Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

M195A. Where is the upper end of the stick?.


The character sends a long object that either looks the same at both ends or is inside a small object, and requires you to say which end of the item is upper, and which is the lower one. The guesser gives the right answer.

Malgash, Irish, Iraqi Arabs, Tibetans, Northern India (Hindi), Koreans, Hungarians, Croats, Russians (Vologda), Kalmyks, Dargins, Azerbaijanis, Turks, Estonians, Kazan Tatars, Uighurs (Kashgar), Siberian Tatars, Teleuts, Altaians, Mongols, Central (?) Yakuts, Japanese, Ancient Japan.

Sudan-East Africa. Malgashi [fourth son, Faralahi, does not listen to his parents, his father drives him away; now his name is Besurungula; he only rides down the mountain and waits for death; the woman Zawatra tells him to set a trap; He finds her clothes, rice, bulls, slaves, money, wife; refused to come home when his mother and then father died; his brothers came to him, gave him a drink, he told him about the trap; immediately everything disappeared; Z. returned he is missing on the condition that he will not tell anyone else about it; B. wants a second wife; Z. teaches him to put a horsefly in a bamboo stick; not to eat the bananas he sees on the way, not to touch the bananas he sees sugar cane; a head without a body will throw nets, a leg will turn millstones; when you see them, you can neither laugh nor turn off the road; cross the river not by a good one, but by a rotten bridge; do not drive away or turn off the road beating a dog in the village is a father-in-law; take a girl on whom the released horsefly will sit; to answer the father-in-law's question, which end of the stick is the lower end, you need to throw it up, it will fall at the lower end; B. everything performed; the brothers began to ask B. how he got his wife; B. said they went and broke all prohibitions; the girl's father turned them into dogs (dog origin)]: Rodman 1965:176-185.

Western Europe. The Irish [master Gobes-en-Shore's father chose a bride for him; each girl was given three tasks; 1) distinguish the lower end of the willow twig from the upper one if they are the same thickness; 2) take them to fair a herd of sheep and return both the herd and the cost; 3) approach the edge of the abyss by chariot without causing anxiety; girl: throw a twig into the river (the lower end is heavier, it will turn downstream); 2) shear sheep and sell wool; 3) stay away from the abyss; after the wedding, G. went to build a palace in Spain; his wife advised me to be friends with women, they know all the secrets; G. found out that he would be killed, when he finished the palace; G. told the king that the wall is slightly crooked, but he invented a tool to straighten it; the king does not let him in; then G. suggests that the king send his son; the instrument is called "hook-and-rope" (hell-like, a hint of bad ideas); the wife understood everything; she invited the Spanish prince to get the instrument out of the chest, pushed it there, exchanged it for her husband]: Kharitonov 2008:119-122.

Western Asia. The Arabs of Iraq [the magician gave the childless woman a pomegranate, she gave birth to a son; the boy Ahsan refuses to tell his parents a dream, the father sold it; King Selman bought it and brought it closer to him; having recognized him the story, asked to tell a dream, when refused, threw him into prison; A. dug an underground passage, found himself in the chambers of the king's daughter; began to come to her regularly; the princess's friend is the daughter of King Rashid; she will go out for who would solve her three riddles; the daughter of King S. found out the answers, told the young man; 1) of the two mares, who was the mother and who was the daughter (the daughter ate more oats); 2) where the stick was the upper end and where was the lower end (the upper end) surfaced); 3) how to open a sealed barrel without tools (press a certain place); A. married Tsar R.'s daughter, lives in honor and luxury; S.'s daughter is still in love with him, her father will give her to him who will meet the conditions; the girl reports them to daughter R., and that A.; 1) divide the ground in half (the center is where S. is sitting, and if she does not believe, let her measure); 2) sew a stone dress (let the king give appropriate threads, needles and scissors); 3) whoever is above us (Allah); A. gets a second wife; two wives sat on his knees, he told them a dream: he has the moon on one knee, the sun on the other; everything is fine]: Yaremenko 1990, No. 4:36-42.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans: Shelton 1925, No. 15 [Gezongongdu owns a big kingdom and wants to annex a small kingdom where Drashi is king; sends two mares - it is necessary to determine who is the mother and who is the daughter; the wife of one from the subjects: the mother mare will push the daughter's food; tells you to find out where the lower end of the stick is; wife: in the river, the stick will turn upstream; which of the two snakes is male and who is female; wife: put a silk ribbon, the female will love it, she will lie on it and fall asleep, and the male will crawl away; G. decided not to attack D., and he rewarded the woman and her husband]: 76-77; Ting 1978, No. 851A* [Chinese princess suggests that grooms 1) thread the thread into the hole in the jade (grease with honey, tie it to an ant); 2) identify the mothers of 5000 foals (lock mares and foals in separate pens, and then let the foals go to mothers); 3) which end of the log is closer to the butt (put into the water); 4) identify the princess among several equally dressed girls (find out signs from the maid); 5) separate children from mothers among 100 ducks ( this can be seen in how they eat); 6) slaughter, eat and skins a hundred rams at a time (100 people work at the same time)] {the page number in pdf is not visible}; Osipov, Riftin 1962 [(text as of this story with all episodes]: 31-37).

South Asia. North India (Hindi), Pilibhit District) [Emperor Ruma slept with the Empress, a boy, the son of a slave, at his feet; and he dreamed that King Balkh's daughter was washing one leg and that Emperor Rum's daughter was washing one leg for him and Emperor Rum's daughter stands next to him, holding a golden bowl of water; when he woke up, he laughed and refused to say why; the emperor wanted to hang him but agreed to put him in prison; King Balkh sent three mares (and ordered say which of them are grandmother, mother and daughter); no one could answer; a young man in prison advised to water them; the grandmother only kicked a little, the daughter more, and the granddaughter galloped around the palace ; the king sent three pieces of wood; the young man ordered them to be thrown into the water; the one closer to the butt sank to the bottom, the middle one swam in the middle, and the closest to the top surfaced; the young man knew that they grew up in Balkh all the fruits except the orange, and took an orange with him when King Balkh called him to compete in wisdom with his monkey; the monkey demanded an orange and the young man showed it; then King Balkh gave it to the young man his daughter; then Emperor Ruma also gave him his daughter; King Balkh's daughter washed his feet, and Emperor Rum's daughter held a vessel; the dream came true]: Crooke 1895, No. 253:101-102.

China - Korea. Koreans [the king of a big country is looking for an excuse to attack the little king; sent a mare and a foal, telling them to determine which of them is who; farmhand: give them food, the mare will push food the foal; where the stick has the top and where the bottom is thrown into the water, will swim with the upper end forward; which of the snake is male and which is the female - if you put a silk thread next to it, the female will crawl to it and fall asleep, and the male will crawl away; the king of a big country has given up war]: Park 1991:303-304.

The Balkans. Croats [the father tells his son named Milutin and daughter to tell dreams; the girl always tells, and the boy dreams every time that he killed the king, married the Count's daughter (count) and reigned; the father drove his son away, and the count picked him up; the boy refused to tell him his dream, he threw him into prison; the count's daughter secretly brought him food; after 7 years, the king threatens the count with war if he did not will answer which side the stick opens {it is not clear; which side is closer to the butt?} ; the young man teaches the count's daughter to pretend that she guessed it herself: you have to put a stick in the water, she will turn her light side up (on which it opens); then the king sent three horses, we must answer how many each year old; young man: a one-year-old horse will approach an annual oat, a two-year-old will approach a three-year-old, a three-year-old will approach a three-year-old oat; third task: I will throw a club that knocks a spoon out of my mouth, I must throw it back; no one can move the club; the young man orders to buy a 9-year-old cow from the king for any money, eats meat for three months; having regained his strength, he threw the club in the middle of the kingdom; the king demanded a guessman to kill himself; he orders to find nine young men like him; they repeat his actions in everything; M. kills the king in a duel, marries the count's daughter]: Wratislaw 1890, No. 56:291-286; Hungarians [the king demanded that everyone tell us what they would see in a dream; one young man kept silent, he was walled up; the queen told the workers to leave a hole, brought food to the young man; the Turkish sultan sent 1) a planed and painted stick, demands to know where its upper end is and where is its lower end; young man: tie the skins in the middle and lift it up, the lower end will fall; the queen tells her father that she saw the answer in a dream ; 2) 7 foals from one year to seven years old, how to distinguish; young man: pour barley from each year; born that year will approach his barley; 3) so that everything that happens in the Sultan's country at the same time happened in the king's country; this time the young man tells the Queen to ask his father to release the walled up; he was released, he orders to build a tower from the top of which you can see what is happening in Sultan's palace, which has a glass wall; the sultan requires a guessman; the young man chooses 12 other young men to share his face; each must answer that he is a young king; the sultan sends a spy to see which bed is given royal honors, cut a circle on his clothes; he hears a young man saying that the wine served is mixed with blood, the bread is mixed with human milk, the sultan is illegitimate; he carved a hole in each jacket; the young man confesses himself; the winemaker explains that he cut his leg when he trampled on grapes; the maid fed the baby, milk splashed into the sauerkraut; mother Sultan: your father was at war, Uncle Pali happened; the sultan tells the young man to hang; he asks his men to wear black clothes, others to wear white clothes, to drive up to the gallows; the young man explains: white angels came for the soul of an illegitimate man, and black devils for the soul of a legitimate son; the Sultan was delighted that angels were behind him, ordered to hang himself; the young man returned to the king, received the queen and the throne], No. 13:269-278.

Central Europe. Russians (Vologda) [the tsar has children Ivan and Mary; the garden was guarded by a soldier, the general fell in love with him; refused the tsar; tsar: but you give it to a soldier; general to a soldier: why are you talking about me that way; soldier : after all, you give it; the general complained to her parent, who put the soldier in prison; and M. is in love with him; dug there and began to go to the soldier; the tsar wants to marry I. to Nastasya from the thirties kingdoms; she sent a sword in her suitcase: at which end of the sock and which handle? soldier: put the suitcase in the milk, the handle will turn up; which of the 12 pigeons is the oldest? they will peck in total, and this one will walk around; M. told Ivan; soldier: if I. goes to N. alone, he will not return; M. released the soldier from prison; he took 12 drunks with him; took the devils away on the way (they they argued; I.: who will run faster) an invisible hat, a samovar tablecloth, a flying carpet; N.'s drunkards lay down where, and the soldier on the feather bed; N. came and cut off the corner of the vest; the soldier cut off everyone; I. arrived; N .: I need exactly the same dress and shoes as mine; the soldier stole, made new ones, I. showed; now N. demands that I. do what she did at night; I. in an invisible hat follows her to the king of the sea ; repeats and presents everything; at home, the soldier returned to prison; then with M. to the king; showed documents in which I. wrote him three-thirds of the kingdom; I. went to the kingdom of N., and the soldier married M. and inherited throne]: Ivanitsky in Burtsev 1895, No. 11:70-84.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kalmyks [Khan Tsetsen married his son, took him hunting; seeing a deer lying down, said: "Hurry up, catch the deer by the horns"; the son ran, the deer galloped away; the khan killed the deer with an arrow, beat his son with a whip; the son told his wife about everything, who decided that the old man was crazy; they went hunting again, the khan asked his son to cook meat in a wooden cauldron; the son hollowed out a pot from a piece of wood, poured water, and crumbled the meat and made a fire; the cauldron burned down; the khan beat the son; he told his wife everything, who said that the old man was crazy; the khan asked the son to catch a horse with one head facing south and the other north; the son caught two horses, tied them by the tails and brought them to the khan; the khan beat his son, sent his daughter-in-law to his parents; began to look for a new wife for his son; met an intelligent girl and told her father to cook bovine milk koumiss; the next day he rode again; the girl put her father to bed, told him to moan; the khan asked for bovine milk koumiss; the girl says that the father is giving birth, so he has not cooked it yet; khan:" Do men give birth"; girl: "Does a bull give birth to milk"; the khan decided to marry her son, told her father to come to the palace; the girl gave the old man a purse when he met the khan, he offered him gold; began to fill his purse, his purse stretched out, covered the entire treasury; they had a wedding, the khan took his son hunting; noticing a deer lying down, said: "Hurry up catching a deer by the horns"; the son entered , as before; the beaten man returned home, the wife explained: "Shoot soon"; went hunting again, the khan asked to cook meat in a wooden cauldron; the son did as before; the beaten returned home, wife explained that it was necessary to pick up the khan's phone, fill it with tobacco, light it and give it to him; the khan asked him to catch a horse in the herd, with its heads facing one south and the other to the north; the son did as before; the beaten man returned home, the wife explained that it was necessary to bring a mare who was about to necklace; the neighboring khan sent Khan Tsetsen a wooden whip handle with the same thickness to make him determined where the roots were and where were the top; daughter-in-law: "If we put this stick into the water, the root, since it is denser than the top, must go deeper into the water"; the neighboring khan sent the same mare and foal, for Tsetsen to determine which of them is who; daughter-in-law says they should not feed them for three days, and then both pour oats smaller than one horse in size and see which of them while eating she will shovel and move oats to the other with her lips, she is the mother; the neighboring khan sent two identical snakes to Tsetsen to determine which one is male and which is female; daughter-in-law: "We must keep them in in the dark, and then lay some wide velvet on the way at the entrance so that they could crawl on it. As soon as the snakes are on the velvet, the female one will immediately curl up and lie quietly, and the male one will crawl around the sleeper, with her head raised high, as if guarding her dream"; the neighboring khan invited Tsetsen to visit; he came, chained him to a cart, given bread and water; Khan Tsetsen: "Write a letter to your own so that your whole kingdom will be chained here to one soul, and there I will find that wise man myself {who solved riddles}"; Tsetsen wrote to his wife: "The kingdom of our neighbor Khan turned out to be a real paradise. There is no suffering, no death, no illness; there is also no winter, and everything smells like spring; there is no summer either, and everything is cool in autumn. People here live on allowances in all four seasons and do not know what work is... I sleep on a soft feather bed. I eat fatty lamb and drink strong aromatic tea, dress in blue velvet. There are no limits to my pleasure, entertainment and fun... It all happens 24 hours a day. There is no way to leave this country even for one minute. When you receive this letter, all your heart and soul come here. Remember: you, my old lady, are trusting; there is an unfortunate piebald foal in my herd, but it is gratifying that there is a piece of fragrant oil in my chest... Everybody wander around. I miss you a lot"; a letter was sent with a messenger to the Tsetsen Khanate; daughter-in-law: "Everything he writes must be understood in the opposite sense. Tea and mutton are water and crackers; feather bed is earth, blue velvet is sky. Fun around the clock - suffering around the clock. And the fact that there is no way to be away even for one minute means that he is shackled... "You, my old lady, are trusting" is a warning not to believe the letter; "An unfortunate piebald foal in the herd" is the khan talking about a son who still does not understand anything, "a piece of butter in a chest" - it's me... The call "all wander here" means "go to war against the neighboring khan and free me"; they went to the neighboring khanate, told the khan that they were happy to wander to him; he freed Tsetsen, asked feast; by morning, the daughter-in-law brought the army, found the enemies asleep, captured them]: Egorov 1978:19-31; Vatagin 1964 [the llama promised that Bayin-Bath had a son, but he could be carried away by a black-bald wolf; son Badm grew up, got married, goes with his wife to his parents; at rest he was taken away by a wolf; his father ordered to put a house on this place; three years later, a passerby noticed that a big man had entered the house, ate and left again; Batma's mother went to guard, got scared; father fell asleep; Ijimya's wife could not hold back; parents came together; Batma: I have to go to me between 900 burning trees, swim in boiling milk 900 mares, then solve problems wolf; father did not pass, mother passed but did not dare to rush into the cauldron, wife passed, swam; wolf: 1) determine who of the two mares are mother and who is daughter; I.: mother pushes her daughter's oats; 2) which of the two the serpent is male, and who is female (the female lay lazily, and the male began to hiss); 3) which of the three Batma pigeons (he had tears in front of his eyes); the wolf gave Ijima Batm]: 156-160; Dargins [khan orders to throw him off the bridge all after reaching the age of 60; the son leads his father, he cries: your own son will also bring you here; the old man hid his father in the basement of the house; 15 years later, a neighboring khan sent two bars of wood and two foals: which closer to the butt, which foal is older; hidden father: in the water, a bar closer to the butt sinks deeper; the eldest foal will be the first to approach the watering hole; the khan canceled his order]: Khalilov, Osmanov 1989: 220-222; Azerbaijanis [when the tailor woke up the student, he said he had a dream that would tell only when the dream came true; the Shah overheard the conversation, demanded to tell the dream, being refused, put the young man in prison; the young man dug, entered the princess's chambers, ate pilaf, returned to the cell; the princess lay in wait for the young man; fell in love with him; the neighboring shah threatens war; the princess teaches the young man what to do, when he is called to give advice; demand her hand for the right answer; the enemy ambassador will draw a circle (our world) - divide it in half; he puts a bow on top - put a sword; pour millet (he has so many warriors) - let the rooster go, he will bite the millet; the shah sent three horses - which one is older? princess: let the mare go to the horses, they will follow her in order of seniority; which end of the stick is closer to the base - throw it into the water, the top will emerge first; the enemy shah ordered to send a guessman; ordered to sew a robe made of the rock; the Shah's daughter orders to demand a thread of sand; the tailor's apprentice took the daughters of both shahs, each gave birth to a boy; when the Shah came in, the son-in-law had one wife on the left, the other on the right, on both knees to son; he said he dreamed of a star on his knees and the moon falling on his head]: Akhundov 1955:266-271; Turks [boy {rather a young man} refuses to tell his mother's dream, father, teacher; everyone hits him, drives him away; the padishah received a stick from the neighboring padishah: if he does not say where her upper end is and where is the lower end, the neighboring one will start a war; the young man promises to answer this question; threw a stick into the water: the lower end sank, the upper end surfaced; which mare is mother and which is daughter; the young man ordered to mix oats with gravel; the old one ate everything, and the young one chose only grain; sew marble uniforms for troops; a young man writes a letter asking for marble threads; a neighboring padishah asks for a guessman; the boy took a camel, a goat and a cat with him; when he was told he was too young, without a mustache or beard, to be like a genius, the young man pointed to animals: a camel is tall, a cat with a mustache, a goat with a beard; the car threw the young man into a chair next to the padishah, and the mechanical girl served coffee; the young man was not surprised; the padishah gave him his daughter; at home, the Turkish padishah also gave him his daughter; now the young man has a dream: on his left is the moon, the sun is on his right; the daughter of the neighboring padishah is called Ay (moon), and Turkish - Gunesh (sun)]: Walker, Uysal 1966, No. 5:132-135.

Baltoscandia. Estonians (Kanepi, SE Estonia) [in the evening, the father tells his two sons that he would like to know what they dreamed in the morning; the eldest said, the youngest refused; the father sold him to a soldier; he also did not said, the soldier sold it to an officer; the same to the general; the general to the king; the young man lives with him, the princess fell in love with him; two years later, during a feast, the king ordered him to tell a dream; and saw how the young man and the princess were they bent under the table and kissed; the king threw the young man into prison; the princess secretly feeds him; the princess's brother marries the daughter of another king, he is asked tasks that he cannot solve; the princess asks the young man also answers; which end of the three painted sticks is closer to the butt (must be thrown from a height, the lower end is heavier, the first to touch the ground); which of the three horses is younger and which is older (the eldest is the first will go to the feeder, and the youngest hesitates); 6 equally dressed - who is a boy and who is a girl (put rings in porridge - the grooms will give the rings to the brides); now the girl's brother is summoned to someone else's king; she secretly releases the young man from prison to help her brother; on the way he sees two fighting over an invisible hat and a flying carpet; he threw a stone: who will be the first to get there; he put on his hat himself and flew away on the carpet; The tavern has 11 players, their chief has died, they have made the young man in charge; he tells them not to tell them who is in charge; they tell the king that everyone is equal; he offers a set table with one chair, 12 mattresses and 1 bed; they eat, sleep one by one; the prince, the groom must bring the same shoes as the bride will wear; the young man promises to do these; for this he takes a receipt that he will receive half the kingdom; everything in an invisible hat he found out; the same with the dress (the second half of the kingdom); the same bird that the princess would have (the same; the white goose); on the occasion of the wedding, the prisoners were released; the young man came to the king with receipts: both halves of his kingdom and the princess too; the young man married and reigned; he saw this in a dream, and if he did, nothing would have come true]: Mälk et al. 1967, No. 107:352-359.

Volga - Perm. Tatars: Bashirov, Yarmukhametov 1956 [=Yarmukhametov 1957:76-78; the tsar orders to kill the elderly; the son hid his 70-year-old father; says that the tsar and the viziers came to the river and see it as precious stone, dive, not reach; old man: a stone in a nest in a tree; viziers persuade him to ask the young man which of the two stallions is old and which is young; father: the old will give way to the young; which log from the top, which is from the bottom of the tree; father: the log from the bottom of the tree will go at the bottom of the tree into the water; the young man has to admit that his father taught him, the tsar canceled the order to kill the elderly]: 90-94; Zamaletdinov 2010, No. 21 (1 entry) [the young man does not tell anyone his dream; the padishah threw him in prison, tells him to beat him; the padishah's daughter fell in love, told him to make a way to the garden; another padishah demands either a daughter or an answer to three riddles; only a young man guesses: an apple from this year's harvest is at the bottom, the year before last it swims; a hewn log has sunk into the water at its lower end; a young horse reaches for milk, an older horse reaches for hay, the old one went to oats; the young man received the princess's hand and told a dream: he saw him marry a princess]: 75-79.

Turkestan. Uighurs (Kashgar) [the padishah wants to test his son, goes hunting with him, offers to catch gazelle; the son rushes after the gazelle; the padishah hit the gazelle with an arrow, beat his son for stupidity; the vizier advises her son to marry an intelligent girl; the padishah and the vizier see girls fleeing the rain; everyone is covered with empty bags, Gulinur alone took off her clothes, covered a bag of dung; the padishah asks where G. lives; in a hut with 60 windows; the padishah realized that he had holes; tells Father G. to make a katyk out of bovine milk; in the evening G. says that the order has not been executed: the father gives birth; the padishah decides to marry his son to G. tells her father to come for gold; S. tells her to take not the bag, but his eye, he will fit more into it; after the wedding, the padishah tells his son to bring meat cooked on a stick; the stick burned down, G. tells him to bring it to his father kebab; a neighboring padishah sent a planed stick, tells me to answer where the butt was and where was the top; G.: the butt will fall in the water; distinguish the mare from its adult foal; G.: mother will shovel oats daughters, and take the daughter for himself; the neighbor captured the padishah, ordered him to write a letter for his army to surrender; the padishah writes: "I am visiting a neighbor. His kingdom turned out to be a true paradise. There is a yellow silk canopy above me, I sleep on a soft feather bed, eat fatty pilaf, drink strong tea, and the khan drinks red wine. We have fun day and night, we have no strength to leave this kingdom. After receiving the letter, come with the entire treasury, and slaughter three lambs who come from the steppe. There is an unfortunate black foal in the herd - don't take it with you. And be sure to grab a smart fox." The padishah's wife believed that everything was so; G. orders to kill the messengers, led the army, freed the padishah]: Kabirov 1963:28-34.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. Siberian Tatars [khan ordered the killing of old people; Akhmet hid his father in distant mowing; at the bottom of the lake near the khan's palace there is something white and round; whoever gets it, half a khanate and a daughter as a wife, and whoever fails - head off his shoulders; Father Ahmet: there is a nest on the shore, it has a white egg, it is reflected in the water; now Khan demands to guess which stick is made of wood and which is made of root; father: which will fall down in the water, the one from the root; which of the two stallions is old and who is young; father: the young horse walks with its head raised and the old horse with its head tilted; A. admitted that his father answered the questions - let Khan does not give up his daughter and half his kingdom, but spares his father; Khan canceled the order to kill the elderly]: Tomilov 1995:149-151; Teleuts: Funk 2004 (Seok Merkit, Belovsky District, Kemerovo Region, 1989) [when the ambassadors came to Konguday, his son Shn guessed where the stick was butt and where the peak was; from two birds he learned who was who: who would climb under the roof and who would fly away {without details}]: 46; Ukachina 1984 [{the text is called Altai, but it is most likely the same record that Funk writes about as Teleut}; hero Shunu has a wife Karagys and brother Kaldan; their father is Kan-Taichi; Kaldan decided to take his brother's wife away; in the form of a hurry, S. fired an arrow that pierced the door of Caldas's yurt; for this, CT ordered that the shoulder bones be cut out of S.'s body, replaced them with dog shoulder blades, and put S. in the dungeon; the servant dug up an underground passage and fed the prisoner for 7 years; after S. disappeared, neighboring Khan Kara-Karmyk sent two similar birds and ordered to determine which of them was forty and who was a crow; the servant asks Sh.; he orders release the birds during bad weather; the magpie will hide under the canopy, and the crow will sit on a pole and croak; then the KK sent two identical grease sticks, asking them to indicate their thick and thin ends; Sh. ordered to put the sticks in a trough of water: the thin ends would rise; then the KK sent an iron onion, we had to pull it; CT ordered his shoulder blades to be inserted back, washed and dressed up; S. easily bent the bow; KK remained a tributary to Kan-Taichi]: 59-60; the Mongols [khan ordered the elderly to be killed with a sheep's tail; the young man hid his father in a hole; the neighboring khan orders to determine where the planed tree has the top, and where is the bottom; the father of the young man: the log will float along the river with the upper end forward; the neighboring khan sent a monster: what is this? the young man's father: a well-fed louse; if you rub your nails, the monster will be frightened; the khan stopped killing old people, ceded the throne to a young man]: Mikhailov 1962:64-65.

Eastern Siberia. Central (?) Yakuts [Nikita refused to tell his father a dream; he complained to the prince; N. did not tell the prince either; the prince offers Father N. to sell him his son; N. himself set the price: dig a hole for him in size and fill it in gold; a year later, the prince sold N. to the foreman, he to the governor, the governor to the king; the price is increasing; the king tells N. to torture, put him in prison; at this time, the royal son marries the clever girl Wise Kuo; that asks riddles; 1) which of the two crows is older; N.: plant both in icy water, the eldest will stiffen before the young one; 2) a ball is carved from oak wood, which part is closer to the butt and which part is closer to the top; N.: throw the ball into the water, it will pop up with the side that is closer to the top; 3) Kuo sent a plow loaded with wool: how many wool? N.: we must load the same plow with fallen needles: there are as many hairs as needles; the king let N. go; he went and found an invisible shirt; when she saw the king's stupid son, Kuo brought three hairs from her beard grandfather: let the groom bring his grandfather's hairs; if they are similar, the marriage will be happy; the hairs are not similar; N. took off his invisible shirt and said that he was the one who solved the riddles; K. married him]: Shurtakov 1983:107-116.

Japan. The Japanese [prince orders the old people to be left in the mountains when they reach a certain age; one son 1) hides his father under the floor, 2) is unable to obey the order, 3) takes his father to the mountains, but Seeing that he throws twigs on the path so that his son does not get lost on the way back, returns the father back; the enemy attacks the prince's domain, sets difficult tasks; listening to the father, the son solves them, the enemy refuses to attack; 1) twist the rope out of the ashes; 2) thread the thread through the spiral shell, 3) find out where the log has the top and bottom, 4) find out which of the mares is the mother and who is the daughter, 5) find out the sex of two identical serpent, 6) bring a self-playing drum, 8) weigh the big bull; the prince learns that the father found solutions; choosing a reward, the son asks to save his father's life; the prince cancels the order to kill the elderly]: Ikeda 1971, No. 981:220-221; Ancient Japan [God Aridoshi's name means "Ant Move"; mikado ordered that anyone over 40 years old be killed; an official with the rank of chujo hid parents in the cellar; the Chinese emperor was going to seize Japan, asked difficult tasks; each time the chujo asks his father for advice, tells the mikado a solution; 1) where is the top of the tree and where the base (throw it into the water, the top will be downstream); 2) which of the snakes is female and who is male (only the male will move his tail if you bring a twig); 3) thread the thread through the stone in which the spiral stroke ( tie a thread to an ant, a drop of honey at the exit); mikado asks what reward the chujo wants; he asks to repeal the extermination decree, mikado agrees]: Sei Shonagon 1975, No. 237:262-265.