Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

M195. Two horses: which one is older?


The character must guess which of the two horses is older. He does this by knowing how horses behave.

Iraqi Arabs, Tibetans, North India (Hindi), Koreans, Croats, (Greeks), Kalmyks, Stavropol Turkmens, Ingush, Dargins, Georgians, Azerbaijanis, Turks, Kurds, Persians, Vakhans, Estonians, Kazan Tatars, Uighurs, Siberian Tatars, Japanese.

Western Asia. Iraqi Arabs: Bushnaq 1987 [the Caliph forbade lighting a fire at night; walked around the city with the vizier after sunset; poor young weaver Mohammed Tket in the same house; replies that he works, when he wants; that he has had a dream but is not going to tell it; in the morning he was brought to the Caliph; he still refuses to tell a dream; he was thrown into prison; he sings there; the Caliph's only daughter hears tells him to go to the dungeon from her chambers; sends a maid, M. has to go up to the princess; he has washed himself, ate; she tells him to lie down with her, but puts a sword between them; in the morning he returns to prison; stubbornly refuses to tell the Caliph a dream; he is surprised that he is in good shape on bread and water; M.: by God's will; the neighboring sultan sent two apples: which is the current one and what is the last harvest? the princess teaches: the last harvest will emerge, the current one will drown; ask me as a reward; the Caliph agreed, M. said everything, the caliph received five provinces from the Sultan, but returned M. to prison; Sultan: which of the mares mother and what daughter? we must give both food, the mother will not eat, she will worry, the daughter will eat quietly; the Sultan gave 10 provinces and wants to see a guesser; the princess gives M. items with which he will withstand the tests; Sultan: sew a veil for me from the hill; M.: let me make it out of sand; the sultan gave M. a daughter; M. married the daughter of the Sultan and the daughter of the Caliph; once he sat, and both wives were on his lap; the Caliph came in ; M. now I'll tell you a dream, call the vizier; I dreamed that I had the sun on my right shoulder and the moon on my left shoulder]: 326-331; Yaremenko 1990, No. 4 [the magician gave a pomegranate to the childless woman, she gave birth to a son; boy Ahsan refuses to tell his parents a dream, his father sold it; King Selman bought it and brought it closer to him; when he learned his story, asked for a dream, was refused, threw it into prison; A. dug an underground passage, found himself in the chambers of the king's daughter; began to come to her regularly; the princess's friend, the daughter of King Rashid; she would marry the one who would solve her three riddles; the daughter of King S. found out the answers, told the young man; 1) out of two mares, who is the mother and who is the daughter (the daughter ate more oats); 2) where is the upper end of the stick and where is the lower end (the upper one surfaced); 3) how to open a sealed barrel without tools (click on a specific place); A. married Tsar R.'s daughter, lives in honor and luxury; daughter S. is still in love with him, the father will give her to someone who meets the conditions; the girl reports them to daughter R., and that A.; 1) divide the land in half ( the center is where S. is sitting, and if he does not believe, let him measure); 2) sew a stone dress (let the king give the appropriate thread, needle and scissors); 3) whoever is above us (Allah); A. gets a second wife; two wives sat down On his knees, he told them a dream: he has the moon on one knee, the sun on the other; everything is fine]: 36-42.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans: Shelton 1925, No. 15 [Gezongongdu owns a big kingdom and wants to annex a small kingdom where Drashi is king; sends two mares - it is necessary to determine who is the mother and who is the daughter; the wife of one from the subjects: the mother mare will push the daughter's food; tells you to find out where the lower end of the stick is; wife: in the river, the stick will turn upstream; which of the two snakes is male and who is female; wife: put a silk ribbon, the female will love it, she will lie on it and fall asleep, and the male will crawl away; G. decided not to attack D., and he rewarded the woman and her husband]: 76-77; Ting 1978, No. 851A* [Chinese princess suggests that grooms 1) thread the thread into the hole in the jade (grease with honey, tie it to an ant); 2) identify the mothers of 5000 foals (lock mares and foals in separate pens, and then let the foals go to mothers); 3) which end of the log is closer to the butt (put into the water); 4) identify the princess among several equally dressed girls (find out signs from the maid); 5) separate children from mothers among 100 ducks ( this can be seen in how they eat); 6) slaughter, eat and skins a hundred rams at a time (100 people work at the same time)] {the page number in pdf is not visible}; Osipov, Riftin 1962 [(text as of this story with all episodes]: 31-37).

South Asia. North India (Hindi), Pilibhit District) [Emperor Ruma slept with the Empress, a boy, the son of a slave, at his feet; and he dreamed that King Balkh's daughter was washing one leg and that Emperor Rum's daughter was washing one leg for him and Emperor Rum's daughter stands next to him, holding a golden bowl of water; when he woke up, he laughed and refused to say why; the emperor wanted to hang him but agreed to put him in prison; King Balkh sent three mares (and ordered say which of them are grandmother, mother and daughter); no one could answer; a young man in prison advised to water them; the grandmother only kicked a little, the daughter more, and the granddaughter galloped around the palace ; the king sent three pieces of wood; the young man ordered them to be thrown into the water; the one closer to the butt sank to the bottom, the middle one swam in the middle, and the closest to the top surfaced; the young man knew that they grew up in Balkh all the fruits except the orange, and took an orange with him when King Balkh called him to compete in wisdom with his monkey; the monkey demanded an orange and the young man showed it; then King Balkh gave it to the young man his daughter; then Emperor Ruma also gave him his daughter; King Balkh's daughter washed his feet, and Emperor Rum's daughter held a vessel; the dream came true]: Crooke 1895, No. 253:101-102.

China - Korea. Koreans [the king of a big country is looking for an excuse to attack the little king; sent a mare and a foal, telling them to determine which of them is who; farmhand: give them food, the mare will push food the foal; where the stick has the top and where the bottom is thrown into the water, will swim with the upper end forward; which of the snakes is male and female - if you put a silk thread next to it, the female will crawl to it and fall asleep, and the male will crawl away; the king of a big country has given up war]: Park 1991:303-304.

The Balkans. Croats [the father tells his son named Milutin and daughter to tell dreams; the girl always tells, and the boy dreams every time that he killed the king, married the Count's daughter (count) and reigned; the father drove his son away, and the count picked him up; the boy refused to tell him his dream, he threw him into prison; the count's daughter secretly brought him food; after 7 years, the king threatens the count with war if he did not will answer which side the stick opens {it is not clear; which side is closer to the butt?} ; the young man teaches the count's daughter to pretend that she guessed it herself: you have to put a stick in the water, she will turn her light side up (on which it opens); then the king sent three horses, we must answer how many each year old; young man: a one-year-old horse will approach an annual oat, a two-year-old will approach a three-year-old, a three-year-old will approach a three-year-old oat; third task: I will throw a club that knocks a spoon out of my mouth, I must throw it back; no one can move the club; the young man orders to buy a 9-year-old cow from the king for any money, eats meat for three months; having regained his strength, he threw the club in the middle of the kingdom; the king demanded a guessman to kill himself; he orders to find nine young men like him; they repeat his actions in everything; M. kills the king in a duel, marries the count's daughter]: Wratislaw 1890, No. 56:291-286; ( Greeks (Asia Minor) [the boy refused to tell the dream to his mother and father, they kicked him out; he came to learn the craft; when he explained why he did not live with his parents, the master asked for a dream; boy again refused, the master drove him away; the same with the second master; he did not tell the king either, he threw him into prison; the other king sent two horses: what is domestic, how wild? The princess advises that young man to ask; on a wild horse he did not jump over ditches, but jumped over at home; the foreign king says that his stallions are pampered because of this king's mares, let him kill his mares; young man ordered to find the blind and deaf, brought them to the neighboring kingdom and ordered dogs to be killed there: they come to steal our meat; king: your kingdom is far away; young man: so the stallions could not smell mares; the young man received wives of the daughters of both kings; told the dream: on the one hand the sun, on the other hand, the moon, a star in the head (born son)]: Dawkins 1916:537-541).

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kalmyks [Khan Tsetsen married his son, took him hunting; seeing a deer lying down, said: "Hurry up, catch the deer by the horns"; the son ran, the deer galloped away; the khan killed the deer with an arrow, beat his son with a whip; the son told his wife about everything, who decided that the old man was crazy; they went hunting again, the khan asked his son to cook meat in a wooden cauldron; the son hollowed out a pot from a piece of wood, poured water, and crumbled the meat and made a fire; the cauldron burned down; the khan beat the son; he told his wife everything, who said that the old man was crazy; the khan asked the son to catch a horse with one head facing south and the other north; the son caught two horses, tied them by the tails and brought them to the khan; the khan beat his son, sent his daughter-in-law to his parents; began to look for a new wife for his son; met an intelligent girl and told her father to cook koumiss made of bovine milk; the next day he rode again; the girl put her father to bed, told him to moan; the khan asked for koumiss from bovine milk; the girl says that the father is giving birth, so he has not cooked it yet; khan:" Do men give birth"; girl: "Does a bull give birth to milk"; the khan decided to marry her son, told her father to come to the palace; the girl gave the old man a purse when he met the khan, he offered him gold; began to fill his purse, his purse stretched out, covered the entire treasury; they had a wedding, the khan took his son hunting; noticing a deer lying down, said: "Hurry up catching a deer by the horns"; the son entered , as before; the beaten man returned home, the wife explained: "Shoot soon"; went hunting again, the khan asked to cook meat in a wooden cauldron; the son did as before; the beaten returned home, wife explained that it was necessary to pick up the khan's phone, fill it with tobacco, light it and give it to him; the khan asked him to catch a horse in the herd, with its heads facing one south and the other to the north; the son did as before; the beaten man returned home, the wife explained that it was necessary to bring a mare who was about to necklace; the neighboring khan sent Khan Tsetsen a wooden whip handle with the same thickness to make him determined where the roots were and where were the top; daughter-in-law: "If we put this stick into the water, the root, since it is denser than the top, must go deeper into the water"; the neighboring khan sent the same mare and foal, for Tsetsen to determine which of them is who; daughter-in-law says they should not feed them for three days, and then both pour oats smaller than one horse in size and see which of them while eating she will shovel and move oats to the other with her lips, she is the mother; the neighboring khan sent two identical snakes to Tsetsen to determine which one is male and which is female; daughter-in-law: "We must keep them in in the dark, and then lay some wide velvet on the way at the entrance so that they could crawl on it. As soon as the snakes are on the velvet, the female one will immediately curl up and lie quietly, and the male one will crawl around the sleeper, with her head raised high, as if guarding her dream"; the neighboring khan invited Tsetsen to visit; he came, chained him to a cart, given bread and water; Khan Tsetsen: "Write a letter to your own so that your whole kingdom will be chained here to one soul, and there I will find that wise man myself {who solved riddles}"; Tsetsen wrote to his wife: "The kingdom of our neighbor Khan turned out to be a real paradise. There is no suffering, no death, no illness; there is also no winter, and everything smells like spring; there is no summer either, and everything is cool in autumn. People here live on allowances in all four seasons and do not know what work is... I sleep on a soft feather bed. I eat fatty lamb and drink strong aromatic tea, dress in blue velvet. There are no limits to my pleasure, entertainment and fun... It all happens 24 hours a day. There is no way to leave this country even for one minute. When you receive this letter, all your heart and soul come here. Remember: you, my old lady, are trusting; there is an unfortunate piebald foal in my herd, but it is gratifying that there is a piece of fragrant oil in my chest... Everybody wander around. I miss you a lot"; a letter was sent with a messenger to the Tsetsen Khanate; daughter-in-law: "Everything he writes must be understood in the opposite sense. Tea and mutton are water and crackers; feather bed is earth, blue velvet is sky. Fun around the clock - suffering around the clock. And the fact that there is no way to be away even for one minute means that he is shackled... "You, my old lady, are trusting" is a warning not to believe the letter; "An unfortunate piebald foal in the herd" is the khan talking about a son who still does not understand anything, "a piece of butter in a chest" - it's me... The call "all wander here" means "go to war against the neighboring khan and free me"; they went to the neighboring khanate, told the khan that they were happy to wander to him; he freed Tsetsen, asked feast; by morning, the daughter-in-law brought the army, found the enemies asleep, captured them]: Egorov 1978:19-31; Vatagin 1964 [the llama promised that Bayin-Bath had a son, but he could be carried away by a black-bald wolf; son Badm grew up, got married, goes with his wife to his parents; at rest he was taken away by a wolf; his father ordered him to put a house in this place; three years later, a passerby noticed that a big man had entered the house, ate and left again; Batma's mother went to guard, got scared; father fell asleep; Ijimya's wife could not hold back; parents came together; Batma: I have to go to me between 900 burning trees, swim in boiling milk 900 mares, then solve problems wolf; father did not pass, mother passed but did not dare to rush into the cauldron, wife passed, swam; wolf: 1) determine who of the two mares are mother and who is daughter; I.: mother pushes her daughter's oats; 2) which of the two the snake is male, and who is female (the female lay lazily, and the male began to hiss); 3) which of the three Batma pigeons (he had tears in front of his eyes); the wolf gave Ijima Batma]: 156-160; Stavropol Turkmens [Taga says if the dream does not tell him, his father expels him; he does not tell the Eastern Khan, he puts him in a dungeon; the slave says that the Western Khan will go to war if the Eastern Khan does not guess which of the two mares are mother and what daughter; T. says that the mother will eat peacefully and the daughter will frolic; the western one demands a hero who will send an arrow to his palace; T. destroys the palace wall with an arrow; western asks T. to come to him; he takes old people with him on the way; one sees a needle a hundred miles away, the second pours water from the river into the river with his mouth, the third throws mountains, the fourth grazes hares with millstones on legs, the fifth whistles so that the ground trembles; they are soldered, placed overnight in a hot iron shed, the one who drank water cools him; the khan promises his daughter if someone overtakes him to the old woman; the runner overtakes him, but she He drinks him drunk, he falls asleep; the far-seeing person tells the whistler to wake up the runner; the khan does not give a daughter, then the strongman takes his palace; T. gets a daughter, goes to the Eastern Khan; from his wife taken from the Eastern Khan, he has a son; in that dream he saw two suns (two khans) and a star (his son) in the middle]: Bagriy 1930 (2): 84-90; Ingush [the king sees the poor man and promises that he will give him whatever he wants; the poor man asks fill his pouch with money; the king's men bring a handful, then a hat and a cart of coins, but they cannot fill the pouch; as a result, it includes all the royal property; the king and his people attack the poor man, he is theirs kills and becomes king; the children of the murdered king grow up, the poor man gives them all the royal property; after settling separately, he sows wheat; it is beaten by hail; the poor man is hired by a horseman, says: "I am I will remove all your bread alone before sunset, for which you will give me part of your pens, but if I don't remove the bread before sunset, I'll lose my fee"; before I remove one sheaf, refuses to pay; is hired by a shepherd on the condition that if there is at least a small loss in the herd after three years, he will not receive remuneration, and if there is a profit, he will receive part of the livestock; three years pass, the number cattle grow; the herd is attacked by a wolf, takes the kid away; the poor man keeps the wolf alive, returns the kid and refuses the reward for work; walks along the road, dies; the wolf finds and buries the corpse; Three doves fly to the grave, pray, the poor man resurrects; a tower appears on the grave, the poor man lives in it with the doves who have become beautiful; the wives say: "Go to the mother of the Sun and Ask her for a nice sofa for us. Mother of the Sun lives next to Mother Moon. Their hut doors are always locked. The Mother of the Sun sits above her baby's cradle and feeds him with one breast, while the other breast is thrown over her shoulders. As soon as you enter Mother of the Sun's hut, rush straight to her chest and start sucking it; if you can catch her breast and suck it, she'll give you a sofa"; poor man follows instructions, Mother of the Sun He calls him his third son; her son comes, moving the Sun; when he learns of the poor man's request, he says to him: "Tomorrow you will follow me to move the Sun around the world, and I will stay at home and make you a sofa. Mother of Thunder will bring you lunch by noon, and when you come to the sea, look at our vineyard there"; the next day, the poor man begins to drag the Sun across the world; by noon, Thunder's mother brings him lunch; he remembers how she beat his arable land with hail and pounding it; when he reaches the sea and finds himself near the vineyard, he remembers the loss of harvesting fees; as a result, he keeps the Sun for an extra hour above the vineyard; in the evening he tells the mother of the Sun that the journey was safe; goes home with the sofa; a man comes to him, from whom he herded sheep; asks to give one of his wives; wives turn into doves, fly away; the tower and other buildings disappear; the poor man is hired by the king, enters into a relationship with his daughter; the king throws him into a hole; a powerful neighboring king sends it the king of two identical roosters and tells him to find out which one is older; the poor man suggests: "You can find out about the seniority of roosters by age as follows: pour them red wheat and let them go to it in the wind roosters. The elder rooster will stand with his head against the wind, and the youngest with his tail"; the king follows the advice, performs the task; the neighbor sends two identical stallions and tells them to know which one is older; the poor man explains : "Give more salt to these stallions, then let them drink, the youngest will run forward to the water and start drinking greedily, and the elder will walk quieter and, when he comes to the water, overtake the younger stallion"; the king follows advice, performs the task; the neighbor sends a message: "Find out which of your people is able to shoot an arrow from your village to mine"; the poor man fires an arrow into a neighboring village; it falls into a chain on which the cauldron hung in the royal hut; a messenger arrives: "Our tsar invites you to come to our village and take one dog and one rooster with you to compete with our dog and our rooster"; poor man takes a falcon instead of a rooster, goes to the village; on the way he meets a man who sees a chamois on a distant mountain, a man who hears a snake crawling over seven mountains, a man trying to drink the sea, and a man who, with one foot in his belt, runs to the other for a hare; takes them with him; the neighboring king releases a rooster, the poor man's falcon pecked him; the neighboring king announces the beginning of a race, releases a witch; she offers the one-legged to drink a drink from a jug, he falls asleep; the one who hears snoring well, the shooter fires an arrow into the jug, the one-legged wakes up to the ringing of potsherds and overtakes the witch; the king locks the guests in a copper hut; it begins to fill with water; a person who wants to drink the sea drinks it; a strong king recognizes the neighboring king as an equal, the poor man marries the king daughters]: Sadulaev 2004, No. 122:314-321; Dargin residents [khan orders everyone to be thrown off the bridge after reaching the age of 60; the son leads his father, he cries: your own son will also bring you here; the old man hid his father in in the basement of the house; 15 years later, a neighboring khan sent two bars of wood and two foals: which is closer to the butt, which foals are older; hidden father: in the water, a bar closer to the butt will sink deeper; the elder the foal will be the first to approach the watering hole; the khan canceled his order]: Khalilov, Osmanov 1989:220-222; Dargins: Uslar 1892 (Hyurkilins) [the Shah forbade making a fire that night; the Shah's slave orders to sew to chohu in the morning; Armenian: the shah will forgive, the slave will not; the weaver and his son cut it; the son fell asleep, then refused to tell the dream to his father and then to the shah; the shah put him in prison; at night the young man went out and came to the Shah's daughter, kissed him, ate pilaf; next time the girl arranged for him to come; the sultan sent the Shah three chests: to find out which of them was an old woman, a woman and a girl; the prisoner promised to guess, for this he received Shah's daughter, weighed the chests, in the heaviest one - an old woman; which mare is mother and which daughter; the prisoner found out; the sultan demanded him; sew a dress out of stone - make threads out of sand; the sultan also gave it to the young man daughter; each has a boy; sultan: now tell me a dream; young man: sun under your head, a star under your feet, a star on each knee]: 255-262; Khalilov 1965, No. 78 [Khan ordered tailors to sew a dress for him in one day; overheard a tailor ask his son to sew for him, and he asked him to sleep - he had a very pleasant dream; when the tailors brought work, the khan asked the young man what he had dreamed of; he refused answer, thrown into the basement; dug a way into the rooms of the khan's daughter; began to come every day; a year later, the neighboring khan sent three mares, ordering them to determine which of them was older and who was younger; the girl taught the guy to demand her hand for the answer; the khan promised, but asked again about the dream and, without receiving an answer, sent the guy back to the basement; the neighbor Khan sent three closed chests: which girl, which widow, in which old woman; the khan's daughter told the guy: the girl is at the easiest, the old woman is in the heaviest; the neighboring khan demanded a guessman; he came to his daughter; she taught him what to answer when the father demanded sew clothes out of stone, and ordered to answer questions only after obtaining consent to marry Khan's daughter; boyfriend Khan: sand threads are needed to sew clothes out of stone; khan gave his daughter; the guy settled in with two wives, each gave birth to a son; now he told Khan a dream: on one side there was the sun, on the other, the moon, separated from them by a star]: 243-246; Georgians [stepmother tells her stepson by name Sizmar protects the grain from the chickens, he fell asleep, the chickens pecked the grain; his stepmother beats S., who says that in a dream he found himself in Baghdad, the moon is sitting on one side of him, the sun is pouring on the other, the morning star is pouring silver water from a golden jug in his hands; his stepmother tells him to give her sleep, S. says that this is impossible, she drives him out of the house; S. comes to the capital of the king of the West, he is brought to the king; after learning about the dream , he demands to give it back, throws S. into the pit; Princess Mzetunahavi ("not seen by the sun") has been secretly carrying S. food for three years; refuses to the king of the East; he 1) sends four mares, tells us to guess which of them mother, eldest, middle, youngest daughter; S. teaches M. to lick salt, mother will be the first to run to the water in the morning, followed by her eldest daughter, etc.; 2) orders to break a piece of rock salt into balls; S. advises ask to show what size balls to break; 3) fires an arrow, no one can pull it out of the ground; S. climbs out of the hole along the rope dropped by M., pulls out an arrow, returns to the hole; only S. managed to raise an arrow and let him go back to the king of the East; the king of the West agrees to give S. a daughter if he teaches the king of the East a lesson; on the way S. meets and takes satellites 1) A speedboat tied to his leg millstone, 2) A sharp ear listening to ants fight underground, 3) A clever who changes wings with live pigeons; the king of the East tells 1) to bring water from the healing spring before his speedboat; that puts a sleepy potion on Speedboat; Sharply hears about it, S. cuts off the millstones from the Speedboat's leg with an arrow, he is the first to bring water; 2) bring What I don't know what; The Clever sends S. to the forest old woman; she tells me I don't know what to serve her to eat; food, wine appear; the old woman leaves, S. offers I don't know what to eat with him; he is grateful, goes with S.; invisible, beats the king; the king tells S. poison; Sharp hears about this, Lovkoruk changed his plates, the king's viziers died; the king of the East is fleeing; the king of the West gives his daughter to S., but settles them in a stable; the king of the East goes to war; S. pulls out his ear the winged horse is golden armor, defeats the horse, the king of the West bandages his wounded finger with his handkerchief; S. recognizes him, gives him the kingdom; he refuses, takes M. and leaves; he sends four mares, tells you to guess which of them is mother, eldest, middle, youngest daughter; S. ut]: Chikovani 1986:43-46; Georgians [stepmother asks the young man to make sure that the chickens do not peck the scattered for After drying the grain; he fell asleep, the chickens were eating grain, his stepmother hit the young man; he said he had a dream: with one foot in Baghdad, the other on the edge of the city, in one sun, on the other moon, and stars on his arms and face; the stepmother asks to give her sleep, the young man replies that this is impossible, he was kicked out of the house; he came to the king of the West, who also asked him to sleep, the young man refused again; he was thrown into a hole; he was thrown into a hole; he was princess I like it, she feeds him; the king of the East demands to determine which of the four horses is the mother, and of the three foals who is older and who is younger; the young man teaches how to lock horses without water and then release them; the first to come out mother, then the youngest foal, last the eldest; the king of the East fired an arrow, it pierced the palace of the king of the West, no one can pull it out; only the young man pulled it out and let it back to the king of the East; the king married he is on his daughter; he went to fight with the king of the East; meets and companions a ploughman swallowing clods of earth; drinking water from the sea; running after a hare with a millstone on his leg; listening to ants crawl under the ground; shooting at the sky three days ago but the arrow hasn't fallen back yet; changing pigeons without them noticing; a priest who wears his church on his back; the young man marries his daughter the king of the East; he demands 1) eat all the bread that he baked for three days (ate ate), 2) drink wine from a huge carp (drank), 3) overtaking the runner, be the first to bring water; the royal runner offered to rest, gave sleeping pills, the millstone runner fell asleep; the shooter fired an arrow, woke him up, he immediately ran away and brought water, ahead of the royal runner; the king agreed to wedding; the listener heard that they were about to be poisoned, and the one who changed the wings of the pigeons changed the plates; the courtiers themselves died; the king asked for an antidote, the priest gave {not entirely clear}; five or six later a young man with his second wife returned to the first; she already has a son; now the dream is clear: the star, the moon and the sun]: Dirr 1920, No. 5:17-23; Azerbaijanis [when the tailor woke up the student, he said he had a dream who will tell you only when the dream comes true; the Shah overheard the conversation, demanded a dream, was refused, put the young man in prison; the young man dug, entered the princess's chambers, ate pilaf, returned to camera; the princess is waiting for a young man; fell in love with him; the neighboring shah threatens war; the princess teaches the young man what to do when he is called to give advice; demand her hand for the right answer; the enemy ambassador will draw circle (our world) - divided in half; he will put a bow on top - put a sword; pour millet (he has so many warriors) - release the rooster, he will bite the millet; the Shah sent three horses - which is older? princess: let the mare go to the horses, they will follow her in order of seniority; which end of the stick is closer to the base - throw it into the water, the top will emerge first; the enemy shah ordered to send a guessman; ordered to sew a robe made of the rock; the Shah's daughter orders to demand a thread of sand; the tailor's apprentice took the daughters of both shahs, each gave birth to a boy; when the Shah came in, the son-in-law had one wife on the left, the other on the right, on both knees to son; he said he dreamed of a star on his knees and the moon falling on his head]: Akhundov 1955:266-271; Turks: Eberhard, Boratav 1953, No. 197 [the young man refuses to tell his dream, he is beaten, he leaves home; he finds himself with the padishah, continues to hide the content of his dream, is thrown into prison; enemies send the padishah some objects and demand to guess their meaning (to distinguish silver put a lead rod in water; which mare is mother and which daughter; etc.); the young man guesses, tells the princess with whom he met; the padishah sends him to talk to the enemy; he marries daughters of a foreign king and on the daughter of a padishah; at the wedding he dreams: he saw the sun and the moon in his hands, these are the names of two princesses], 257 [the young man must determine which of the mares is mother and which daughter]: 230-233 , 312; Walker, Uysal 1966, No. 5 [boy {rather a young man} refuses to tell the dream to his mother, father, teacher; everyone hits him, drives him away; the padishah received a stick from the neighboring padishah: if he does not say where she has the upper end, and where is the lower end, the neighboring one will start a war; the young man promises to answer this question; threw a stick into the water: the lower end has sunk, the upper end has surfaced; which mare is mother and which is daughter; the young man ordered mix oats with gravel; the old one ate everything, and the young chose only grain; sew marble uniforms for the troops; the young man writes a letter asking for marble threads; the neighboring padishah asks for a guessman; the boy took a camel, a goat and a cat with him; when he was told that he was too small, without a mustache or beard, to be like a genius, the young man pointed to the animals: the camel was tall, the cat with a mustache, a goat with with a beard; the car threw the young man into the chair next to the padishah, and the mechanical girl served coffee; the young man was not surprised; the padishah gave him his daughter; at home, the Turkish padishah also gave him his daughter; now the young man told a dream: on his left is the moon, on his right is the sun; the daughter of the neighboring padishah is called Ay (moon), and the Turkish padishah is called Gunesh (sun)]: 132-135; the Kurds [the padishah tells the vezir to say what food should not be eaten, what horse, not a horse, what kind of person is not a person, otherwise he executes in 40 days; on the road there is a dirty Kechelok named Ismail-Chavish, the vizier looks at him contemptuously, but ICH teaches him: a cucumber that has grown in the shade bitter and inedible; a restive horse with white spots is not a horse, a person living in his father-in-law's house is not a man; the vizier confessed who taught him; the Persian shah demands a daughter, tells him to guess riddles; which one three Shah knives, which vizier, what vekil; ICH puts knives in the fire: Shahsky does not turn black, the vizier's knife turned black at the end, the vekil knife is all black; which of the mares is mother and which daughter; ICH: lock your horses by three days without water - the uterus will run to the water first, and the cub from behind; thread the thread through a 40 m long twisted tube; ICH tied a thread to the ant, he stretched it through; Shah: our horses are laughing here, your offspring mares are over from ours, send foals; ICH took people, began to exterminate dogs on Shah's territory: our sheep were attacked by a wolf, but your dogs did not come running; the Persian Shah gave IC a rich gift, and passed off as a padishah his daughter]: Rudenko 1970, No. 13:33-37.

Iran - Central Asia. Persians (Farce, Azerbaijan) [the poor young man dreams that he will become king, he has the sun, moon and stars on his face; he refuses to tell the king a dream, is thrown into prison; solves riddles: to distinguish an old mare from a young mare (young eats faster); to distinguish between equally dressed men and women; he is told to sew clothes out of stone, he demands to thread a thread out of sand; he marries princesses, the sun and the moon are wives, stars are children]: Marzolph 1984, No. 725:138-139; Vakhans [Orphan dreams of the sun on one side and the moon on the other; the grandmother does not tell me to dream, it is about the royal daughters; but Orphan spilled out he was put in prison; he made a hole in the wall, ended up in the royal daughter's room; secretly eats what the maid brings to the princess; the princess cut her finger, added salt, caught the thief; teaches Orphan to decide the tasks that her father will ask, who decides he will give his daughter; 1) distinguish a mare mother from a foal (she will run from behind); 2) what is in the chest (Orphan overheard: another chest); 3) make shirts and pants out of stones army; we must invite the tsar to grind the sand into the needle first; the tsar cannot, gives his daughter to Sirota]: Grunberg, Steblin-Kamensky 1976, No. 49:414-418.

Baltoscandia. Estonians (Kanepi, SE Estonia) [in the evening, the father tells his two sons that he would like to know what they dreamed in the morning; the eldest said, the youngest refused; the father sold him to a soldier; he also did not said, the soldier sold it to an officer; the same to the general; the general to the king; the young man lives with him, the princess fell in love with him; two years later, during a feast, the king ordered him to tell a dream; and saw how the young man and the princess were they bent under the table and kissed; the king threw the young man into prison; the princess secretly feeds him; the princess's brother marries the daughter of another king, he is asked tasks that he cannot solve; the princess asks the young man also answers; which end of the three painted sticks is closer to the butt (must be thrown from a height, the lower end is heavier, the first to touch the ground); which of the three horses is younger and which is older (the eldest is the first will go to the feeder, and the youngest hesitates); 6 equally dressed - who is a boy and who is a girl (put rings in porridge - the grooms will give the rings to the brides); now the girl's brother is summoned to someone else's king; she secretly releases the young man from prison to help her brother; on the way he sees two fighting over an invisible hat and a flying carpet; he threw a stone: who will get there first; he put on his hat himself and flew away on the carpet; in The tavern has 11 players, their chief has died, they have made the young man in charge; he tells them not to tell them who is in charge; they tell the king that everyone is equal; he offers a set table with one chair, 12 mattresses and 1 bed; they eat, sleep one by one; the prince, the groom must bring the same shoes as the bride will wear; the young man promises to do these; for this he takes a receipt that he will receive half the kingdom; everything in an invisible hat he found out; the same with the dress (the second half of the kingdom); the same bird that the princess would have (the same; the white goose); on the occasion of the wedding, the prisoners were released; the young man came to the king with receipts: both halves of his kingdom and the princess too; the young man married and reigned; he saw this in a dream, and if he did, nothing would have come true]: Mälk et al. 1967, No. 107:352-359.

Volga - Perm. Tatars: Bashirov, Yarmukhametov 1956 [=Yarmukhametov 1957:76-78; the tsar orders to kill the elderly; the son hid his 70-year-old father; says that the tsar and the viziers came to the river and see it as precious stone, dive, not reach; old man: a stone in a nest in a tree; viziers persuade him to ask the young man which of the two stallions is old and which is young; father: the old will give way to the young; which log from the top, which is from the bottom of the tree; father: the log from the bottom of the tree will go at the bottom of the tree into the water; the young man has to admit that his father taught him, the tsar canceled the order to kill the elderly]: 90-94; Zamaletdinov 2010, No. 21 (1 entry) [the young man does not tell anyone his dream; the padishah threw him in prison, tells him to beat him; the padishah's daughter fell in love, told him to make a way to the garden; another padishah demands either a daughter or an answer to three riddles; only a young man guesses: an apple from this year's harvest is at the bottom, the year before last it swims; a hewn log has sunk into the water at its lower end; a young horse reaches for milk, an older horse reaches for hay, the old one went to oats; the young man received the princess's hand and told a dream: he saw how he married a princess]: 75-79.

Turkestan. Uighurs (Kashgar) [the padishah wants to test his son, goes hunting with him, offers to catch gazelle; the son rushes after the gazelle; the padishah hit the gazelle with an arrow, beat his son for stupidity; the vizier advises her son to marry an intelligent girl; the padishah and the vizier see girls fleeing the rain; everyone is covered with empty bags, Gulinur alone took off her clothes, covered a bag of dung; the padishah asks where G. lives; in a hut with 60 windows; the padishah realized that he had holes; tells Father G. to make a katyk out of bovine milk; in the evening G. says that the order has not been executed: the father gives birth; the padishah decides to marry his son to G. tells her father to come for gold; S. tells her to take not the bag, but his eye, he will fit more into it; after the wedding, the padishah tells his son to bring meat cooked on a stick; the stick burned down, G. tells him to bring it to his father kebab; a neighboring padishah sent a planed stick, tells me to answer where the butt was and where was the top; G.: the butt will fall in the water; distinguish the mare from its adult foal; G.: mother will shovel oats daughters, and take the daughter for himself; the neighbor captured the padishah, ordered him to write a letter for his army to surrender; the padishah writes: "I am visiting a neighbor. His kingdom turned out to be a true paradise. There is a yellow silk canopy above me, I sleep on a soft feather bed, eat fatty pilaf, drink strong tea, and the khan drinks red wine. We have fun day and night, we have no strength to leave this kingdom. After receiving the letter, come with the entire treasury, and slaughter three lambs who come from the steppe. There is an unfortunate black foal in the herd - don't take it with you. And be sure to grab a smart fox." The padishah's wife believed that everything was so; G. orders to kill the messengers, led the army, freed the padishah]: Kabirov 1963:28-34.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Siberian Tatars [khan ordered the killing of old people; Akhmet hid his father in distant mowing; at the bottom of the lake near the khan's palace there is something white and round; whoever gets it, half a khanate and a daughter as a wife, and whoever fails - head off his shoulders; Father Ahmet: there is a nest on the shore, it has a white egg, it is reflected in the water; now Khan demands to guess which stick is made of wood and which is made of root; father: which will fall down in the water, the one from the root; which of the two stallions is old and who is young; father: the young horse walks with its head raised and the old horse with its head tilted; A. admitted that his father answered the questions - let Khan does not give up his daughter and half his kingdom, but will spare his father; the khan canceled the order to kill the elderly]: Tomilov 1995:149-151.

Japan. Japanese: Bystrov et al. 1962 (Nagano Prefecture, central Honshu) [the prince orders that those over 70 be sent to the island where they died; instead, the son took their mother to the mountains; changed their mind returned it, hid it under the floor; the neighboring prince threatens war, if not 1) make a rope out of ashes (a hidden old woman tells you to soak the rope with salt, then burn it); 2) thread the rope through a winding hole into stone (smear the stone with honey, where the hole comes out, tie a silk thread to the ant); 3) determine which of the mares is the mother and which daughter (the young mare will immediately attack the proposed grass, old will wait); instead of a reward, the peasant asks to save his mother's life; the prince decides not to exile the elderly anymore]: 380-385; Ikeda 1971, No. 981 [the prince orders to leave the elderly in the mountains when they reach a certain age; one son 1) hides his father under the floor, 2) is unable to obey the order, 3) takes his father to the mountains, but when he sees that he throws twigs on the path so that the son does not get lost on the way back, returns the father back; the enemy attacks the prince's possessions, sets difficult tasks; listening to the father, the son solves them, the enemy refuses to attack; 1) twist the rope from the ashes; 2) thread the thread through the spiral shell, 3) find out where the log has the top and bottom, 4) find out which of the mares is the mother and who is the daughter, 5) find out the sex of two identical snakes, 6) bring a self-playing drum, 8) weigh the big bull; the prince learns that The father found solutions; when choosing a reward, the son asks to save his father's life; the prince cancels the order to kill the elderly]: 220-221.