Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

M116. An unkilled father helps with advice, ATU 981.

.11.-.17.26.-.34.37.38. (.44.)

People should kill their fathers (or mothers; nyoro: deprive them of power and property; Baluchis: don't take them with them on trips). One young man hides his father and his wise advice helps to avoid trouble.

Lamba, Nyoro, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Dan, Susu, Songhai, Kalengin (Keio), Berbers of Algeria, Arabs of Libya, Egypt, Catalans, Spaniards, Sicilians, Sardinians, Italians (Lazio, Campaign), Maltese, Irish, British, French, Germans (Switzerland), Dutch, Friesians, Syria, Lebanon, Chinese, Koreans, Romanians, Albanians, Croats, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Gagauz, Greeks, Poles, Slovaks, Russians (Arkhangelsk, Olonets, Voronezh), Ukrainians, Belarusians, Adygs (Shapsugs), Kabardian, Abazins, Nogais, Dargins, Avars, Kumyks, Rutulans, Georgians, Kurds (Iraq), Bukhara Arabs, Tajiks, mountain Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Baluchis, Shina, Finns, Swedes, Estonians, Setu, Lutsi, Lithuanians, Latvians, Kazan Tatars, Nogais Karagash, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Yellow Uighurs, Siberian Tatars, Baikal and Trans-Baikal Buryats, Khalkha Mongols, Dagurs, Udege, Japanese (including North Ryukyu), Ancient Japan, (Eastern Ojibwa).

Bantu-speaking Africa. Lamba [the leader orders to kill all fathers; one young man hides his own in a cave; the cannibal has swallowed many people, disappeared into the abyss; no one knows how to lure him out; the escaped old man orders to put him down hay to the dog, porridge to the goat; the cannibal goes out to explain that the opposite is necessary; he is killed; Black Ant does not know what to do, the Lizard draws a line on the cannibal's stomach with coal, makes a razor cut, swallowed go outside; the chief hands over power to the old man]: Doke 1927, No. 78:151-153; (paraphrase in Werner 1933:299); nyoro [the young chief Isaza inherits power, removes all old people from power; brags with his zebra skin outfit; the skin begins to shrink, I. loses consciousness, the young men do not know what to do; the old people put I. in the water, the skin gets wet; I. orders that the property in the families be held old people]: Belcher 2005:170-173.

West Africa. Ghana, Burkina Faso (Gur probably also Akan): A. Marshak, Personal Communication, 2006; Uther 2004 (1), No. 981:612; Nigeria (Ibo, Yoruba, Ijo?) : Uther 2004 (1), No. 981:612; dan [old people used to be killed and eaten; one young man hid his mother; God Abi came to the village, ordered to weave mats, otherwise he would turn everyone into slaves; how to weave no one I knew; the hidden mother advised me to ask A. for an old mat so as not to weave it on the dirty ground; new ones were woven according to her model; they stopped killing old people]: Himmelheber, Himmelheber 1958:239; susu [The lion orders to kill the elderly: only by getting rid of this burden will the animals be able to defeat the birds; Hyena supports, the Jackal is against, but does not dare to object, the Hare hid his father; let him sew a robe from pieces of fresh skins; Hyena was appointed military leader, the Hare put on her robe; the cloak has dried up, squeezed Hyena's body, no one can help her; the Hare takes an oath from Leo that he will not touch his father, leads that; the Hare's father tells Hyena to get into the water, the skin will get wet, the Hyena will be able to remove it; the four-legged flee from the birds; the Jackal pretended to be dead, caught the bird, which explained that the birds only make noise; animals and birds began to live separately; the hare was chosen as leader]: Nikolnikov 1976:80-83; Songhai [a cruel ruler tells sons to kill elderly fathers; one young man hid his father; the ruler gathers young, He orders to build a house from earth to heaven; the father advises the son to ask the ruler to indicate the place between earth and sky where his residence will be located; when he hears the question, the tyrant realizes that the young man's father is alive, he is ashamed, he refuses the idea]: Hama 1967:261.

Sudan-East Africa. Kalengin (keio) [the animals decided to get rid of the old people because they oppress them; the warthog gathered the young, decided to poison the old people; the hare hid his parents, said he also killed; without The older animals became poor, repented of what they had done; when the hare brought their father, everyone was happy; he showed where to look for water and pastures]: Chesaina 1997:43-44.

North Africa. The Berbers of Algeria, the Arabs of Libya, Egypt: El-Shamy 2004, No. 981:684.

Southern Europe. Spaniards [De la Reyna Sebilla]: Vries 1928:221; Sicilians [over 50 were killed; four brothers hid their father in a cave; during the famine, he advised his sons to sweep the lock and sow all the garbage collected; the brothers have grown wheat, and the other fields are unsown; the king demands to be told what is going on; the younger brother asks for a day's delay, runs to his father, who tells him to tell the truth, but Take an oath that the king does not execute an adviser; the king asks intricate questions, is amazed by the old man's wisdom, and tells old people not to kill again]: Kabakova 2006, No. 41:83-86; Sardinians [over 60 they killed for years; sons had to throw their fathers into a river or an abyss; one son carried his father, stopped to rest; the father said that he also rested in this place, carrying his father; the son decided to bring his father home; When starving, my father advised us to plant grain in piles collected by ants; after that, they decided not to kill the old people]: Kabakova 2006, No. 42:86-88; Italians (Lazio, Campania): Cerise, Serafini 1975, No. 981:247; Italians [various literary sources]: Vries 1928:221; the Maltese [walled up old people; a loving son hid his father; the king demands that only his fields be cultivated ; father: during the day; and at night, plow his field; for violating the ban, the king offers the young man difficult tasks: 1) come naked or dressed (father: wrap yourself in a net); 2) neither barefoot nor shod (wearing shoes without soles); 3 ) neither on horseback nor on foot (on a donkey, dragging his legs along the ground); after learning that the young man has wisdom from his father, the king repeals the law requiring the killing of old people]: Mifsud-Chircop 1978, No. 981:411-413.

Western Europe. Irish, German (Switzerland), Friesians: Uther 2004 (1), No. 981:612; French (Niverne) [only fragmented version]: Tenèze, Bru 2000, No. 981:200; English [early English versions of Gesta Romanorum]: Vries 1928:221-222; Dutch [early 17th century source]: Vries 1928:221.

Western Asia. Syria, Lebanon: El-Shamy 2004, No. 981:684.

China - Korea. The Chinese [used to bury people alive in the ground after reaching the age of 60; a young man built a crypt for his father and fed him; the enemy sent a bird and demanded that they tell them what to feed it, otherwise he threatened attack; the young man found out the answer from his father, the custom of burying old people was canceled]: Eberhard, Boratav 1953:232 (link to Eberhard 1937:116; there are no details; it seems that Eberhard and Boratav used more some source); Koreans: Choi 1979, No. 662 [Cho 2001 and other sources]: 292; Garin-Mikhailovsky 1904 [after reaching the age of 60, old people were killed; the son hid his father in the dungeon; at the Bogdykhan's palace Gagant rats attacked; hidden father: Naidide an eight-pound cat; found a cat of seven and a half pounds; father: feed to eight; after killing this cat, the animals began to shrink and turned into mice what ordinary cats catch today; when he found out who gave advice, the emperor allowed the elderly to live as long as they wanted]: 84; Park 1991 [old people were killed when they reached the age of 50; the son hid his father in the basement; giant mice attacked; the father was advised to fatten the cat to 6 pounds; after that, the mice decreased in size; the emperor allowed not to kill old people]: 33-34.

The Balkans. Bulgarians: Karaliychev, Todorov 1969 (4) [the tsar ordered the extermination of the elderly; one boyar hid his father; no one can go around the royal horse; the healer advises to tie him with a rope of sand; the king tells the boyars to bring a rope; the boyar's father tells his son to answer that it is possible to weave the rope, but a sample (of what thickness and color) is needed; the tsar agrees not to execute the boyars; next time in hunger and drought orders to extract grain; the father advises to dig anthills, ants collected grain by grain; the boyar confesses who his adviser is, the tsar orders to honor the elderly]: 102-106; Klyagin-Kondratyeva 1951 [the tsar orders to be executed old men, one boyar hid his father; the healer tells the king that the black horse will be able to travel around only by covering it with an arcana of sand; the boyar's father advises asking the king for a sample; in drought, when grain over, advises to dig anthills, take grain hidden by ants; the boyar admitted that his father gave advice, the king ordered the elderly to respect]: 141-143; Macedonians [there was a custom in one country leave the old people in the mountains to starve; the son wanted to keep his father in one place, but he asked to take him further - this is where he once left his father; the son decided to bring his father home; the king wanted to abolish this custom; he ordered everyone who still has a father, and everyone who no longer has a father, to make a chain of sand; the young man's father told him to answer: I will make a chain if the king gave a sample; the king told me who told the young man to answer this way; forbid killing old people]: Martin 1955:111-120; Gagauz people [used to kill old people, but one person spared his father; hunger has come; father advises to plow the pen for cattle; bread grew up there, son became rich, old people stopped killing]: Moshkov 1904, No. 104:176; Romanians [a young king of one country accepts the offer of young men to kill old people; one son hides his father; in spring, after the summer drought and winter frosts, there is no seed left; the father advises to plow the roads, not to answer questions; the cereals have sprouted themselves, brought the harvest; the king asks for an explanation of the miracle, promises save life; the young man says he consulted his father; he explains that grains awakened from carts rose on the roads; the king tells the elderly to die]: Gaster 1921:213-215; Croats [old people they lived for a long time, so they were killed; the young man hid his father under a tub; the elders decided to choose the first to see the sun as a judge; the father advised to look towards the mountains; on the crest of the mountains, not in the east, a young man the first to see the sun; then the father helps to solve problems; come neither barefoot nor shod (put on the bootlegs), nor on foot or on horseback (sit on a goat); when rye died, my father advised me to bury the sheaf with roofs; they decided not to kill the elderly]: Golenishchev-Kutuzov 1991:198-200; Croats [used to kill old people when they reached the age of 60; the son took them to the forest and hit the head with a mallet; carrying a father, one son asked where to do this; he indicated the place: your son would kill you here later; the son felt sorry for his father and hid it; the king sent young men to the land of darkness for gold; from where no one returned; when it was the turn of a young man who felt sorry for his father, who advised him to ride a mare and leave the foal at home; collect gold, and then take the mare home by himself; the young man brought gold to the king; he now demands get a jug of gold out of the water, the brilliance of which is visible; father: a jug on a tree, only a reflection of it in the water; third requirement: bring a grain of millet the size of a nut; father: get a ball of millet seeds, collected by mice in his hole; asking the young man who had taught him the tricks, the king came to the old man and ordered him to answer three questions; if he answered, he would give him life; what is more pleasant, what is more nutritious and what the fastest? Old man: dream, land, thought; the king told old people not to kill anymore]: Eschker 1992, No. 41:192-184; Greeks: Uther 2004 (1), No. 981:612.

Central Europe. The Poles [in the besieged city, the young king orders to kill all the old people; or at a time when they did not know death, the old people were strangled; one son hid his father in the cellar; the old man gives his son wise advice; during the famine, he orders to sow the field with ash from burnt straw, a good harvest has been harvested; at the instigation of envious people, the son must bring his best friend and worst enemy to the king;... the king forgives the one who hid his father, cancels the order to kill old people; or the Lord creates death so that people die of old age]: Krzyżanowski 1962, No. 981:299; Slovaks: Uther 2004 (1), No. 981:612; Russians (Arkhangelsk, Olonetskaya, Voronezh), Ukrainians, Belarusians [Why did they stop killing old people: contrary to the order to kill old people, one son hides his old father in the cellar; during hunger, the old man helps his son with advice (solves difficult problems for him); since then, old people have not been killed]: SUS 1979, No. 981:250-251; Ukrainians: Vasiliev 1891 (Belgorod. Kursk Gubernia, Western 1891) [old people were killed; sons felt sorry for their father, hid them in the cellar; there was a poor harvest, there was no seed; the father tells us to carry straw into the field; new bread has grown from the seeds preserved in it; since then, the old people they no longer kill]: 190; Box 1895 (Nikolskoye Starobelsky settlement near. (Kharkiv governorate) [A soldier locks death in a snuffbox, people stop dying, and to get rid of the overflow, they start killing old people and old women. Three brothers feel sorry for their father, hide him in the cellar and slowly feed him. Hunger sets in, and there is no bread left. The brothers tell their father about this. He recalls that when he was young he covered the shed with unthreshed straw, advises his sons to threshed and sow it. That's what they do. It turns out to be a wonderful harvest and bread starts on the ground again. Then they stop killing old people, and the soldier, ashamed of driving people to such a sin, releases death, and everything goes as usual]: 44; Russians (Voronezh) [the master has three fiefdoms, in two he ate old people, in the third, the son hid his father in a dugout; complains that the master demands to come neither by cart, nor by horse, nor sitting, nor on horseback, nor in a shirt, nor naked; the father advises to ride a goat face to ass, Control your tail, put on nonsense instead of a shirt; the master demands to bring a gift so that it is not; the father advises you to bring the bird and release it; the master demands to get a golden jug from the bottom; the father teaches that the jug is not at the bottom, but in the wind; Fetisk's son admits that his father taught him, the master decides not to kill the old man ate old people _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________ ]: Korolkova 1969:283-290; Belarusians [old people are killed; children hide their father in the cellar; in a hungry year, he proposes to threshing straw from the roof, it contains a lot of grain; after that, old people stop killing]: Serzhputovsky 1911:18-19 in Kislyakov 1970:75.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Adygi: Lipkin 1951 [=Andreev-Krivich 1957:165-170; sledges carried decrepit old people to the top of Mount of Old Age and lowered down the cliff in a basket; Badynoko carried his father Badyn to the mountain; rolling down, the basket caught on the stump; Badyn laughs: when your son dumps you, and your basket may catch on the same stump; Badynoko leaves his father alive, hides you in a cave; during a crop failure wants to grab 3 apples floating in the river, but they disappear; my father advises not to look for apples in the river, but to raise your head, they hang on the branches; when cattle die, you should drive the sheep to the Amysh pasture - animal patron; when all the millet has died, it is necessary to plow the roads along which Thagoledge himself drove millet; sledges ask Badynoko to tell us how he found out what to do; he talks about his father, sledges the custom of killing old people is abolished]: 213-217; Ploskov 1967 (shapsugi) [old people were taken to a rock, thrown into the river; during an attack by enemies, 90-year-old Tahir's son carried him to a rock, stumbled, fell; T. laughed, saying that when he was carrying his father, he also fell at this place, and did not throw off his father, but hid it, and in the same year the village was saved from the conquerors; the son did not throw T., he took people out by underground passage to the clearing where they defeated their enemies]: 77-78 in Kislyakov 1970:73, in Pachulia 1986:98-100; Kabardian people: Sokolov, Broydo 1936:106-108 [old people were killed; Kaza's three sons hid him in a coffin; dragon wants to capture the source of the river; K. tests his sons; only the youngest Khatokshuko cut the crossbar in the house with a sword; father: "You can kill a dragon. Go quietly dig a hole, and the dragon won't hear: he's deaf. Hide in the hole. When the dragon crawls past that hole, go up quickly and hit the dragon in the neck. Just don't get excited, be calm. If you hit it properly, my old sword will remove the dragon's head. My sword is maize {high quality steel}"; the next day H. did as his father ordered; the dragon was killed; H. came to the village and said that he followed his father's instructions; since then, old people have not been killed] 108-110 [old people used to be killed; the young man hid his father in a cave; sees apples in the pond, but cannot reach it; father: they hang on branches; in hunger, he tells him to plow a field where they once did not harvest; young man harvested; no sheep; father orders sheep to be brought to the cave (where the sheep disappeared), they brought lambs; since then fathers have not been killed]; Abaza [(western 1957); old people were buried alive; man carried father in the cemetery, sat down to rest; the father smiled, explained that he had once sat on the same stone, carrying his father to be buried; the man decided to take his father back, hid it in a hole; when hungry, the prince ordered him until morning think about how to escape; the old man advised his son to plow the roads; the prince called a man to him, found out that the saved father had given advice; ordered the elderly not to be buried alive anymore]: Tugov 1985, No. 123:338-339; Nogais: Nogai 1979, No. 44 [khan ordered to cut off the heads of the old people; one young man hid his father; he tells his son not to throw saddles and bridles if the horse has to be slaughtered for meat: another horse will meet and will come to someone who has a saddle and a bridle; next time you can see something shiny in the water; the young man jumps to his father for advice; the old man says it is a reflection of a shiny stone lying in a crow's nest; the young man brings the Khan's find, explains that it was not he who guessed, but his father; the khan recognizes the wisdom of the elderly, cancels the decision to kill them]: 173-175; Falev 1917 [Khan orders everyone to kill their father when turns 60; Kenji led his father to death; stopped to rest on the way, putting his father on a rock; he said he was resting on the same stone when he led his father; advised him not to kill - it will come in handy; K. hid his father in the arba; the monster Ak-Köbök-Kara-Köbök attacked; the father advises to dig a ditch and hide; in the morning the head will appear, and by noon his torso; you must hit the body , and after killing the monster, take the stones in it; K. did so; the cattle are thirsty; the father asks if the cattle gathered in one place, if they are roaring - a well must be dug there; water was found; once At the bottom of the well they saw a piece of gold and a piece of silver, no one could reach it; the father asked if there was a tree nearby; told him to cut down when everyone left, K. found silver and gold in the branches; everyone told the khan that it was they who killed the monster, but K. brought stones; also pieces of gold and silver; the khan handed him power, they stopped killing the old people]: 194-196; Dargins [threw old people into the abyss; three brothers old father; the youngest answers him that he made a basket in which he will throw his father; father: make it stronger, you will also need it when you are old; then the young man hid his father in the chest; during the drought, the father advises to sow millet; people sowed millet, it was ugly; the young man admitted who gave good advice, after that old people were no longer killed]: Aliyeva 2013, No. 5:50; Dargin residents [khan orders to throw off bridge everyone after reaching the age of 60; the son leads his father, he cries: your own son will also bring you here; the old man hid his father in the basement of the house; 15 years later, a neighboring khan sent two bars of wood and two foals: which is closer to the butt, which foals are older; hidden father: in the water, a bar closer to the butt sinks deeper; the eldest foal will be the first to approach the watering hole; the khan canceled his order]: Khalilov, Osmanov 1989:220-222; Avars, Kumyks, Rutulans [stories about how they stopped killing old people are known]: Aliyeva 2013:518; Georgians (Guria) [Alexander the Great wanted build a staircase to heaven, but he could not; then he decided to dig the ground and seize underground countries; so that the old people would not mind, he ordered them to be cut off, and let the young come to work and give oath: "My father is no longer on earth"; his father told one young man to dig a hole and hide it in it; take and keep a donkey with food by his side, and tie a donkey above; when the earth begins fail, the donkey will rush to the donkey, you have to grab the tail, it will take it out; and so it happened; the king grabbed the young man, also escaped, the rest died; the king found out that the young man's father was alive, called on him to to reward; he gave a dried human heart: give enough money to cover the heart with it; but the whole treasury was not enough: the heart is insatiable]: Virsaladze 1973, No. 183:248-250; Azerbaijanis [ Khan's advisers: in order to seize the village, you must first eliminate the old people living in it; the khan ordered the elderly to come to him, put him in prison; then sends a messenger to the village demanding to determine which apples of the present, which of the past, and which of the harvest before last; come to him with his favorite animal and so that he can look at him from the bottom up; otherwise in three days he will capture the village; a century-old They forgot to take the old man to Khan, he taught the boy Ahmed; but he does not know what animal the khan loves; in order to enter the Khan's city, A. put on a ram's skin and walked by on all fours with his sheep guards; seeing a goat with gilded horns, A. learned from the shepherd that the khan loved goats most of all; came to the khan, sitting on a tall camel, and with a goat; threw apples into the water: the latter was heavy and drowned, the lung surfaced the year before last, last year remained in the middle; Khan released the old people and left the village alone]: Nabiev 1988:148-151; Kurds (Iraq) [the padishah was afraid of old age, so he published a decree to kill anyone over 60; young men flock to the palace with offerings to ask for their relatives; the padishah promised to pardon the father of whoever falls into the lake golden jug; 99 young men tried unsuccessfully to carry out the task, they were beheaded; one hid his father in a cave, talked about the task; the father explained that the jug was placed on a tree on the shore, and in the water - reflection; the young man took out a jug, explained who taught him wisdom; the padishah canceled the decree to kill the elderly]: Yusupova 2004, No. 13:178-179.

Iran - Central Asia. Bukhara Arabs [under Iskander people did not die, but the old people were taken to the mountain; one man hid his father in a chest, carried it with him; I. orders to get a pearl out of the river; thousands of people could not drowned; the rescued father teaches that the pearl is on the tree and its reflection in the river; the man pulls out a pearl; I. orders to take care of the elderly]: Vinnikov 1969, No. 43:367-368; Tajiks: Kiselev 1970:73 ( Samarkand) [=Andreev 1953:211, =1963:211); old people were killed; a gem began to shine through the city pond; the tsar ordered the young men to get it, they could not, they were executed; it was the young man's turn, he came to say goodbye to his father, who advised him to look up; the young man saw a stone in the stork's nest; confessed to the king that his father had taught him to look up; the king canceled the murder of the elderly], 74 (Samarkand, Jews) [ Zarubin 1928:163-164); Alexander ordered not to take old men into the army; the son hid his father in a hay cart; light can be seen in the river, A. tells the soldiers to dive, they die one by one; the old man tells his son that light is comes from the top of the tree; the son pulls out a bird with a jewel in its beak from the nest, brings A.; admits that his father gave him advice; A. is happy]; (cf. Amonov 1980 [before the campaign, Iskander lets the warrior go for 8 days; he tells the carpenter to make a chest, puts his father there, brings him with him; the warriors begin to die; the old father says that one warrior has footcloths are wound to the left side, it must be hung; in the desert he tells you to kill the horse, hornets will arrive, one must be tied to a thread, he will fly to the water; I. tells you to reveal the secret, praises the wise]: 226-229); mountain Tajiks [Vanja has the Kofarsiloh cave (the "cave of the infidels"); sons took their elderly fathers to die there, leaving them food for several days; this custom has long ceased to exist ]: Kiselyov 1970:71 (b. Vanj) [the old people were taken to die in a cave; one man carried his father, sat down to rest; the father said that at one time he also carried his father, rested on the same stone; the son took the old man back home], 71-72 ( Howaling) [old people were left on the mountain tops; one man took his father, went back, heard his father laughing behind; the father explained that he thought how his grandson would bring his son here in a while; son brought his father home; war broke out, the father advised his son to take him with him; in the desert he ordered him to dig a well where mint grows; the army quenched his thirst; the son admitted to the ruler that to dig a well where mint grows, his father taught him; the ruler ordered not to kill more old people]; Rosenfeld, Rychkova 1990:194; the Rushantsy (Huf Valley) [in a dream a man came to the king and ordered him to move with the people and kill the old people; Var.: the king ordered the elderly to be killed so that the young people would listen only to him; the two brothers took their father to the mountains where they were going to leave him; sat on a stone to rest; the father said that when they were young and he and his brother carried their father here and rested on this stone; the brothers return, secretly carry their father in the chest; the father gives wise advice and leads the army out of their predicament; the king tries out, who persuaded the brothers; makes the brothers' father an adviser, repeals the law to kill old people]: Andreev 1953:210-211 (=196:210-211); Uzbeks: Afzalov et al. 1972 (2) [Shah orders that the dead be attributed to cemetery on the roofs of houses, the old man condemns him, he orders all gray-bearded people to be cut off; Zakir hid his father in a chest, took him on a hike; saw two diamonds in the river; people were diving stupidly; Zakir's father: the diamonds on the tree are their reflection; Z. took the diamonds out of the bird's nest and pretended to be from the bottom; the shah demands to know why ants crawl in one place; father teaches Z. to say that there is a pot of butter at the bottom , volunteer to get it, shoot the Shah; the Shah is killed, everyone is happy]: 222-225 (=Sheverdin 1984:69-73, =Rogov 1980:304-308); Rogov 1980 [the Shah orders to expel the elderly into the desert; the young man accompanies his father; father sat on a stone, wondered what the shah would say when his own son brought him to this stone; the young man returned and hid his father; during a drought, his father teaches him how to find water (birds hammer a stone, and under water); the young man asks for permission for the elderly to live in villages as a reward; the shah did not know what to say; people brought water; the shah began to drink from gold, silver, copper vessels, burst; the young man and his father made the new Shah advisers, for whom they always carried three vessels of water: copper, silver, gold]: 278-281; Turkmens [the padishah orders to take the old and old women to the desert; one nuker carried my father, he laughed: when I was carrying my father, I also rested on this hill; the son returned, hid his father in the chest; the son accompanies the padishah to the Zemzem spring; the father tells me to take a bull and a fish with him, watermelon seeds; the son also takes him, putting him in a chest; when the water runs out, the father tells the bull to be let in, he finds a place to dig; before moving on, the father tells him to pour it into the spilled water watermelon seeds; they pass by a person who has fallen from fatigue, a plane tree has grown nearby; they get to 40 springs, we must let the fish, the one in which it comes to life, is Zemzem; on the contrary the paths all ate ripe watermelons; when they walked through the fog, the father tells me to pick up stones, say that he took little and what he did not take little; when he returned, the young man tells the padishah everything; the stones picked up were gold, pearls and diamonds; the padishah forbids killing old people]: Stebleva 1969, No. 49:269-272; Baluchis [the tsar takes 40 servants with him and goes to the land of darkness for living water, forbiding them to take them with him old people; the father of a young man tells his son to hide him in a chest and take it with him; groups of horsemen sent to the land of darkness do not return; the king regrets that there is no one to ask for advice; young the man admits that his father is with him; he tells us to send warriors on mares to the land of darkness, and leave the foals at the border of this country; take bags with them and fill them with what they find; mares themselves they will come to the foals; after collecting bottles of water, some of the servants put stones in bags, while others laughed at them; when they came out of the darkness, they saw that the bags were not stones, but gold; the old man advises the king not to drink water immediately, first go up the mountain, sit there, pray; the king hears the rustling; old man: this is the king who drank living water 300 years ago; he is dry and the wind carries him, throwing him against the rocks; the king broke bottle on wood and it still grows]: Zarubin 1949, No. 10:79-85; tire [in the time of Alexander (Sultan Sekunder Zul Karnain), old people were killed, thrown in a basket down the mountain; one young man carried there his father; when he came, my father laughed: I also carried my father here, and your son will carry you; the son decides to save his father, he advises him to hide him in a cave behind the house; Alexander promises a reward to whoever will show the way to a source of living water; the father explains that the seven-day journey lies through the land of darkness; you must take mares with foals with you; mares see in the dark and, when thirsty, will come to the spring; they they will call their foals, we must follow them; you must take dried fish with you, put it in every spring in which it will come to life, including living water; A. demanded that the young man tell him who taught him; he took it from the king a promise to forgive anyone who knows any guilt; spoke about his father; A. abolished the custom of killing old people; obtained living water, it was carried in vessels; a pile of bones gives a voice; this is a fox: she drank immortal water, but this did not save her from old age, now she is unhappy, because she cannot die; the same crow; A. ordered to pour out the water; until recently, puppies that were not going to be raised were given to children, and they let them into baskets down the mountain]: Haughton 1913:199-204.

Baltoscandia. Finns, Estonians: Uther 2004 (1), No. 981:612; Seto [in Estonia this story is mostly setu]: Annom et al. 2018:77; Lithuanians [contrary to the king's order to kill old people, son hides a century-old father; during hunger, he gives useful advice; saves the king's life by telling him to become a robber - thanks to which the king learned about a plot against himself; the law to kill the elderly has been repealed]: Balys 1936, No. 995:109; the Swedes [the king orders that old people be killed; one man hid his father in an underground shelter; when the state was under threat, the old man's wise advice saved the day; old man awarded]: Liungman 1961, № 981*: 250; (cf. Swedes [during famine, the king orders the extermination of the elderly; the peasant's daughter advises to do something else: give everyone a hoe and a bag of grain, let them cultivate virgin lands; the king is impressed The girl's mind and marries her, she is now called "Kacka-Eva"; the king tells her to come to him naked or dressed, without eating or on an empty stomach, on horseback or on foot; she wrapped herself in a net, chewed the bow appeared, stepping with one foot on the ground and throwing the other on the goat's back]: Klintberg 2010, No. T 5:342-343); Lutsie [7 years there was no moon or sun, hunger began; the king distributed only to young people, He did not order to feed the old ones; the good son hid his father in a cave; after 7 years: what to feed; father: shake all the straw from the roofs, shaken to sow; the cereals grew like a wall; the guy confessed to the king, he ordered them to be brought an old man, he ate with the king until his death]: Annom et al. 2018:76-77; Latvians: Arais 1968 [the king tells us to take the old people to die in the forest; the peasant took his father, he advises not throw a sledge, his son will be lucky on them; the son hides his father in the cellar; during hunger, the father advises threshing straw from the roof of the ram, sowing grain; the king demands to say where the peasant got the grain; upon learning, cancels the order to kill the elderly]: 23-25 (similar version in Alksnith et al. 1958:496-497); Brivzemniax 1887, No. 130 (Livonia) [it was the custom of old people to kill or leave them in the forest; the son took his father to sledges, I also wanted to leave the sledge, but his own son resisted: we will take the sledge, which I will take you on; the son decided to return his father, hid it in the cellar; in case of a poor harvest, the father advises threshing straw from the roof, enough seed; next year everyone wonders where a person gets rye; the master found out, decided not to kill old people anymore]: 270-271.

Volga - Perm. Kazan Tatars [the tsar orders to kill the elderly; the son hid his 70-year-old father; says that the tsar and the viziers came to the river, see it as a gem, dive, not reach it; the old man: a stone in a tree nest; viziers persuade the young man to ask which of the two stallions is old and which is young; father: the old will give way to the young; which log is from the top, which is from the bottom of the tree; father: the log from the bottom of the tree will go at the bottom of the tree into the water; the young man has to admit that it was his father who taught him, the tsar canceled the order to kill the elderly]: Bashirov, Yarmukhametov 1956:90-94 (=Yarmukhametov 1957:76-78; = Zamaletdinov 2009, No. 1:23-25); Nogais - Karagash (Astrakhan Region, 1973) [Khan ordered to kill everyone who was 60 years old because they were interfering with the migration; one young man disobeyed and hid his father; when they were in the desert, the khan ordered to find water; the father told the young man that the bull needs to be straightened, he will find a suitable place and will dig the ground with horns; the young man followed the advice, dug a well; a few days later, they migrated to the seashore; the khan went to wash his face, I saw something gleaming at the bottom of the sea; gave the order to get it; the water was deep, many brave men died; when it came to the young man's turn, his father said to him: "Son, take it with you when you go gun, there must be a nest at the top of a lonely tree, there will be one bird. You shot this bird. After that, you will understand how it was, and then you will see"; the young man shot at the bird, its nest fell; a diamond item fell out of it; the young man took it to Khan, who was happy, and began to ask questions , from whom the young man learned from his experience; the young man admitted that he followed his father's advice; the khan canceled the order to kill the elderly]: Arslanov 1992, No. 15:98-101; Bashkirs: Barag 1990, No. 38 [the tsar ordered to kill old people; one eget hid his father in the dungeon; goes camping; father: you will not have enough food, you will slaughter your horses, do not throw your saddle and bridle; a white horse will appear, you have to ride it, let the leader down, he will do his friend; as it happened; one day the king saw a shining object in the sea; the old man tells his son not to dive with everyone, but to get a diamond from the nest on the tree growing on the shore; the king rewarded the father of the huntsman, ordered respect the elderly], 39 [the king was afraid that those who reached 70 would become a wise man and would be dangerous to him, so the old people were thrown off the cliff; the king's son-in-law hid his father in a chest; the king tells his son-in-law to appear, took one friend and one enemy; father: take a wife and a dog, beat both and see that the dog comes back and caresses, and the wife presses his father; this is what happened; the king handed over power to his son-in-law, who forbid killing old people]: 97-99, 99-101.

Turkestan. Kazakhs [when the khan tells the mullah to read what awaits his newborn son, the vizier asks not to wait for predictions, let the Khan's son be happy; as an example of prediction, he talks about his life; his father khan was predicted that his son would be in danger at the age of 15; the khan places his son in a separate palace; one day the old teacher and teacher fell asleep, he went out and saw the green birds hunt saigas; tied a rope to the belt and head of a strangled saiga; the bird carries the carcass with the young man to a nest on the island; people have sailed and left the prince on the island; he explains a young man who comes down from a tree that he is destined to die that day; takes food from a knife, the young man sneezes, the knife pierces the prince; the young man hides again in the nest; the king who has come sees a jewel in the water He tells me to get it; a good man hid his 80-year-old father, although the old men were ordered to be killed; he advises to look for a stone in a nest in a tree; this is a stone in a young man's ring; the king puts him on the scales of justice, but they do not move, the young man is not guilty of the prince's death; the storm takes the young man to sea, he sails to the princess, whom the vizier hid from the encroachments of the new khan (the text ends below)]: Potanin 1916, No. 46: 155-159; Kazakhs (recording by G.N. Potanin) ["From the late Kyrgyz Musa Ch. Chormanov (Chokan Valikhanov's uncle), in 1880, I wrote down the following legend, which he probably read in a Muslim book"; in the kingdom of Garun al-Rashid, it was a custom to kill people over the age of 60 age; the son took his father to the place where the elderly were killed; the father sat down on a stone and laughed; when asked by his son, he replied: "I led my father to death on the same road, we were both tired at this very stone, and now Like me, my father sat down on a rock to rest; I didn't think sixty years would come to me so soon. This is what I smiled at. Soon your son will lead you to death in a similar way"; the son took his father back, hid him and kept him a secret from everyone for twenty years; GR ordered to get living water (myangi su); the old man explained to his son where and how to find it; they walked with the others for forty days, the water supply ran out; the old man, whom his son was carrying in the box, told the bulls to be released; they sniffed the ground, began to dig it; they found water there; the old man explained to the son: "Not all water is "alive". Throw dead fish into the water! Only a spring with "living water" in which fish come to life"; the son did so; people began to take stones from there; the son, on the advice of his father, took a whole bag; when they returned, the stones turned gold; the son carried his GR bag; GR decided to check the water he had brought him, began to throw dead fish into it; only the old man's son had water alive; it was hung in a bucket on a pine tree; the wandering Alimbet Khan said that he had drunk water and cannot die for a thousand years; GR decided not to drink; it was drunk by a flying crow, so he lives for a thousand years; drops fell from his beak; because of this, the pine tree does not rot; juniper grew under it, which is also became a "strong tree"; Kazyr and Ilyas also drank water; both have not died so far; K. appears to every person three times in his life in a plain form; I. helps those suffering from water crashes; where he passes , there, in his footsteps, the grass turns green]: Gomboev 1890:143-144 (a handwritten and incomplete version of the same text was published in Potanin 1972, No. 8:99-100); Kyrgyz [Khan orders to kill anyone over 40 years; then ordered to bring black worms: until they bring them, he would levy a tax; one horseman hid his father in a chest; he ordered to dig up bay's grave, there were worms; next time Khan; Khan all the time wanders; father: kill the black dog that makes the khan move from place to place; stopped, but there is no water; father: dig where the cows stop and start hitting their hooves; the young man had to confess that he had a father; the khan repented, but told the young man's father to find living water; he led him to a rock from where water was dripping; said that under his feet a man who drank living water and lay for centuries until turned into green juniper; Khan was frightened and ordered to pour out living water; the old man poured it on juniper; since then it has been evergreen]: Ledenev 1987:128-130; Kyrgyz [the childless khan had a son; vizier asks not to try to find out the boy's fate and talks about himself; he was also a khan's son; predictor: when the boy is 15, he will be in danger; the khan put him on the island, with him only a mullah and old babysitter; one day both fell asleep; the young man took a dagger, went outside, saw a green bird grab a rabbit; decided to catch a bird with a noose; it was strong and lifted it into the air; when he sat on a tree on the island, the young man cut off his belt, went down; many people came and left another young man in the yurt, sailed away themselves; he said he was predicted to die today; the first young man gave him half an apple at the end of the dagger, sneezed, the blade pierced his throat; people came again, looked for the killer; noticed a shiny spot in the water, no one could reach it; at that time, those who were 80 years old were killed; one young man hid his father in a box and brought it with him; the old man guessed that there was a nest in the tree, and there was a shiny object in it, a reflection of it in the water; the object was a ring with a diamond on the finger of the first young man to hide in the nest; the old man's son was forced to extradite his father, both forgave; the first young man was taken to the khan, the father of the victim; he left him on the scales in the middle of the sea to determine whether he was guilty or not; the scales fell into the water , the young man was taken to the shore; there she is beautiful, she talks about herself; the vizier brought her to a deserted place to save her from the khan, who wanted to marry her after the death of her father, also khan; the young man married this girl returned to her father; he was happy and immediately died of a broken heart]: Muchnik 1944:46-49; yellow Uighurs: Potanin 1919, No. 16 [written by Hara-yegur); 60-year-old people were killed; son hid parents in the pit, secretly fed them; in the drought, the grass dried up and the hole was green; the son told the Khan's messengers that it was because he did not kill his parents; Khan canceled the custom]: 40; Stuart, Jhang 1996 [hurricane , the drought hit the country; the leader led his people to look for a new one; forbade taking old people, married women, children with them, ordered them to be killed; one young man hid his father in a chest; on the way he helped find water (must let the yaks go, they began to dig where the water was), brought him to the right place; the old man was made the new leader]: 22-23.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Siberian Tatars [khan ordered the killing of old people; Akhmet hid his father in distant mowing; at the bottom of the lake near the khan's palace there is something white and round; whoever gets it, half a khanate and a daughter as a wife, and whoever fails - head off his shoulders; Father Ahmet: there is a nest on the shore, it has a white egg, it is reflected in the water; now Khan demands to guess which stick is made of wood and which is made of root; father: which will fall down in the water, the one from the root; which of the two stallions is old and who is young; father: the young horse walks with its head raised and the old horse with its head tilted; A. admitted that his father answered the questions - let the khan does not give up his daughter and half his kingdom, but will spare his father; the khan canceled the order to kill the elderly]: Tomilov 1995:149-151; Buryats: Dugarov 1990 (the place is not specified, wrote AI Shadaev - Baikal?) [on the eve of the migration, the khan orders the elderly to be killed; Tseren hid his father in a sack; by the sea, the khan orders them to dive for a golden bowl; many die; the father tells Ts that the bowl is on the mountain, its reflection in the sea; if the bowl is lies on a rock, you have to scare the goat, they will throw it off; C. brings the bowl; next time Father C. tells us to let a three-year-old cow go where it stops, you have to look for water there; the third time people go to fire after fire, smut goes out every time; father teaches how to put coals in a pot; Ts. Admits that the khan cancels the order]: 102-106; Khangalov 2004a (Baikal, including Balagan): 30-31 [Previously, Buryats There is a wild custom of uhe ungulhe, which is that seventy year old people are killed by forcing them to swallow a piece of fat in the form of a ribbon. One day, Esege-Malan and nine sons of Western Hut fight a bet among themselves; nine sons of Western Hut pledge to build a cast-iron bridge across the ocean, and Esege Malan as an earthly man (he was not then still a celestial) must, on condition, build the Bezhin-Suglan Palace. The nine sons of the Western Hut build half a cast-iron bridge during the day; at night, a wave of strong winds rises and breaks what has been built; this happens every day. Esege-Malan is soon building the Bejin-Sughlan Palace, but he just can't cover one part of the roof on the northwest side: as soon as he covers it, he will call a man and ask him, "Is it ready?" The invited person will answer: "It's not ready!" or "Not so covered!" Then this part of the roof collapses, and Esege-Malan executes that man by cutting off his head. After that, Esege-Malan begins to cover the roof again. No matter how much he calls people, everyone finds the roof either uncovered or covered in the wrong way, and Esege-Malan executes everyone, one by one. This is how he executed many people, but he still cannot cover the roof, and cannot defeat the nine sons of Western Hut. Finally, it is the turn of one young man who has an elderly father to go to Esege-Malan; the latter should have been performed by now, but his son, feeling sorry for the old man, hides him in a drawer in for several years. The son comes to his father and says, "Today it's my turn to speak to Esege-Malan. I'm sure I'll be executed like the others. Don't cry for me! This is just what will happen to you without me! Would you give me some advice on what to do in the present case and what to say?" Then the old man said to his son: "Say 'done! ' , even though it wasn't ready and not covered as it should be. If you say "not ready", you'll probably be executed like everyone else. If you say "ready", I don't know if he'll execute or not. If he executes, then he is "not ready", you say, executes; then you still say one way or that, but to be executed. Try saying "done!" The young man goes to Esege-Malan. When he comes, Esege-Malan asks him, "Is it ready?" The young man, on his father's advice, replies: "Done!" Then, in some mysterious way, the uncovered part of the roof suddenly opens properly. Surprised, Esege-Malan asks the young man, "Who taught you to speak this way?" The young man admits that for several years, not wanting to perform the ceremony on his father, he hid it in a drawer; that before going to Esege-Malan, he let his father out of the box and asked him what he should do, and what the elderly father then advised him to say "Done!" Esege-Malan then orders old people and old women not to be performed the uhe Ungulhe rite anymore, as they instruct young people with kind and useful advice. Since then, the custom of killing old people and old women has ceased, and they begin to live out their lives peacefully and peacefully at the behest of Esege-Malan. After that, Esege-Malan wins the bet, as nine sons of Western Hut do not have time to build a bridge across the ocean. According to the condition, Esege-Malan must rise to heaven and become a heavenly inhabitant (hare), and nine sons of Western Hut, who used to be constantly in heaven, must descend from heaven to earth. They are made kings of nine different places, powerful hayans and patrons of the Buryats, and Esege-Malan becomes a powerful tengeri (Esege-Malan-Tengari)], 32 [The Buryats used to have a custom To kill 70 years old people and old women - the Ungulhe ear. Taizhi Khan learns that at the bottom of the sea lies a golden bowl that could be seen from the shore, despite the depth of the sea. Wanting to get this golden cup from the bottom of the sea, he gathers his people and orders everyone to dive into the sea one by one for this bowl; but whoever dives never returns; thus, Taizhi Khan drowns a lot people. It is the turn of a young man to dive, who hides his elderly father in a drawer for several years, not wanting to follow the custom. Then he asks his father for advice on how to get the golden cup from the bottom of the sea. A seventy-four-year-old father says to his son: "This golden bowl is not at all at the bottom of the sea, as Taizhi Khan thinks; if the golden bowl really lay on the bottom of the sea, it would not be it is visible because the sea is very deep in this place. And you have to think that this bowl is located on the top of a high mountain that stands on the seashore. The glitter of this bowl is reflected in the water and it feels like the bowl is lying on the bottom of the sea. Therefore, it is better to look for this golden bowl at the top of the mountain rather than in the sea. If you dive into the sea, you'll drown like the others." On the advice of his father, the young man climbs the mountain the next day, really finds a golden bowl there and brings it to Taizhi-khan. "Why did you find out," Taizhi Khan asked, "that this golden bowl is on the mountain and not at the bottom of the sea? If you knew this, why didn't you open it first?" Then the young man announces to the Khan that he has been hiding his seventy-four-year-old father for four years, not wanting to kill him, and that when it is his turn to go to sea for a bowl, he I asked my father for advice and he taught him what to do. Then Taizhi Khan strictly orders in the future not to follow the custom of the Ungulhe ear on old people and old women who are useful to young people with their advice and instructions. Since that time, the custom of killing old people and old women has ceased, and they begin to live to a very old age and die a natural rather than violent death]; Trans-Baikal Buryats ( Selenginsky: Tabanguts) [during the reign of one of the Mongolian princes, an order was given to kill people over 70 years old; a few years later, the khan found out that within Russian limits there are some a beast that was very small at first, but later became great; the khan ordered his subjects to find out what kind of animal it was and what its name was; the Khan's favorite did not kill his old father and hid him in secret in the room; he suggested: "Indeed, there is such an animal on the Russian side, but you will not see it, but this beast is called "oros huluguna," i.e. a Russian mouse;" he ordered to tell the khan when he returned: "We saw Indeed, a beast called oros huluguna, but you can't catch it, because you, Khan, will not be alive for it yourself"; the son and the other messengers did so; Khan saw the same thing in in a dream, so he believed it; soon he had a new dream: as if the unege fox was walking, all black as soot, at night she had a strong light, and sparks were flying when she ran; the khan ordered her to be brought in; the old man son: "Go, gather a bigger herd, lock it for a week and, when giving food, don't let him drink, and when it's seventh day, then drive these horses into the water and see that won't drink water, and will go across the river. Try to catch this horse, it is called "huluk mori", that is, "flying horse fender"; the son did so; the father ordered to find the Taiga dog with long ears and wool wings; the son found and bought one the poor man's dog; when it was time to leave, the khan and his courtiers laughed that his pet was going on a nag and with a skinny dog; during the hunt, no one but his pet could get a fox he saw in his dream; he had to tell the khan about his father's advice; the khan awarded both, took the old man to his court and ordered not to kill his fathers in old age]: Smolev 1900:106-109; khalha- Mongols [V.A. Kazakevich's report on a trip to the Gobi in 1924; at a time when it was a custom to kill parents when they reached old age by stuffing a mutton fat tail, Batro-Hara-Jianjin, into their mouths When he fell off his horse, he said the following words: Burhan, Dalai Lama, Banchen Bogdo, Gurban Erdeni; neither he nor his entourage could explain their meaning; one young man suggested doing this because he secretly hid his father in a hole; having learned the meaning of the words, B. went to the shrines of Tibet and brought from there knowledge of true faith; he also took a living burkhan with him, but on the way he grew to the ground; B. cut him to the waist; the top became gold, B. brought it to Urga; the bottom turned silver and remained in Tibet]: Nosov 2014:220; Khalkha Mongols: Mikhailov 1962 [khan ordered to kill old people by plugging their mouths with a sheep's tail; the young man hid it father in a hole; the neighboring khan orders to determine where the planed tree has the top and where is the bottom; the young man's father: the log will float along the river with its upper end forward; the neighboring khan sent a monster: what is this? the father of the young man: a well-fed louse; if you rub your nails, the monster will be frightened; the khan stopped killing old people, ceded the throne to a young man]: 64-65; Potanin 1919a, No. 16 [it was a custom to kill old people who have reached the age of 60 age; the son hid his parents in a hole; in the drought, only green grass was above this place; the son explained that the khan forbade killing old people, ordered them to smoke wine], 18 [it was a custom to kill old people, they were slaughtered fat tail fat in his mouth; the son hid his father; Eljigen-Chiktey Khan tells everyone to guess the name of an unknown animal, who executes unguessed; the father tells his son to take a cat with him, explains that the unknown animal is a mouse; Khan repeals the law]: 40, 42; Dagurs [previously, when old people lived to be 60 years old, they were rolled off the roof and crashed; one man in the king's service hid his father in the cellar; in the royal palace at night the spirit walks; the king orders to guard, no one can find out anything, the servants are executed; when it is the turn of the man who hid his father, he teaches his son to go south to the deer, which has horns to the sky; to climb the horns the sky, to ask for a remedy for the spirit; the deer asks to ask when his horns will fall off; after receiving two boxes, but without asking about the horns, the man descends, promising the deer to say later; from the ground he screams that the horns they will fall now; they immediately fall like two trees; the man opened one box before reaching the house, an animal jumped out from there, ran away; carried the second box; went with it to the palace; a spirit appeared like donkey; the man opened the box, the cat jumped out of it, rushed at the spirit; it became a rat, the cat killed it; rats used to be huge; since cats appeared, rats no longer become rat spirits; the king ordered an explanation of how the man was able to carry out the assignment; he spoke about his father; the king forbade killing old people]: Kevin et al. 1994:80-81.

Amur - Sakhalin. The Udege ["Chinese story"; {most likely should have been known to the Manchus}; the Chinese king ordered people to be buried alive when they reached the age of 60; the son of the great leader hid his father and told him that a giant mouse had appeared at the court that ate only the chiefs; he told him to find a large cat; the cat and mouse looked at each other and became small; the king asked why didn't the chief bring the cat sooner; he replied that his father taught him; the king forbid killing fathers]: Nikolaeva et al. 2003, No. 3:18-21.

Japan. Japanese: Bystrov et al. 1962 (Nagano Prefecture, central Honshu) [the prince orders that those over 70 be sent to the island where they died; instead, the son took their mother to the mountains; changed their mind, returned it, hid it under the floor; the neighboring prince threatens war, if not 1) make a rope out of ashes (a hidden old woman tells you to soak the rope with salt, then burn it); 2) thread the rope through a winding hole into stone (smear the stone with honey, where the hole comes out, tie a silk thread to the ant); 3) determine which of the mares is the mother and which daughter (the young mare will immediately attack the proposed grass, old will wait); instead of a reward, the peasants ask to save his mother's life; the prince decides not to exile the elderly anymore]: 380-385; Ikeda 1971, No. 980A (from Tohoku to North Ryukyu) [60-year-old people were left die in the mountains; the old man marks the way with chopsticks or pebbles so that the son does not get lost on the way back; it touches the son, he brings his father home; or the grandson follows, wants to pick up the basket in which the father carried his grandfather to carry his father later; the ashamed father returns his grandfather; the custom of killing old people has been abolished], 981 [the prince orders to leave the old people in the mountains when they reach a certain age; one son 1) hides his father under the floor, 2) is unable to obey the order, 3) takes his father to the mountains, but when he sees that he throws twigs on the path so that the son does not get lost on the way back, he returns the father back; the enemy attacks the prince's possessions, sets difficult tasks; listening to his father, the son solves them, the enemy refuses to attack; 1) twist the rope from the ashes; 2) thread the thread through the spiral shell, 3) find out where logs top and bottom, 4) find out which of the mares is mother and who is daughter, 5) find out the sex of two identical snakes, 6) bring a self-playing drum, 8) weigh the big bull; the prince finds out that the father found solutions; choosing reward, the son asks to save his father's life; the prince cancels the order to kill the elderly]: 218-219, 220-221; Ancient Japan [the name of the god Aridoshi means "Ant Move"; mikado ordered death everyone who will be 40 years old; an official with the rank of chujo hid his parents in the cellar; the Chinese emperor is about to seize Japan, asked difficult tasks; each time the chujo asks his father for advice, mikado tells the solution; 1) where is the top of the tree bar and where is the base (throw it into the water, the top will be downstream); 2) which snake is female and who is male (only the male moves its tail if brought twig); 3) thread the thread through the stone in which the spiral stroke (tie the thread to an ant, a drop of honey at the exit); mikado asks what reward the chujo wants; he asks for the extermination order to be canceled old people, mikado agrees]: Sei Shonagon 1975, No. 237:262-265.

(Wed. The Midwest. Eastern Ojibwa (southern Ontario) [old people used to be killed; in one family, the old woman was left in a deserted place, asked to wait for the camp to be set up and left; but her grandson accidentally noticed and brought her back; no one talked about it anymore, but old people were no longer killed]: Laidlaw 1915, No. 20:16).