Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

M29gg. The hedgehog is a cunning winner .14.-.17.27.-.29.31.32.


hedgehog defeats or deceives strong opponents by cunning.

Western Sahara [hedgehog and eagle; hedgehog and fox], Berbers in Morocco and adjacent NW Algeria [hedgehog and wolf; hedgehog and snake; hedgehog and jackal], kabilas [hedgehog and jackal], Algerian Berbers (Zouave, Shawi, etc.) [hedgehog and jackal], Tunisian Berbers [hedgehog and wolf], Moroccan Arabs [hedgehog and jackal; hedgehog and snake], Algerian Arabs [hedgehog and jackal], Tunisian Berbers [hedgehog and wolf], Spanish (Murcia) [hedgehog and hare], Catalans [hedgehog and fox], Portuguese [hedgehog and fox] and hare; hedgehog and snake], Maltese [hedgehog and jackal], Corsicans [hedgehog and fox], Italians (Campania), Germans (Grimms) [hedgehog and hare], Friezes [hedgehog and hare], British [hedgehog and fox], Welsh [hedgehog and devil], Arameans [hedgehog and hare] hare], Iraq [hedgehog and fox], Hungarians [hedgehog and hare; hedgehog and fox], Bosnians [hedgehog and goat], Bulgarians [hedgehog and fox], Poles [hedgehog and hare], Ukrainians (Hutsulshchina, Transcarpathia) [hedgehog and hare], Belarusians [hedgehog and hare], urchin and lion], Adygs [hedgehog and bear; hedgehog and deer], Kabardian people [hedgehog and man], Karachayans [hedgehog and man], Ossetians [hedgehog and deer], Ingush [hedgehog and fox], Latvians [hedgehog and hare], Stavropol Turkmens [hedgehog, wolf and fox], Estonians [hedgehog and hare], Setu [hedgehog and hare], Kazan Tatars [hedgehog and fox], Bashkirs [hedgehog and hare]

North Africa. Western Sahara: Aris, Cladellas 1991:146-147 (M30, M183) [The Hedgehog and the Eagle agree to race or fly; the Hedgehog puts other hedgehogs at a distance in advance; the Eagle admits defeat, asks him to be allowed to see the Hedgehog's head; he tells him to be lifted into the air, then he sees; the Eagle sees the Hedgehog's head, throws it, the Hedgehog breaks], 150-151 (M157) [the fox is the rabbit's husband, he has a donkey, the rabbit a cow, she must calve; the fox returns, says that his donkey gave birth to a calf; the hedgehog: it is difficult, asks to come to him in three days; three days later the fox answers that he is unhappy - today he must give birth; fox: but you're a male; hedgehog: so is the male donkey, so give the calf back to the rabbit], 148-149 (M172) [at night, the fox falls asleep, and the hedgehog asks the rabbits to bring him twigs to make a saddle; tried it on to the sleeper fox; hid it in the bushes; in the morning he tells the fox that he dreamed that they had found a saddle and it did not fit him, but the fox fit; fox: if we really find it, we'll try; and it happened, the hedgehog rides a fox; in in the village, the hedgehog hid in the wood, and the fox was attacked by children, beaten; the hedgehog asked the hostess's daughter for a colander and two needles; made himself a cuirass and a sword, found a fox: where did you run away, look how I fought with the children]; The Berbers of Beni Snou (border between the Holy Army of Morocco and Algeria) [M134C, M183], Destaing 1907, No. 1 [the hedgehog and the jackal have agreed to grow barley together; while the jackal works, the hedgehog sleeps under the rock, says he supports her, or else he would fall; when the harvest was carried to the end, the jackal asked the hedgehog to go down, refused to pick it up; he asked him to lower the bag to fill it with barley and take it to the hungry hedgehogs; he hid himself at the bottom; The jackal brought barley to the hedgehogs, the hedgehog got out from under the barley]: 242-243; the Arabs of Morocco: El Koudia 2003, No. 19 (M162) [The hedgehog and the Jackal agreed to steal beans from the field; the hedgehog fills the bags, and when the work is finished, The Jackal is going to carry them away, leaving the Hedgehog to kill the peasant; the Hedgehog asks to take one bag to his children, sits in it quietly; whistles on the way, the Jackal thinks that a peasant has noticed them; brings bag for children Hedgehog; next time the Hedgehog and the Jackal stole a sheep; The hedgehog screams that a shepherd is coming, the Jackal runs away, the Hedgehog takes the meat for himself; The Jackal smells the prepared food; The hedgehog says he took the fat out of his armpits; Jackal tries to do it, hurts himself, dies]: 108-109; Nowak 1969, No. 43 (M156) [the snake asks the man to hide it from his pursuers; when they are gone, it is going to eat it; the horse says people ungrateful; the hedgehog makes the snake slide off the person, the man kills it] 74]; the Berbers of Morocco: Laoust in El-Shamy 2004, No. 5 (M131) ["it's not a tail but a root"]: 2; Leguil 1988, No. 25 [lion, jackal and the hedgehog grew the crop together; they began to divide; the jackal: this part is for me; the lion scalped him; the hedgehog: one part to the lion, two to the lion too, three, four, five, six; one to me and one jackal; the lion: who taught you have good manners: hedgehog: jackal without scalp], 34 [as in (25); and seven parts for Uncle Leo; and eight parts for Uncle Lion]: 167-169; Stumme 1894, No. 3 (M158) [the hedgehog and the wolf cultivate the site together planted onions; hedgehog: do you want bad and wrong or good and right? the wolf chose the right one, got the tops; the hedgehog began to fly onions, the wolf dried up green, the wind took everything away; next time they sowed wheat, the wolf chose the wrong one, got roots; the hedgehog offered go to steal figs and grapes; seeing that he could eat too much, he got back through a narrow gap; the wolf ate and got stuck when the owner came out; the hedgehog advises you to pretend to be dead by opening your mouth and sticking it in the ass of a rotten apricot; the owner really threw the imaginary dead wolf over the fence, cutting off the tip of its tail; the hedgehog advised to call all the wolves to threshing, promising a fee; tie it by the tails and shout that the hound approaches; the wolves ran away, cutting off their tails; the owner turned to the judge, but could not determine which of the many tailless wolves were stealing from his property; then he sprayed the grapes, growing flour and pepper; the wolf ran away, but starts coughing as soon as he opens his mouth; the hedgehog teaches you to start talking about a girl whose name sounds like a cough; the wolf is saved again]: 396-401; kabila (M74A, M74AA, M158, M183) [ the jackal and the hedgehog decided to grow beans together; they prepared a pot of butter and a pot of honey - they will return from work in the evening and eat; jackal: a neighbor has a child, we will have to go give him a name; went where they were the pots were hidden, ate oil and honey, filled the pots with earth, anointed them with the remains of oil and honey on top; when he returned, he replied that the child was named bis auf dem Boden; during harvesting and processing The jackal adjusts so that the hedgehog does all the work; suggests dividing: beans, hedgehog straw; the hedgehog is indignant; the jackal asks (his) brothers, they say: whoever gets to the barn faster will get grain; the hedgehog leaves his brother there; when the jackal runs up, the hedgehog (i.e. the hedgehog's brother) says he has already reached; the animals award beans to the hedgehog; both argue who ate the butter and honey; man: go to bed with shards under him; ate by someone who would have them smeared with oil and honey; in the morning the jackal got up and changed the shards; the hedgehog accused him, the jackal tried to hit and bite him, got all punched; decided not to go with the hedgehog anymore get involved, the harvest went to a hedgehog]: Frobenius 1921b, No. 4:13-16; kabila [the lion's legs hurt, he limped; the jackal offered to lift the cow: if you cover his feet with cow skin, they will recover; the lion lay down on his back, the jackal covered the lion's legs, ate the cow; the skin was dry, the lion's legs were unbearably ill; heron: the hedgehog's blood will cure you; the hedgehog: five drops, but must be mixed with the heron's brains; the lion summoned both tore off the heron's head, the hedgehog gave 5 drops of its blood; the partridge brought water, poured it on the lion's paws, the cow's skin got wet, it was ripped off; the lion caught the jackal by the tail, the tail came off; the jackal to other jackals: the lion wants to kill a long-tailed jackal, let everyone cut it off and go safely to the lion; this is how the jackal escaped]: Frobenius 1921b, No. 11:31-33; the Berbers of Algeria (Zouave) [the hedgehog and the jackal planted an onion, the jackal took the roots, hedgehog tops; next time they planted wheat, the hedgehog took the roots, and the jackal took the grain; the hedgehog is dissatisfied; the jackal offers to give wheat to someone who can quickly reach the pile of grain; the hedgehog hid his brother in it, the jackal admitted his defeat]: Dähnhardt 1912:69-70; the Berbers of Algeria (Kvargla) [the jackal and the hedgehog found money, brought the shepherd to buy his sheep; he promised to choose the biggest one in the morning; stabbed the sheep, put it in the dog's skin; the hedgehog realized it was a dog, hid; the jackal tore his skin, the dog caught up with him and killed him]: Basset 1897, No. 71:24-25; the Berbers of Algeria (Quargla) [the jackal asks the hedgehog how much he has tricks; he replies that one and a half; the jackal has a hundred; they climbed into the garden to steal onions; the hedgehog ate so as to crawl back, the jackal ate and could not get out when the owner appeared; asks the hedgehog to give him half the trick; the hedgehog advises to pretend to be dead; the owner's little son stabs the jackal twice with a thorn, he twitches, but the father does not believe his son that the jackal is alive; throws it over the fence; the jackal ran away, taking him away shoe; told the lion that he and all his relatives were famous shoemakers; if the lion wanted shoes, let him bring two fat camels; the jackal wrapped not only the lion's legs, but also the body with a camel's skin; the skin is dry, the lion is suffering unbearably; the jackal ran away, but the lion tore off its tail; screams that he identifies him as tailless; the jackal led the other jackals to steal that bow and tied their tails to a palm tree; came master, they all cut off their tails; the lion could not identify the jackal; offered all jackals to eat black pepper, whoever says "Ay" is guilty; jackal: I didn't say "I"]: Basset 1897, No. 68:12-17 (almost the same No. 69: 18-20 from Bejaia); the Berbers of Algeria (Ouargla) [hedgehog and jackal found a date; hedgehog: let the older one of us eat; jackal: I'm 80; hedgehog: and I'm 97; then they found a piece of liver; hedgehog: will the younger one eat; jackal: I'm three days old; hedgehog: and I was born at the moment; ate the liver; the jackal was offended and left]: Basset 1897, No. 76:30-31; Shawi Berbers (eastern Algeria), Algerian Arabs (M183) [hedgehog and jackal planted onions, the jackal took the roots, the hedgehog tops; the next time they planted wheat, the hedgehog took the roots, and the jackal took the grain; then the hedgehog offered to give the wheat to the one who won the run; placed other hedgehogs along the distance; the jackal admitted defeat]: Dähnhardt 1912:69; Algerian Arabs [jackal: I have a hundred pranks; hedgehog: I have one and a half; they climbed into a grain hole and ate so full that they can't get out; the hedgehog offered the jackal take out his fleas, bit him in the neck, the jackal stretched his head up, the hedgehog got out of the hole; hedgehog: I still have half the prank: pretend to be dead; a peasant came and threw the jackal out of the hole; he met a pig and promised to teach her piglets the Koran; but let them be with him all week; the jackal ate a pig every day; put a swarm of bees in a leather bag and when the pig came up and heard a buzz, she I thought it was the piglets who were reading the Koran; when the pigs were gone, the jackal invited the pig in, let the bees out, they began to bite the pig, and the jackal finished it off and ate it too]: Bushnaq 1987:239-241; Berbers Tunis (M183) [the wolf and the hedgehog cultivated the field together; they began to argue who would get the harvest; the hedgehog offered to race, put his seven children at a distance, the wolf believed he had lost]: Stimme 1900 , No. 19:67-68 (retelling in Dähnhardt 1912:68-69).

Southern Europe. The Portuguese [toad and fox (most versions), turtle and fox, or hedgehog and hare agree to race; a toad (turtle, hedgehog) finishes its relative]: Cardigos 2006, № 275C: 51; Portuguese [under an oak tree, a shepherd sees a little exhausted snake, gives it milk; this continues day by day, the snake becomes huge; when he returns from work, the person remembered a snake and called him; the serpent appeared, wrapped around him and was going to eat it; agreed to first ask the first three people he met if it was permissible to do so; a man rides a horse, a snake crawls on the ground, but held a man by the belt; the horse, the dog answer that the person himself is ungrateful; the hedgehog says he does not hear anything; the angry serpent let the man go to kill the hedgehog; the hedgehog: whoever has legs, let him run; the man galloped off, and the serpent could not do anything with the prickly hedgehog]: Dias Marques 2019, No. 71:113-115; the Spaniards (Murcia) [the turtle (or hedgehog) and the hare agree to race; the turtle (hedgehog) puts others turtles (hedgehogs) along the distance, the hare believes he lost]: Hernández Fernández 2013, No. 275C: 82; Catalans [hedgehog and fox]: Oriol, Pujol 2008, No. 1074:209; Maltese [hedgehog and jackal] they planted turnips; the hedgehog invites the jackal to choose the tops or roots, he chooses the tops, gets the tops; next time the jackal chooses the roots, gets the roots of wheat; the jackal complains, but turned out to be the judge another hedgehog; he invited them to race - whoever gets to the mountain and back faster will get everything; the jackal agrees; the hedgehog puts his three brothers; the jackal runs and sees the hedgehog in front of him all the time; the harvest went to the hedgehog]: Stumme 1904, No. 33:86-88 (retelling in Dähnhardt 1912:70, Mifsud-Chircop 1978, No. 9B: 1); Corsicans [Kum Fox and Kum Hedgehog sowed wheat together; only the Hedgehog worked, and the Fox demanded to divide the harvest; then he offered to race: the one who reached the current will be the first to get everything; the fox went to bed, and the Hedgehog walked all night and hid under the grain measure; the fox ran, sat down in moderation, bragged; but the Hedgehog got up and knocked down the Fox; the Hedgehog took the grain and the Fox took the straw; the Donkey asked for it; the Fox agreed that the Donkey would give him one eye; then the other; drove the Donkey down the bad road, that fell, died; the Ravens flew; the fox asked him for a ride; he was lifted into the air and thrown, he fell into the garden, with his back on a stick, beans curled along the bark; persuaded the woman to take it off, promising to watch for a year for her baby; but once free, he ran away]: Massignon 1984, No. 5:10-12; Italians (Campania) [running against a fox, the hedgehog wins]: Cirese, Serafini 1975, No. 275*: 38.

Western Europe. Germans [the hare speaks contemptuously of the hedgehog's legs, he offers to race; tells his wife to stand on the other side of the field, answer for him when the hare runs there; the hare loses]: Grimm , Grimm 1987, No. 187:543-545 (=Grimm, Grimm 1987:421-423); friezes (many records) [hedgehog (snail) and hare (greyhound) agree to race; the hedgehog puts his wife at the finish line, the hare runs until until he falls dead]: Kooi 1984, No. 275A*: 306; the British [the hedgehog and the fox race, the hedgehog puts his wife at the finish line, the fox believes she has lost]: Dähnhardt 1912:71; Welsh ( Radnorshire) [Davies said the line that he could not overtake the hedgehog; decided to run along the furrow; D. put two hedgehogs at opposite ends of the furrow; the exhausted devil gave up]: Watkins 1932:426.

Western Asia. The Arameans [the hedgehog and the hare competed in the run; the hare was confident of victory and slept all day, and the hedgehog reached the finish line and won]: Belov, Wilsker 1960:162-163; Iraqi Arabs [hedgehog and fox together cultivated the field; the fox wants to take the harvest for itself, offers to give it to the winner in the run; the hedgehog puts other hedgehogs at a distance, the fox admits defeat]: Nowak 1969, No. 19:59-60.

The Balkans. Hungarians [the hedgehog lured a hungry fox into a wolf hole and rolled over it; the next day people came and beat the fox]: Kovács 1987, No. 30B*: 252; Kovacs 1987, No. 275A (M183) [hedgehog agrees to race with a hare; arranges other animals of his species along the distance, the hare falls from exhaustion]: 298; (cf. Kovacs, Benedek 1987, No. 398E [the hedgehog and the roe deer agree to race down the slope; the roe deer comes first, but turns over below and breaks its neck]: 298); Bosnians [a woman grazed sheep and kids; the man asked for a kid, she gave it; he put it alive in the oven, but he jumped out and got away; the man caught him, put him in a jar of hot water and left it; the kid escaped again, hid in a hole where the wolf lived; the wolf came back and asks who occupied his hole; the kid replies (poems) that he is a fried and boiled goat, his teeth are like a pitchfork, if I eat it, the scraps will fly; the wolf was frightened, complained to the fox; she came to the hole - the same answer; the bear is the same; the hedgehog (also rhymed) promises to drive out the goat, he got scared and ran away]: Eschker 1992, No. 47:210-211; Bulgarians: Daskalova-Perkovska 1994, No. 105 [Fox and Hedgehog they steal grapes; the fox says he knows 300 (330) tricks, and the Hedgehog knows only three; the fox falls into the trap twice; on the advice of the Hedgehog, pretends to be domestic, then dead, a peasant releases it; when a hedgehog falls into the trap, he asks the Fox to come, tell her a third trick; grabs her paw (ear, face); the peasant kills the Fox, the Hedgehog runs away], 275 (M183) [the fox and the hedgehog share the harvest; to get it all, the fox offers to race; the hedgehog clings to its tail, wins]: 57, 85-86; Gagauz people (M146) [fox: I have a hundred minds; hedgehog: I have one mind; the hedgehog is left under the mill and the fox ran to the village, but got nothing; hedgehog: and I found a freebie here, but I'll feel; the fox climbed and fell into the trap, the hedgehog ate lard; fox: you're fasting; hedgehog: time has passed; the hedgehog taught the fox to pretend dead for the trap owner to throw it away]: Moshkov 1904, No. 142:210.

Central Europe. M183. Poles [hedgehog and hare racing, hedgehog puts another hedgehog at the finish line, the hare believes he has lost]: Dähnhardt 1912:71; Ukrainians (Hutsulshchyna, Transcarpathia), Belarusians [Hare and hedgehog : compete in running; the hedgehog makes a substitution by sending his wife or brothers to the end of the field in advance and therefore wins]: SUS 1979, No. 275A*; Belarusians [the owner drove the old horse away; he eats grass, a lion came up; to show his power, he squeezed the stone so that water dripped from it; horse: it's not difficult, it's raining on the stone, and I'll squeeze fire out of the stone (hits its hoof); the lion hits the stone with its paws, hurt himself; the lion left, met the wolf, said that the one who eats grass on the hill took away his royal dignity - he was stronger; the wolf wanted to see who it was; the lion lifted the wolf by the head show the horse, out of that; lion: died from one species; went and stepped on the hedgehog; offers a hedgehog to race: if I catch up, I'll kill; when the lion comes running, the hedgehog says that he has been waiting for him for a long time ( put other hedgehogs); after that, the lion left our land and lives in France]: Fedorowsky 1902, No. 34:31-32.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Adygi: Aliyeva 1978, No. 78 (M183) [the hedgehog lived in a dry stump, the old man threw it into the fire, the hedgehog promised to make 3 kurmens (sacrifices) if the old man saved her; the old man did not know about it, but threw out the stump and filled it with water, because the stump was smoking; the hedgehog led the bear to a tree with bees; then offered to jump on it, dodged, the bear crashed on a stump (these are two kurmen: a bee and a bear); a hedgehog offers the deer to race, puts hedgehogs at a distance; the deer died of tension; the crow wanted to carry the meat, the hedgehog warned not to do so - the entire crow family would disappear; the crow opened its mouth, meat fell out]: 350-352; Kerashev 1957 (M183) [the hedgehog invites the deer to run between two mounds; put a friend at another mound; the deer ran between the mounds until it burst]: 311-312; Maksimov 1939 [as in Kerashev; the deer left ashamed]: 91-93; Kabardian people (M157) [Bataraz's mare got necklaces when he was visiting; the owner said that his arba and his foal were necklace; B. called the animals for advice; The hedgehog was the last to appear, saying that hay extinguished the fire in the mountains; in response to objections, he said that the arba could not necklace either; B. received a foal]: Aliyeva, Kardangushev 1977:111-112 (=Kapiyeva 1991:203-204) ; Karachays and/or Balkarians (M157) [the mare belongs to one and the cart to another; while the mare's owner went to fetch water, the mare got necklaces; the cart owner said that his cart was necklace; the owner of the cart took a fox as a witness, and the owner of the mare a hedgehog; the fox awarded in favor of the owner of the cart; the hedgehog came later than anyone else; said that he was late because it snowed deeply; fox: it's summer; hedgehog: once a cart could give birth, why can't it snow in summer; the animals decided in favor of the mare's owner]: Aliyeva, Kholaev 1983:17-18; Stavropol Turkmens (M83) [(western teacher Blagodarinsky City Colleges A. Volodin; from materials from L.G. Lopatinsky); Wolf, Fox and Hedgehog find prey; agree that it will be eaten by the oldest; Wolf: 1001; Fox: when there was no sun and the earth was like a ball, she was seven years old ; Hedgehog (crying): When there was no sun and the land was just born, his two sons were stolen in the ninth year; gets loot]: Bagry 1930 (1): 68; Ossetians (M183) [two hedgehogs lived in a hollow; a tree cut down, thrown into the oven, the hedgehogs promised to thank God with a light deer dish and honey on the bear's chest; the stench began, the hostess threw away the log; the hedgehog offers the deer to run to the mound: the loser can slaughter and eat; another hedgehog is sitting near the mound; the deer was slaughtered, the bear was shown where the honey was; they offered to put the honeycombs on his chest and fall; the bear crashed]: Dzagurov 1973, No. 13:39-41; Ingush (M83) [ Wolf, Fox and Hedgehog found food (kaisarilg), decided to give it to the one with the tallest father; Wolf: the mountains were waist-deep for his father; Fox: touched the clouds with his head; Hedgehog: did your father, Lisa, say that his heads were Did anything soft touch? - He said. - It was my father's pants; the Wolf offered to race; the hedgehog rolled down the mountain, did not run, took the kaisarilg]: Malsagov 1983, No. 155:292

Baltoscandia. M183. Latvians [the hedgehog offers the hare to race - the winner will snatch 10 needles or mustaches from the other; the hedgehog puts his brother at the finish line; they run back and forth, each time the hedgehog says that waiting for a hare, I froze; since then hedgehogs have cleft antennae above their lips]: Alksnite et al. 1958:86-87; Estonians [the hare tells the hedgehog that he is training in running; the hedgehog: I have already trained; the hare offers to run racing; decides to rest, overslept until evening; during this time the hedgehog reached the goal; since then the hare has been avoiding the hedgehog]: Jakobson 1954:22-24; Estonians, Setu (various districts, including setu) [hare and the hedgehog agreed to race; the hedgehog brought his wife, the hare does not distinguish them and admits defeat]: Kippar 1986, No. 275A*: 167-168.

Volga - Perm. Kazan Tatars [the fox and the hedgehog decided to race; the hedgehog put the hedgehog at the finish line; the fox ran back and forth, but every time she sees a hedgehog in front of him]: Zamaletdinov 2008a, No. 12:50; Bashkirs [The hedgehog offers the hare to race; puts the hedgehog at the finish line, wins the coin and milk]: Barag 1989, No. 103:414-416 (=Yukhma 1990:122-123).