guy replied, "Let me be a dry leaf blown up by a light wind"; the wind carried him out through the roof window, he again became a man; then flies away in the form of a goose goose; flew to the city of cannibal spirits behind an iron palisade; they rushed at him, he broke their arms and legs; trampled on the ruler for a long time; he asks him not to kill, promises to revive what he has eaten; failing, he says: "Until the time comes for cedar cone doll peoples, male spruce cone dolls, I will not live like a prince with seven souls"; now my ancestors The young men are geese, he flew with them in the form of a goose; returned to the witch, turned her into a bloody mess; failing, she promises to become a spirit of 177 diseases; when her aunt nephew returns home, the ancestors of his aunts and uncles have already become healthy people there]: 84-90.

(Wed. Southeast USA. Caddo: Dorsey 1905, No. 32 [ten out of nine brothers disappear one by one; the youngest comes to the old ogre; he asks to pick up a log; the young man cannot, lies down on a log, the old man is ready pierce him with the iron nose of his mask; The sun raises the young man into the air, the mask's nose gets stuck in a log; the young man finishes off the ogre; the Sun advises to burn the ogre and his wife in their house, put an arrow up over a bunch of bones killed; the arrow falls, the brothers who live jump up; return home], 33 [six brothers disappear one by one; the sharp-nosed chief made them his slaves; the Coyote turns into a wooden mortar, goes with the flow; women catch a mortar, crush corn, flour goes missing; the chief realizes it's a Coyote, puts the mortar on a log to pierce his nose; the Coyote rolls down from a log, the nose gets stuck; the Coyote tells the slaves to finish off the leader; the brothers return home]: 58-59, 60-61).