Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

M8. A destroyed obstacle.


Some characters (not humans) are struggling to break a strong barrier that prevents access to the desired location or to a high-value object. See also M8A - M8D motifs; they are included in the M8 motif in the correlation tables.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Bori [Tani is the younger brother, Taki is the elder; Tani advises Taki to sacrifice a pig to the spirits by throwing it down the slope; picks it up, he and his children are fat; Tanya laughs at Taki; Taki tries repeat the deception, but Taki heated a stone on the mountain and let it go down the slope, Taki grabbed it, burned it; Taki made the boat, said it was warmer to sleep in it at night; Tanya believed, Taki closed the lid tightly, lowered it a boat on the river; Tanya asks the vines, then the reeds to stop the boat; the reeds stopped; asks the birds for help; two birds began to hammer but broke their beaks; the Randang bird freed Tanya, he returned home; tied the bows and arrows of monkeys to the tree, became a bird himself, began to shout that monkeys could not fish; they grabbed their bows but could not tear them off; they got into a fight, only three monkeys survived; after a fight they have flat noses and sunken eyes; Tanya brought monkey meat and onions, his wife and children are tired; told Tanya that they got fat when he put them in a trough and poured boiling water over them; Taki did so, wife and children became worms; Tanya began to swing on the vine; Taki wanted to too, saw sharp rocks under him; Tanya had a pair of eyes in front and back of her head; Taki promised to take him off the swing if he gave him one pair; he I looked at the back of his head, now Taki has two pairs of eyes; he became Wiyu; so spirits see people, but people can't see spirits; Taki made Tanya's wife and children fall ill and die; Tanya himself is also ill; dadi's perfume Doini Aiye is his wife, daughter Doini-Pollo (Sun-Month); after that he recovered, they have many children]: Elwin 1958a, No. 2:144-147 (=Elwin 1958b, No. 2:157-160); apatani [Baro Piicha offers Abo Tani kills their wives and children; really cuts his own to pieces, and AT wraps his own in a mat, hides them in the corner of the house, tells them to yell, cuts the dog, sprinkles blood on the house; they cook and eat meat, BP complains that he is tough and AT is tasty (because he is a dog); AT replies that he added pork, but BP does not taste good even with pork; both crush rice, AT has a three-metered, PSU has a two-membered rhythm of blows; AT explains that he clutched three pestles between his fingers; the PSU does so, breaks his fingers; the PSU turns into a rooster, spies that AT's rice is being destroyed by his wife and children; BP makes a trough to feed the pigs - says he will give AT, just not; AT lies down to check if it's deep enough, AP closes the lid, lowers the slope; AT asks the trees and herbs to stop the trough, they hold it near the river; asks the fish to hold the trough with his fins, preventing him from sliding into the river; asks the Hawk to bite; he begins to bite, sees AT, says that AT drove him, flies away; the same with the Raven; Badger is unable to expand the hole , ask for help to the Sun woman; she tells you to wait three days, she will heat the trough, it will burst; for her help, the Sun asks AT to look after her children, tells her not to look into the bathroom, under the house, etc.; AT looks in, sees tigers, bears, snakes, scorpions; the Sun agrees to bring him down to the ground on a string; he enters his house, his children recognize him, his wife does not believe him at first; says that BP has now taken her; AT hides with a sword, chases a PSU around the house and yard, it falls into the ground]: Blackburn 2008:69-73.

China - Korea. Lahu (northern Thailand) [G'ui-sha planted a pumpkin, it brought fruit; the owl frightened the deer, the deer frightened the bull, which kicked, the pumpkin fell and rolled; G. first seeks the culprit (hit the owl in the face, it has become flat), then asks many different plants if they have seen a pumpkin; depending on the answers, punishes or rewards them by determining characteristics; same with bees; black bees they say that a pumpkin fell into the sea; two goats, an eagle can't reach it, two crabs pull it out; people's voices can be heard from the inside; a sparrow with a long beak began to bite, spoiled its beak; a couple of rats gnawed for many days, after making two holes; boy Ca Ti and girl Na Ti came out of it; G. awarded sparrow and rats by allowing them to eat rice; children grew up; CT hunted; made musical instruments; G. offered young people get married, but they replied that they were brother and sister; G. explained how a mortar and pestle, a sieve and a hand winnower work, but the answer was the same; G. made a honey drink, sent one bee around the sun with him, and the other around the moon; the brother went to the sun, the sister went to the moon, but did not taste the drink; then G. put it in the lip organ and they tasted it; they began to eat it with a spoon; they came together; they were seen by a hawk; they asked not to tell G., for this he would be allowed to steal chickens; a tiger saw: you would be allowed to steal piglets; a wild cat would steal chickens]: Coyaud 2009, No. 3:18-27; li (Hainan, wy. Baoting) [two brothers: the elder Lao-dan, the youngest is Lao-ding; their wives have been pregnant for three years; an old man with thick eyebrows, big eyes, white hair and a silver beard from Mount Wuzhishan (Mount Five Fingers) told the brothers that a pumpkin should be planted in front of the gate; when it sets the fruit, the children would be born; when the pumpkin stalk reached 10,000 zhans in length, one flower bloomed on it; on the hundredth the day began to produce fruit; wives gave birth to children; the older brother had a boy Lao-xian, the youngest had a girl Hefa; a hundred days later the fetus became the size of a house; a downpour began; water flooded the whole earth; brothers they made a hole in the pumpkin, placed children, a bull, a horse, a pig, a dog, a cat, a rooster and other animals inside; the rat, seeing that they were not going to take it, made its way unnoticed by itself; the brothers repaired it the hole was waxed, so the surface of the pumpkin seemed to be waxy; while the pumpkin was swimming, the children and animals inside ate its pulp; after 10 years, the downpour stopped, the water receded, the pumpkin was on the top of Mount Wuzhishan; then 5 years of drought, and the sun was burning so that ridges and gorges appeared that resembled five fingers; one piece of pulp was left; cat and dog began to argue for him, their enmity continues to this day; the pumpkin has a hard shell; the horse tried to pierce it, broke its horns (now they are gone); the bull broke its teeth; the pig flattened its nose; the rat gnawed the peel; the children told the rooster to get out first; he cried, announcing the dawn; when he heard the rooster scream, brother and sister and animals went out; the top of the mountain was close to the sun, it was hot, brother and sister dug five wells; they wore from there water, from the spilled water, the current five rivers were made; brother and sister built a house; brother built a bunk bed, and sister weaved two mats; brother slept below, sister upstairs; south wind blew his brother's male vibes into his sister's body, she became pregnant; the heavenly spirit decided that brother and sister had indulged in debauchery; sent a crow to report this to Heavenly Lord; he sent the god of thunder into the world; When I saw my pregnant sister sleeping in the same room as my brother, the god of thunder was about to strike with lightning, but the earthly spirit said that there were no other people left; the god of thunder kept his brother and sister alive, but promised killing people for incest; this is how the custom arose that prohibits brothers from entering their sisters' rooms at night; three years later, the sister gave birth to a piece of meat; wrapped it in cloth, put it in front of the altar; 7 days later she unfolded a piece of meat and saw that it came to life; cut it into three parts; wrapped the first part in cotton cloth, put it on a board and let it go down the river; this piece of meat turned into Han, so Han people wear cotton clothes; she wrapped the second part in 4 small pieces of cotton cloth, put it on a wasabi sheet and let another river flow; this piece turned into miao; Miao women wear skirts of 4 pieces of cloth; the woman wrapped the third part in canvas, put it on a coconut palm leaf and let it flow along the third river; this piece turned into whether; so do women know how to weave linen and make clothes out of it; 99 years later, Lao Xian and Hefa grew old; the earthly spirit took them to the underworld and made them the deities of the area responsible for the joys and sorrows of the people of Hainan]: Zhou 2002, No. 6 : 9-11.

SV Asia. Chukchi: Bogoras 1928, No. 2 [a lonely reindeer herder hears a voice from a pile of snow; there is a house there, a woman in it; she teaches him how to make love; gives birth to a son and daughter; they marry, they come from them people; people ask Wagtail for light; T., Kurkeel the Raven, Kaggelin Partridge (Coughing), Ground-Creeper fly east, hammering the sky, breaking their beaks; K. sharpens them again, but now they are short; K. breaks through the sky, enters the outside world; there the girl plays with balls; K. grabs them and throws them up; they turn into the sun, a month (two balls stuck together), stars (one ball has crumbled ); K. leaves the girl, she sticks to the month, is still visible; K. scorched her clothes, turned white black; created rivers; the first people went west, became Russian; K. finds new ones in the grass; The wolf says that the Raven eats crap; then K. hides the sun, moon and stars; rejects the deer, agrees to return the stars in exchange for two wives, the Wolf's sisters; wives bandage his tongue, since then the raven has not spoken] 3 [evil kele steals luminaries; Wagtail, Partridge are hammering the sky in the east, breaking their beaks; The raven breaks a hole; in Kele's house, the daughter plays ball; the raven grabs him, tells the girl to ask her mother another ball; this is how she gets three balls; throws them up, they turn into stars, a month, the sun; the mother throws the girl into the sea, she turns into a walrus]: 301-303, 303-304.

Southeast USA. Screams [the old woman picks up a blood clot on the path, puts it in a vessel, it turns into a boy; hunts, sees the village; the grandmother decorates his hat with a bird, which sings to the sound of the flute; tells him to marry, return later; the young man throws pieces of an old log into the river, the fish dies, the wife picks up; the rabbit at this time takes his hat and flute; but the bird does not sing; people return the stolen goods to the young man; he and his wife comes to the old place, sees a cornfield there, builds a stone shed; all birds try to break it; Owl, Eagle, Hawk change the shape of their neck and head from the impact; birds peck grain; young man picks up what has been dropped by crows, current corn comes from it]: Swanton 1929, No. 8:15-17.

Mesoamerica If not otherwise: Birds and Thunders, or only Thunders, are hammering the rock to get the crops hidden inside it. Aztecs: Leon Portilla 196:154-155; Huasteca District Nahuatl: Stiles 1985a: 106-107; Puebla Nahuat: Taggart 1983:90-92; mountain totonacs [the corn was on the mountain and knew it coati (tejón); he hired many ants to protect his treasure; the toucan noticed them and thought that there must be something hidden in the rock; he pierced the rock with his beak and all the animals got corn; the coati regretted about what I did: the more I tried to hide everything, the more traces were left]: https://www.openslr.org/resources/107/Amith-Lopez_Totonac-recordings-northern-Puebla-and-adjacent-Veracruz_Metadata.xml; tequistlateca: Carrasco 1960:110; juice: Baez-Jorge 1983:392-393; Sulvarán López 2007:41-42 [Crab (cangrejo) saw leaf cutter ants carry food; clutching their bodies with claws, which since then, they have been bandaged around their neck and waist, made them show a hole in the rock; tried to squeeze, but could not, but only became flat since then], 158-162 [the owner of the corn asks her husband to bring it from the field cobs, but every time he says that the corn is not ripe yet, and then that it's gone, we have to wait for next year; she goes by herself, picks corn, cooks at home; her husband comes back, drives him away furiously her; all the corn was gone; leaf cutter ants found corn inside the mountain, did not tell me where the grains came from; people asked Crab (cangrejo) for help, he threatened the ants to cut them, they led them to the mountain, where corn; on the way, Cancer fell off the cliff, fell, became flat; but still did not fit into the hole, only his forehead became flat; The turkey peeled off the feathers from his chest, the Rooster kicked so much that his fingers were now far from each other friend; The horse flattened its legs and arms, they became hooves; The woodpecker and other birds came, screamed, could not widen the hole either; The thunder agreed to break through it if the Wind cleared the mountain; The wind told fortify houses, demolished trees on the mountain, Thunder hit, pierced; there was a bird inside the mountain, pecking Thunder's eyes, since then he has gone blind], 162-163 [the corn is gone because people burned it, relieved it; people asked the Crab to make a hole in the mountain, a stone fell on it, the Crab is now flat; the same with the Cockroach; with the Leaf Cutter Ant, now he has a bandaged waist; the same with the little ant; the Turkey broke chest, it is now shabby; The boar broke a hole, people came in, the first took large grains, the latter were small ones, so the corn is different; wild boars, turkeys, cockroaches, tieper crabs eat corn in the bins]; cuicateques [the old woman found two eggs, put them in a vessel, which were born to the Sun and the Moon; every day she went to feed the deer with corn porridge, told the twins to stay at home; called the deer the father of twins; When I came back, the house was a mess; once I sent them to feed my father themselves - call him, Kundo, Kundo! ; they called, the deer came, they killed him, the Moon took her right eye, the Sun took his left eye; fire was needed to cook the meat; they sent a fox to the old woman; she set fire to her tail, ran away; so that the tail would not burn, the fox placed fire in the stone {obviously in the flint}, the twins cut fire out of it; brought the old woman roasted venison, and made a scarecrow out of the skin, filling it with wasps and other stinging insects; old woman she ate, and by the river, the frogs told her that she ate deer liver; the twins told the old woman to pour sand on the frog's ass, so it was rough; the black vulture also told the old woman that she ate deer; she accused the twins of killing their father; went to check it out for herself; the deer did not respond; she went to the scarecrow and hit him with a stick - why she did not answer; insects bit her; she returned home and promised the twins call their uncle; this is a jaguar; they dug a trap hole, the jaguar fell into it; then the old woman called the twins' aunt, an eagle with two heads; they made a cage, the eagle sat on top, they grabbed her by paws (and killed); the old woman called another uncle; this is an aquatic animal with a shell, but big; the twins ran, met Thunder, asked them to hide them behind her cheek; Thunder replied to the beast that his teeth hurt and his cheek swollen; the beast tried to get into Thunder's mouth, but the Sun asked to hit, Thunder smashed the beast to pieces; while Thunder was working, the twins opened three vessels in his house: water, wind and hail; The soaked Thunder came back, closed the vessels and drove the twins away: that's why your aunt kicked you out; they found honey, the Sun ate a little, and told the moon to eat more, she was thirsty; the Sun gave water only after how they changed their eyes; the Sun did not tell them to drink everything, but the Moon drank everything; the Sun told them to regurgitate some of the water, otherwise it would not be on earth; the moon regurgitated, but the dirty water stained her face, so she was wearing it stains; the woman has a chest; the Sun gave her ripe cherimoyi and said that there are many of them in the forest; she left, and he asked the rat to gnaw through the chest; the woman hears and asks, Sun: don't worry; the same with the woodpecker; agouti gnawed, a wheel with a rope in the chest, the Sun and the Moon rose to heaven, agouti followed; asks what to do; Sun: cut the rope above you; Aguti fell, buried in the ground; the woman managed spanking the moon; so when the moon looks like a sickle, women are menstruating; woman to the Sun: remember me when I cover your face with my underskirt]: Weitlaner 197:56-62 (=Bartolomé 1984:6-9); Celtal: Hermitte 1970 [the hunter sees ants in the forest carrying corn kernels; ants refuse to answer where they get them from; the hunter asks God for help; he cuts the ant in half, then connects the halves; the ant admits that corn is hidden inside the rock; God tells the young and old Woodpeckers to hammer the rock; both break their beaks; God gives the old an iron beak, he breaks the rock; man gets corn; woodpecker has been hammering strong trees ever since]: 28-29; Slocum 1965 [people saw a black ant dragging a grain of corn; to make him confess where he was dragging the grain from, steel pulled his waist with a rope, it became narrow; they came to the rock, through the hole in which the ant took out grain; the woodpecker began to hammer the rock, broke his beak; broke his nagual rock; two Chahuuc did not managed, the third, red, split, exhausted; the Jews took a lot of corn, the rest of the people took the leftovers; their corn sprouted, but the corn taken by the Jews did not; they asked the red Chahuuc for advice, he advised put the seeds in lime, the seeds died, so he punished them]: 1-7 (retelling in Thompson 1977:421); tsotsil [Jews lock the sun in a hollow; woodpecker frees]: Gossen 1974, No. 166:337; quiche (Huehuetenango) [A wild cat finds a cave full of corn; hides from others; people send Lice, she falls off the Cat on the way; a flea clings to his wool, tells everything to people; Woodpeckers, White Thunder can't make their way into the cave; Red Thunder breaks through; people get corn]: Navarrete 1997:60-61; ishil: Ko'w et al. 1989; mocho [people catch Tornado (its image merges with the image Maize Housewives); he promises them corn, beans, and other plants in exchange for digging and a candle; people everywhere are unsuccessfully looking for corn; they send a flea, a throat, both do not find; an ant (Coecodoma mexicana, or Atta mexicana; picks up everything it can carry) finds corn inside the mountain, tries to carry it; The owner catches it with a loop, squeezes it, since then ants have a narrow waist; the ant explains that comes from another world, asks him to let go, comes to the King (Rey; Reyes lived before the sun), tells us where the corn is; the King asks Red Thunder to break the mountain; Thunder destroys it with his ax; ants bring corn to the King, people get corn]: Montemayor 1996 (2) [like Petrich, short version]: 64-65; Petrich 1985b: 159-169; Tocholabal: Jiménez 1996 [to make the Ant say from where he drags a grain of corn, the man pulls his body with a rope, now the ants have a narrow waist; corn is in the rock, the woodpecker could not penetrate, the Thunder pierced, the woodpecker burned his head, it turned red; corn burned, became different colors]: 47; Ruz 1983:422; Notes: Bucaro Moraga 1991:69-72 in Van Akkeren 2000 [see scanned text]: 240-241; Mayers 1958:7-15; Mayers, McNeilly 1973, No. 1, 2:88 -91; Kekchi: Burkitt 1920:211-227; Peñalosa 1995 [Mr. Pablo dreamed that there is corn; zonpopos (ants?) found it inside the rock; the woodpecker cut the hole, there was an explosion, the corn was burnt and colored; some people took all the white corn, it didn't grow, and Pablo's black corn rose; Cutete (?) I saw that I should burn candles and dug, got a crop; but they didn't give him corn; he called dogs, rats, taltus, etc., they ate all the grain]: 11-15; Schumann 1971:309-311; Mom [no corn, people ate the txetxina root plant, the "mother of corn," it had a large root and a single stem; they found corn in the Wild Cat's litter; they sent Louse to see if it fell to the ground; the flea also fell , but climbed back; corn ended up inside a cliff on Mount Paxil; a woodpecker made a hole, people got corn, no longer ate txetxina]: Valladares 1957 in Thompson 197:422; kakchikels : Redfield in Thompson 1977:424; pipili [see motive F36; after killing their father's mother's lover and letting her eat his penis, the boys left home, saw a bird with a cob in its beak, followed her to the mountain; corn inside the mountain; the youngest offered to create a cloud, smash the mountain with lightning; everyone, starting with the eldest, tried unsuccessfully to split the mountain; the younger split but stuck deep in the corn; the elders took the largest cobs; the youngest is free, angry with the brothers; cultivated the field, the corn is immediately ripe; the brothers ask how he did it, he advised him to sow boiled grains; they decided to steal the youngest's harvest, but at night his field is guarded by a firefly, in the daytime by a woodpecker; the youngest got water (it did not rain), irrigated the field; the youngest promised that the elders would ripen corn in 8 days, but just let them go away and not are returning]: Schultze Jena 1935, No. 6:31-35.

Honduras-Panama. The tree covers or destroys the sky. Bribri: Bozzoli 1976 [a woman's hair is always wet and salty; Sibu kisses them, blessing the future of the sea; the shaman gives her his rod, tells her not to let go; she lets go, rod turns into a snake, bites a woman, she dies, is buried; a huge tree grows on the grave; S. is afraid that it will break the roof of his house (=peace); tells him to cut down; people work all day, felling the next morning overgrows; their axes break; S. comes to Okoma, sitting down on a bench every time, breaks it, pushes a new one closer; finally asks and receives an ax; people cut down a tree; S. tells Martin Pe ca and the cormorant tie the top of the head to the roots; tells the cannibal to be ready to grab the fruits that will fall; the tree presses the cannibal; turns into water; as it described the circle ( the top of the head is tied to the roots), the sea surrounds the land; the tree has fallen to the north, there are most islands; the open sea is where the trunk was]: 420-421; Bozzoli, Cubero Venegas 1987 [Shibyo gives his sister his a rod; it turns into a snake, bites it, it dies; a giant tree grows out of a corpse; S. sends people to cut it down; after 18 days of work, the axes are broken, they follow others; the old woman collects from at the foot of fallen chicks; loggers ask her to support the tree; it falls on it, turns into the sea, the birds into fish; the old woman's movements cause excitement at sea]: 20; Stone 1962 [God fears that growing a tree will pierce the roof of the house (= sky); he cut it down, it crushed evil spirits living on earth and turned into a sea]: 56; Eastern Panama (kuna?) [the branches of a growing tree pierce the sky; God tells two squirrels to knock down a tree; when it falls, it blocks the river, and the sea forms]: Casimir de Brizuela 1972:60-61; Kuna: Chapin 1989:64-70; Keeler 1956:134-136; Nordenskiöld 1938:160-165, 174-178 [woman carries fish, sings about Palu-huala (saltwood); Ibelele Olovaipilele (Sun) spends the night in the surba (special the branch in the house where the girls' initiations are celebrated), finds out where this tree is located; on it and in it all the cultivated plants, fresh and salt water, fish, game; Wild pigs (Dicotyles torquatus, D. labiatus) and Coati (Nasua sociales) are I.'s nephews; he tells them to cut down a tree; in the morning the trunk is intact; Jaguars, Snakes, the leader of the Frogs licked the felling at night; I. sends his brother to guard his tree Equaquinialilele (Venus); he kills Jaguar, Snake, Frog; people cut down a tree; chips fall into a pond, turn into inedible fish; the top is entangled in bunches of clouds; I.'s servants only reached half of the trunk; Little Squirrel climbed to the clouds, cut off bundles; I. caught salt water in the net that formed the sea; people received fish, tree seeds, bananas, cassava, and other cultivated plants]; Wassen 1934b: 3-5, 21-25; 1937:14-16; cabecar [Sibu made the sky; saw a bat on the rock, piles of land under it, its bowel movements; told her to eat more fruit; sent a Sea woman to Thunder to ask him destroy the rock so that people can get the land; Thunder wants to eat S.'s people, but still gave the Sea woman its rod; she left her rod, came back, saw a snake in this place, it bit her, she died, became to swell; S. put a frog on it to stop the swelling, but the frog rushed to catch insects; The sea swelled to the sky, S. turned it into a tree; it continued to grow, pierced the sky; Okama agrees cut down a tree; S. sends a deer to trample the clearing where the tree will fall (since then the deer has been running fast); sent a kingfisher and a cormorant to describe a circle above the tree; the tree falls, turns into a sea; nests the parrots on the tree became turtles, the leaves became crabs; the thunder destroyed the rock, took the devil's son out of there, spread it out, made him a round earth; told the devil to move the earth; made people out of corn grains; allowed the bat to drink human and animal blood]: Stone 1962:53-54.

The Northern Andes. Yupa [birds and animals destroy the sand embankment that traps the flood waters]: Wilbert 1974, no. 3:78; embera [if not otherwise: a sea of tree trunk, rivers from branches]: Arango Bueno 1963: 185; Isaccson 1993:53; Rochereau 1929:87-88; Pinto García 1978:160; Torres de Arauz 1963 (katio) [woman keeps all the water in the cave; Caragabí cut a woman in half, turning her black a narrow-waisted ant; the ant hid the water in the hollow trunk of the Genené tree (sacred to katio); K. and his men began to cut down the tree, the felling first overgrown; when cut down, the trunk remained hanging on vines; The squirrel gnawed through the vine, the tree fell, the water flooded the ground; K. and his people escaped on the rock; K. sent the Heron, the Duck, the Raven - they did not return, they were fishing; K. created the Dove, he returned when he found land; the trunk formed the sea, the branches formed rivers, the buds formed streams and swamps; the Genené trunk and the Monpahuará rock are still somewhere, surrounded by four lights; someday the mountain opens, the fiery river will flood earth; then K. and his descendants will live on earth forever]: 25-26; Peñaherrera de Costales, Costales Samaniego 1968 [God gives water to a woman who becomes an ant, keeps water inside a huge tree; God sends the Woodpecker to cut it down; the next morning, the Woodpecker finds the trunk intact; God tells him to work continuously until the tree falls; small branches turn into streams, big rivers, and a trunk into the sea]: 85- 86; Wassen 1933, No. 3 [the ant Conga had all the water; he refused to give water to God; he made him open his mouth, tightening his waist, which had become narrow; the water was in the tree; God gathered everyone to cut it down; in the evening , when the others rested, the Toad asked the ax to work, but with each blow, the felling did not deepen, but overgrown; God saw that he stepped on the Toad, which became a toad; four days later they cut the trunk, the tree remained hanging on the vine; all the bird people tried to cut it, the toucan, the parrot, and others could not; the guacamayo cut it, the tree fell, the trunk became the sea, the branches became rivers; God told the Devil to throw into the sea is salt, he threw it, but the water is still fresh; God threw it himself, became salty]: 109; Zuluaga Gomez 1991 (chami) [from a cave in a rock]: 103-104; bari [the first ancestors find a huge seibu, hear a noise from the inside; Sabasebe says he leads them to cut down a tree; it falls, the trunk and roots turn into lakes, large branches into rivers, small ones into ravines, chips into fish and caimans]: Villamañan 1975:5-6; Kogi [all animals with strong incisors gnaw a trunk to get a hero hiding in a tree]: Preuss 1926, No. 9:198; Reichel-Dolmatoff 1985 (2), No. 10:53-55; paes [put in a wooden one The character asks the coffin to make two holes in the lid; the woodpecker pierces them; piercing the second, he pierces the trickster's eye]: Bernal Villa 1953, No. 9:300; Nachtigall 1955, No. 5:298.

Llanos. Yaruro: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990c, No. 37 [Tapir found the Tohurato tree on which all cultivated plants grew; he was given a hallucinogen, vomited, everyone saw what he was eating; followed; Tapira they sent him to cut down a tree, but under the influence of the drug he got lost and did not return; Tapir's big axe broke, began to be cut down with small strong axes; where the branches fell, vegetable gardens appeared; they they fell far away, so Creoles cultivated plants], 38 [only Tapir ate fruits from the Tohurato tree, where mangoes, bananas, sugarcane, cassava, corn, etc. grew; people followed and told Tapir cut down a tree; the woodpecker helped him; Tapir was told to go get a basket, and fruits were loaded into it], 39 [Tapir asked his father-in-law for arrows, broke them, saying that they were broken when shooting, and ate bananas from the tree himself, on which all the fruits grew; he was given a hallucinogen, vomited, so they found out what he ate; the mouse traced; the tree was cut down, but by morning the felling was overgrown every time], 40 [Tapir ate one from the tree, on which all the fruits grew; The mouse traced; Tapir was given a hallucinogen, vomited, so they found out what he ate; Tapir was told that the Creator summoned him to her; they began to cut him down, cut down the thicket at night; then they cut down day and night; the branch kept in the sky, the Woodpecker cut it, the tree fell], 41 [cassava, bananas, yams, tarot and all other fruits grew on the Food Tree; only Grandpa Tapir knew about it; the Mouse traced; Tapira was given a hallucinogen, vomited, so they found out what he ate; The birds cut off the trunk, but the branches stayed in the sky; the woodpecker cut them; Tapira was temporarily sent away], 42 [Tapir and Caracara knocked down a tree with all the fruits on it; they were dismantled, Tapira was left too unripe], 43 [only Tapir ate fruits from a tree on which bananas, pumpkins, sweet potatoes and other fruits grew; others gave Mice ( like that!) hallucinogen, he began to vomit, everyone saw what he was eating; Woodpecker, Parrot, Partridge, Mako and other birds began to cut it, found the trunk intact in the morning; yet they cut it down, turned into birds; the woodpecker cut it a branch stuck in the sky], 44 [only the Mouse knew about the food tree; others followed; began to cut it, and in the morning found the trunk intact; working day and night, they cut the trunk, but the tree caught its branches on the sky; The woodpecker took off, wearing a red handkerchief, cut off the branches; the tree fell, the woodpecker became a woodpecker], 45 [The woodpecker finds a tree on which yams, bananas, cassava and everything else ripen; only the Mouse came to eat these fruits; people watch the Mouse, find a tree; cut down all day, returned in the morning, cut down the thicket; cut down the trunk, but the branch is entangled in the sky; the woodpecker cut it, it turned into a bird; the tree fell into side of the Meta River, there are now many cultivated plant species]], 46 [Tapir found a tree with different cultivated plants on its branches; the mouse traced; the Mouse and Woodpecker cut down the tree with axes, but it it remains to hang from the top of the head on a silver chain; the woodpecker also cut it]: 60-62, 62-64, 64-65, 66-67, 68-75:70, 71-72, 72-73, 73-74, 75; cuiva [both cultivated and wild plants]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1991b, No. 113-114 [kinkaju knows about the tree; paka reveals the secret, brings other animal people], 115 [paka and monkey argue who to take the fruit; then the paka cuts down the tree]: 164-175; guayabero: Schindler 1977a: 226-228; Sicuani: Wilbert, Simoneau 1992, No. 44 [the boy asks his grandmother to buy him in the trough; produces starch; people tell him to swim in the river, collect starch; When angry, the boy tells his grandmother to stay awake to hear a rumble; she falls asleep; only Kinkaju hears him and knows where the Kalievirne tree has grown; all edible fruits grow on its branches; Chamani (lizard) vomits Kinkaju, people learn that he secretly eats other food; Aguchi fails, Paka follows the river beyond Kinkaju, fights with him, finds a tree; C. asks Palemecune for axes , he does not give; he is given vomit, he regurgitates tools (= bird beaks); gives people parcels of mosquitoes that open them turn into capybaras; people cut K.; outside the trunk is clean cassava, and the core is pure cassava, and the core strong; the next morning the barrel is intact; to work at night, you need a fire drill; Cayman swallowed it; Frogs lure it; Cayman rips open its belly, pick up a drill; the trunk is cut, but the tree hangs on the vine; the bird fails, the Squirrel cuts the vine; the branch with the fruits of the peach palm falls into the water, Tapir unsuccessfully tries to hide it; after the tree falls, people are mortal; C. tells us to dance to find ease and go to another world; old woman Ibarruua breaks abstinence, takes Cayman as a lover; summons him by putting an inverted calebass on the water and tapping on it; people kill a lover, give I. to eat his penis; I. tells the fish to swallow C.; his brothers arrange rapids on the river to stop the fish; revive the regurgitated C.; shoot up, only the virgin manages to fix the arrow in the sky and make chain; in the guise of termites, C.'s people climb into the sky; the thunder Yamakhyonë lives there; C. replaces his club, I. cannot kill people, C. kills him; his wife tells the ants to collect the pieces his flesh, I. is reborn; I. and C. reconcile; people continue to climb along the chain of arrows; the Bat cuts it off, the fallen turn into turtles, into parrots], 45 [when the grandmother washed the orphan boy, from him it was not dirt that flowed off, but pieces of cassava; she made cakes out of it; the boy grew up, cassava grew bigger, the old woman shared with relatives; the boy said who they wanted to kill him left and became a lignum tree vitae, Kalevírnae; Kinkaju followed him; sweet and bitter cassava, yams, sugarcane, pineapples, etc. grew on the tree. (corn is not mentioned); The mouse followed, Kinkaju told him to remain silent, but Tsamáni questioned him; he sent Paku to the tree; Kinkaju dropped a pineapple, Paka brought it to the village; the houses of Kinkaju and Paka became fight, burning each other with smut (hence the current coloring book); to get an ax, people led by C. sailed in a boat to Palaméco's grandfather; he was lying in a hammock in an iron house; P. agreed to belch tools when they gave him corn (he had never tasted it before) and yopo; taking axes, people began to cut, but felling overgrown overnight; working at night, they cut the trunk; the tree was tied to the sky and to the forest with vines; they were cut by Toucan, Oropendola, and Squirrel; the tree fell, people got cultivated plants], 46 [people ate only wild fruits and tree mushrooms; but Kinkaju ate pineapples from the Kaliawiri tree at night; He slept during the day, people found leftovers on his teeth; Paka followed him; bananas, potatoes, cassava, garlic, sugarcane, etc. as well as all types of wood ripened on the tree; Kinkaju dropped pineapple, Paka brought it to the village; the houses of Kinkaju and Park began to fight, burning each other with smut (hence the current coloring book); people went to cut down a tree; during the night, felling was overgrown, eventually with axes split; they took out new ones, worked at night, cut the trunk, the tree remained hanging on the vines descending from the sky; they were cut down by Mockingbird and Squirrel; the fallen tree turned into stone; the sky rose higher; during the flood, the harvested crops died; people gathered on the mountain, swordfish drowned boats; later the water came down], 47 [neighbors notice pieces of pineapple on kinkaju's teeth; Paka followed him to the Kaliawiri tree; he dropped a pineapple, Paka brought it to the village; the next day, Kinkaju took people to cut K., where bananas, pineapples, sugar cane, cassava, peach fruits grow palm trees, all cultivated plants, branches of different trees; people took axes - fish bones; they immediately broke; they almost cut down the woodpecker with an ax, went to bed, cut down the thicket in the morning; working continuously, the trunk they cut it down, but the tree is suspended from the sky on a vine; the mockingbird could not cut it, the juice splashed into his eyes; the squirrel cut; the fallen tree became a mountain range; people planted cassava; the flood destroyed everything cultivated plants; Tsuwawirinë slapped another man on the stomach, who gave birth to a boy who raised cassava again], 49 [after the flood, Kinkaju finds a Kaliviri tree overseas with everyone edible plants on the branches; his wife Paka realizes that he is eating something special, follows him, he breaks her tail (now she is without a tail); she brings yams and other fruits to her children; fights with husband; Furnáminali, Tsamani and Ivinai come to Palemekuni to ask for an ax; he does not give it; C. tickles his nose with a mosquito, he regurgitates axes and machetes; gets the best ax Woodpecker; P.'s wife regurgitates parcels with night, wind, rain, mosquitoes, laziness; despite F.'s warning, people open bundles; makes it dark, it rains, mosquitoes bite; people turn into animals ( caiman, anteater, etc.); dawns; people cut down the trunk, felling overgrows, axes break; ants are told to carry chips away; the trunk is cut, the tree hangs on the vine; T. turns into a mockingbird, not can cut it; squirrels cut it; the male stays at the top, the female falls to the ground; the tree falls down so humans are mortal], 50 [there is nothing to eat after the flood; Kinkaju found a tree with everyone cultivated plants on the branches; in the morning he asked his grandchildren to clean his mouth so that others would not notice any leftovers; his wife Paka heard him speak piapoco that his mouth tasted pineapple; Furn á advised her to follow; she followed him across the sea; the tree asks him to shed its fruit; hides a pineapple, Kinkaju grabs her tail, tore it off, now Paka is without a tail; she brought the peel etc., to the village, F. gave names to all the fruits; Kinkaju clamped Paki's face between two smut, it became narrow], 51 [Kinkaju found the Kalivirne tree with all the fruits on the branches; Tsamani and his people came to Palemekuni does not let him ask for tools; T. sent one two mosquitoes to crawl through P. (one from back to mouth, the other on the contrary), he coughed, regurgitated machetes, pistols, knives, blankets, and other European things; the woodpecker took a hatchet; began to cut down the thicket the next morning; they began to work at night, but The crocodile swallowed and carried away the fire; T. turned one of the young men into a frog; the Lyashushchki began to sing, the Crocodile swam to eat them, killed him, found a fire in his belly, lit a fire again; a felled tree they hold vines attached to the sky; the squirrel cut them, people took possession of the plants], 52 [Kinkaju went to the Caliavirinae tree to eat fruits at night; Paka followed, grabbed and carried away the pineapple he had dropped; people came to ask Palameco for tools; one turned into a mosquito, tickled his throat, he belched his axe; cut his trunk, the Squirrel cut off the vines that held him; people received cassava and other cultivated plants; a fallen tree turned into rock outcrops], 53 [(Ortiz 1982:85); people deprived a woman of food; she scraped corn off her feet; ate porridge, fed her younger ones sisters and brothers, later turned into a Kalivirnae tree; peppers, yams, cassava and other cultivated plants grew on it; necklaces were on the Tulikisínae tree]: 191-203, 204-210, 211-215, 215-218, 221 -224, 225-226, 227-228, 229-230, 231.

Southern Venezuela. Piaroa [as long as the tree branches are tied, it cannot be knocked down; some animal gnaws through the vine]: Boglar 1977, No. 29:286; makiritare [the vine is tied to the sky, the squirrel cuts]: Civrieux 1980:135-136; Sanema [(Colchster 1981:78-86); Samonamaniapada (samonala ola: sweet honey) works well on the site, speaks Makiritare, Possum does not work well, does not know the language; two girls -partridges (Odontophorus gujanensis) came, saw Kashtali (a small inedible mouse) in the hammock, began to poke him in the eye with a lit knot; he ran away to his older brother Opossum; Opossum dressed up , came home, lay down in a hammock; the girls try to play with him, but they push him away because of the stench; Honey came, all the girls surrounded him; Opossum went to the Lizards, took their witchcraft grass, blew on Honey, he died; the girls are grieving; the Opossum is just pretending; the snakes understood this, chased him, he climbed a tall tree; all the bird and woodworm people began to cut him down, everyone's axes broke; all the animals came; The ant (his name means wide-ass little agouti) climbed a tree, killed the Possum with an ax, killed him, blood flowed; the trunk was cut off, the tree remained hanging on the sunny vine; Little Sloth, then Big, White Monkey, Squirrels, Ocelot, Puma, Jaguar tried to cut it, but not completely, tried to descend quickly; the squirrel cut, crushed the Little Sloth; the birds painted with Opossum blood, regained their current color]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 132:240-246; Yanomami: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990b, No. 131 [(Cocco 1972:221-224); the girls rejected the Naro possum from- for his stench; Bee and N. were at a festival in another village; N. rejected everything, a girl followed the Bee; when she came, N. was the first to see her, but she rejected him, came to the Bee; N. prepared witchcraft grass, shot grass at the Bee with a wind gun; when he returned home, he died; N. went and shot guaricongo, but he woke up, said at home that N. had also killed Meda; N. ran away and began to turn into a possum; after him They sent to watch the boys, they became birds; N. hides in a tree, the Ant climbs after him, then turns into an ant; everyone began to cut down the tree, broke off their axes, so these birds have short beaks; finally, they cut the trunk, but the tree hangs on the vine; Little Sloth cut it, fell down, N. crashed; birds and animals painted with blood, brain, possum crap, acquired their current color, became birds and animals], 133 [(Lizot MS); Opossum was in a neighboring village, left a love remedy there, two girls followed him, he met one on the road; came back, met the second, her name was Honey ; both came to his house; his mother Smelly Mushroom cut the meat off her thighs, gave them tapir under the guise of meat; the sisters left the Possum for Honey; the Opossum made a witchcraft from rodent hair and vegetable fibers, sent him to Meda; also to the Lizard, but he survived, said that the Opossum was only pretending to be grieving, he was the murderer; the Opossum disappeared, the Woodpecker saw him in a recess on the rock; The Earthworm was sent to cover the Possum with a stone; people began to cut the rock; many axes (=beaks) broke; the rock began to fall, but it was held by a vine; the Sloth cut it, the Opossum was crushed; birds, animals stained with his blood, excrement, brain, turned into hekura spirits; Smelly Mushroom became a mushroom; ash from burned Honey became bees], 134 [(Lizot MS); two girls came to marry a handsome man, went into house; sat to the right of the entrance where Opossum and his mother Smelly Mushroom lived; Opossum returned from being lucky (pretending to work), dressed up, cut off a piece of meat from his thigh, gave the girls tapir under the guise of meat; those they saw Honey, went to him; at night, the Opossum hears their laughter; does a witchcraft, tries on the Lizard, he survived; Honey is sick, died; Opossum lies as if his "younger brother" bequeathed wives to him; The Lizard tells the truth, the Opossum is running, the Woodpecker sees him on the rock; the Earthworm climbed in, covered the recess where the Opossum took refuge with a stove; the birds began to cut the rock, the axes (i.e. beaks) were dull, bent; the rock began to fall, hung on the vine; the Sloth cut it, the Opossum crashed, the birds and the sloth painted his blood, brain, became hekura spirits]: 235-239, 247-256, 257-262; yanomam [(Albert MS); two The pigeon sisters reject the smelly Possum, want to marry Med; their brother tells them that Meda's house will have mako feathers; Opossum puts on Honey's jewelry, throws mako feathers around himself; Honey works for On the plot, Opossum only pretends to cut trees; girls see mako feathers, hang hammocks in the Opossum section; he cuts off a piece of meat from his thigh, gives them tapir meat; Honey demands its mako feathers Back, Opossum has to hang motmot feathers; Honey takes his wives; Opossum burns his armpit hair, makes it a code remedy, kills Honey in his hammock, the girls also died; The opossum ran, hid in a hollow in a tree; two Ants got up, crushed it with a stone; bird people cut down the tree, the axes were dull, but it still fell; birds and animals painted with blood, bile, and Possum's brain]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1990, No. 130:229-234.

Guiana. Varrau [deflorize a wooden girl]: Wilbert 1970, No. 120, 172 [owned Imanaidarota at night, Hokohiarota owned the sun; kept the night in a scarf in a basket; in his absence, his brother wife, boy, opened the bag; darkness came, the boy turned into an owl; I. came to H., in that house dancing, music; when H. wanted the sun, he pulled it up on a rope; X. gave a day for the girl. 6 hours long, promised to give a normal 12 hour for the second; I. did not have a second girlfriend, he carved her out of Usira wood; her name was Usirumani; H. could not sleep with her, asked the woodpecker to do it vagina; all birds were smeared in leaked blood; a crane in white blood, crows in curled black blood]: 247-248, 377-378; akawai [Maconaima creates a tree with all cultivated plants on branches; Agouti finds a tree, eats alone; son M. The whitefish sends the Woodpecker to follow Aguti, who pretends to be a knock; the Rat finds a tree, S. tells him to knock him down; the lazy Monkey interferes with work, S. sends her to carry water in the basket; the stump pours water, fish in it; S. tells you to climb the kokorite palm tree; those who could not close themselves in the cave; a long night falls; S. throws kokorite seeds; when he hears that they no longer fall into the water, people go down; turn into animals; Cayman is left without a tongue for lying; the Trumpeter Bird's ants have eaten their legs, they are now skinny]: Brett 1868:377-383; 1880:127-128; Im Thurn 1966 [Aguchi finds a tree with cassava, bananas and other cultivated plants on branches; people cut down a tree; a stump turns into stone; water gushes out of it, someone has covered it with a basket; a curious Monkey lifted it up, the flood has flooded the ground; the first ancestors climb the cockorite palm; the Howler Monkey roars, his throat remains swollen; the man throws seeds down to find out if the water is deep; the first ancestors descend; the Trumpeter Bird has ants legs, now they're skinny; man makes fire by rubbing; Penelope marail turkey swallows a spark, wakes, his throat stays red; people think the fire has swallowed Cayman, pulls out his tongue]: 379-381; arekuna [Akuli (aguchi) eats the good fruits of the pupu tree; Makunaima and his brothers are bad from the kaui-yeg tree; M. sends Kali (a squirrel) to follow A.; K. and the brothers find the navel, then other forest fruits; A. finds the Vasak tree; all cultivated plants hang on its branches; M. discovers a corn seed between the teeth of sleeping A., sends K. finds out what is going on; he first eats V.'s fruits himself, then tells his brothers; the older brothers object, but M. insists that V. must be cut down; vines are held on top of him; M. sends K. to cut them; he bitten by wasps, since then his eyelids have swollen; M. cuts V., telling the wood to be soft; his elder brother Jige tells him to be hard; the tree falls, the stump is Mount Roraima; water and fish flow from the stump; J. covers the stump with a basket; M. wants more cuts, takes off the basket, the flood floods the ground; M. and J. climb two palm trees; J. gives M. the fruit with his own; M. puts it on his penis, returns J. to eat; A. hides in a hollow, where he had previously transferred all the fruits; when he made a fire there, he scorched his ass]: Koch-Grünberg 1924, No. 1:33-36; carinha (Guyana): Brett 1880 [Tamoshi creates a tree with corn and other cultivated plants on the branches; Tapir finds it, eats it alone; people watch him; Woodpecker failed, the Rat managed to find the tree; the oracle tells him to cut it down; people cut down ten months, they find plants; a flood begins; people climb a coconut palm tree; a woman can hardly climb to half, turns into a stone, followed by her too; several people climb on komoo palm, save themselves]: 104-109; Gillin 1936, No. 1 [every day Tapiriha swims across the river, eats bananas, papayas, yams, cassava growing on tree branches; The rat asks to transport it too, hides it in her mouth a seed, brings it to people; they send Tapirih to bring water in a basket, cut down a tree; vines keep him from falling; the monkeys fail, the Squirrel gnaws through them; Tapiriha returns, she remains from now on only wild plums; the bunia bird teaches how to cultivate the land]: 189-190; Roth 1915, No. 60:147; oyana [rain floods the ground with a flood; brother and sister escape on the mountain, then in a boat; after a flood, a man from heaven tells them to build a house; a young man comes to him in heaven; there they bake meat and cassava on a rock under the sun; a sister also comes and finds a house whose pillars are cassava cuttings; the man shows cassava making supplies, they turn into a snake and a wasp swarm; a piece of wood into fire; a person sends his brother and sister to the ground, giving cassava, yams, bananas, etc.; a piece of wood burns itself ( the origin of fire); men and women come out of the two halves of the calebasa; brother and sister attach macaw feathers to their shoulders, fly to heaven forever to their adoptive father; all three are seen as constellations]: Coudreau 1893:550-552.

Western Amazon. Koreguahe [tree: sea, rivers]: Jimenez 1989, No. 16:33-34; Siona: Chaves 1958:138 [only the Turtle owns water; knocks on the trunk, the water flows, the Turtle bathes; people ask for water, The turtle asks them to cut down the tree; the Woodpeckers, then the Big Squirrels break their axes; the Little Squirrels cut down the trunk; the tree branches are entangled in the clouds; the Little Squirrel climbs up, cuts off branches, stays in the sky; the tree falls; the trunk turns into the sea, branches into rivers, leaves into lakes; rivers also form in the sky], 139 [people do not give food to the turtle woman; she hides water; a stingy man hides fire, corn, peach palm; people find a tree with a top to the sky; Parrots, Woodpeckers cut it with axes for a long time; branches are entangled in the clouds (the episode with the Squirrel as in p.138); The turtle takes away steals seeds from the stingy cultivated plants, gives people]; mayhuna [the reason why the tree does not fall is not named, but the squirrel climbs to the top of the tree to cut it]: Bellier 1991b, No. 4C: 196; cofan: Calífano , Gonzalo 1995, No. 112 [the shaman owns a tree with fish; Parrots chop it, by morning the felling overgrows; then they cut down all night, the little Parrot has the best ax (beak), cut the trunk by morning; the tree is suspended for a vine to the sky; A squirrel cuts a vine, is killed by a falling tree; chips and leaves fall into rivers, turn into fish; the remains of a tree are rocks], 113 [the old man owns a tree with fish, does not give it to his son and grandchildren; those They send birds to peck out his eyes; they ask him what he is afraid of; Not jaguars, not anacondas, big birds; boys pretend that birds have arrived, throw the old man into the water; he turns into stone thunder; (cutting wood as in (112)]: 165-166, 167-170; Napo [Apustulu alone uses a tree with fish in his trunk; a wasp boy helps him fish; Jaguar and others pull his belt Wasps with a rope; he reports a tree; they can't catch fish, they cut down the trunk; felling overgrows as soon as they don't look at it; they work without interruption, burn chips; the tree still does not fall; the bird sees that it is tied to the sky by a vine; The squirrel climbs up, cuts off the vine; the tree falls, turns into rivers, leaves into fish; A. in anger throws its feather fan and belt into the water; they turn into a poisonous stingray into an eel; turns the remaining chips into fish and aquatic animals; makes rapids to prevent fish from going up the river; turns the squirrel into stone as punishment]: Mercier 1979:69-80; napo or canelo [see motif A31; the girl became pregnant with her brother; he went to heaven, became a month; she became an ilucu bird (nightjar? ; but then the story continues; the same below with the mother of the jaguars, who became a toad but continues to act as before) has left home; the Cuillor (younger) and Docero twins from her womb show the way; ask her to pick a flower, then a leaf, a fruit; when she picked the fruit, she was bitten by a wasp; she clapped her stomach because of you; the twins fell silent; the parrot on her shoulder began to point the road, but he was carried away by a falcon; the woman came to the mother of the jaguars; she hid her under the roof, warned her not to spit; the jaguars came, she spat, the eldest climbed, did not find it, the youngest found the woman, they spit her they were torn to pieces, the twins were given to their mother (tender meat), but they asked them not to eat; the mother of the jaguars hid them, a month later they had already grown up; the old woman asked them to prepare firewood; they collected a huge pile, told pull from below, the old woman filled up the firewood; the next time she asked for water, they directed the river, when the old woman opened the door, the water carried her; the twins told the old woman to collect corn in the middle fields, made it endless; she can't find her way back; the voice of the toad "ooh" can be heard; since then, where corn grows, the toad unculu screams; the brothers brought the old woman home; the elder brother tells the younger not throw the leftovers wrapped in leaves into the water; he threw them away, they turned into a stingray, and when he started fishing, the stingray plunged his thorn into it; the mother of the jaguars asked them to make a bridge over the river for them; brothers turned into birds, made clubs, came back; the elder told the youngest to cut off the bridge at the signal, but he said there was no need for a signal; when all the jaguars stepped on the bridge, the elder cut off his end, and the youngest he fiddled for a long time and a pregnant jaguariha ran away; her traces are still visible on the river rocks; the brothers told the Old Jaguar about their adventures; he asked them to set traps and the brothers caught almost all birds and animals; the Old Jaguar decided to eat them; his brothers killed him, took out his spine, filled him with ash, put insects in his eyes; shouted that the jaguar wanted to eat them; the old mother of jaguars ran, hit the scarecrow with a stick, the ash blinded her, the brothers washed her eyes; the ancient Jaguar devoured everyone; the brothers made a room inside Mount Galera, put a lot of food and musical instruments there, they lured Jaguar with a game; he started playing himself, did not notice how the brothers came out; they told the hole to close; the Jaguar started rushing, one leg was left outside; there was still a roar; other jaguars brought him food; a huge harpy eagle devoured everyone; Cuillor hid in a rubber bag; the eagle could not tear it, threw it on the clouds; C. does not know how to go down; the old man Uchitican says he is also from the ground; ordered sit on his back, close his eyes, open him after the second whistle, flew; but C. opened after the first one, fell into the forest; Docero went to look for him; began to pick edible mushrooms from the trunk; scream from the trunk {apparently mushrooms are C.'s ears, but it's not directly said}; the woodpecker cut the hole; for this D. gave him a red handkerchief over his head; C. made glue, the eagle stuck, D. broke his wing with a blow of the club; the brothers turned him into stone; it is visible now - it looks like an eagle with a broken wing; a huge anaconda devoured people; the brothers made a trap, persuaded them to climb into it, turned the anaconda into stone; the thunder killed many; the brothers found him sleeping on a tree branch; they cut his neck with an ax, told him to petrify; there are thunderstones in this place now; the evil frog spirit ("devil") took the form of a mother, told the children to dance; the brothers hid, told him to become a stone; the brothers asked the caiman to transport them across the sea; when the first one sailed, he answered the caiman every time that it smelled like fragrant flowers; when he jumped ashore, he said that he was like a caiman; then But when the Cayman took the second one, but he had time to bite off the young man's leg; the bees pasted his leg with wax; the brothers made a fire, the smoke rose to the sky, became a staircase, and the brothers climbed into heaven; C. became as a morning star, and D. as an evening star]: Orr, Hudelson 1971, No. 2-15:7-49; waorani [tree: rivers, flood]: Rival 1996:115

NW Amazon. Cubeo: Goldman 1963:51; wanana [people ate grass, and if they planted plants, they ate only their leaves; the wind carried the smell of the fruit; Squirrel, acuti puru {probably agouti, not squirrel} stole on the plot of leaves; the owner caught, Agouti also smells of fruit; the owner forced him to lead him to the source of the smell; on Uarakapuri-Cachoeira on the right bank of Vaupes there is a giant tree with all the fruits on it; people became pick them up; for revealing the secret, the owner of the Uansken gift killed Aguti with a wind gun; he fell on a stone, the trail is still visible; people cut down a tree, knocked them down a month later, got cassava, sweet potatoes, etc.; the birds received fruit palms - bakaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.), acai (aka cabbage palm, Euterpe oleracea Mart.), miriti (Mauritia flexuosa), etc.; because the tree was felled, the fruits should now mature and are only available at certain times of the year]: Amorim 1928:270 in Bödiger 1965:85-86; ufaina [four Imarikakan brothers come to the Sun; on its site a huge tree remains uncut, he asks it to be cut down; the brothers cut down half, go to rest; at night, the daughter of the Sun puts chips back; the next day Imarika Kayafiki throws them at water, they turn into fish; the daughter of the Sun ties the tree to the sky with vines; IR turns into a squirrel, climbs up, cuts off vines; the tree falls west, breaks the spine of the Sun's daughter, turns into Apaporis River]: Hildebrand 1975, No. IX: 343-345; yukuna [nephews cut down a tree with water in the trunk; their aunt overgrows the felling]: Folclor 1974:313; yagua [like a yukun; grandfather overgrows]: Chaumeil 1983:155; Chaumeil, Chaumeil 1978, No. 2:169-170; Payne 1992:207-208; Powlison 1972a [see motif J23; the twin grandfather owns the water hidden in a tree trunk; brothers call all birds and rodents knock down a tree; felling overgrows at night; the younger one watches his grandfather, finds out a secret; they cut down a tree; it turns into the Amazon, rivers into tributaries, chips and leaves into fish, worms into Europeans, blacks and non-Yagua Indians]: 76; chikuna [like a yukun; toad man overgrows]: Rodríguez de Montes 1981, No. 12A: 113; Whitoto: Preuss 1921, No. 2 [girl rejects suitors; Sikire Bunaima (B. - aquatic mythical creatures) imperceptibly fertilizes her when she sits on a trough; appears as a young man, leads her under water, sends her back; she gives birth to a boy who turns into a huge tree; its branches have all cultivated plants, the roots are edible; a woman bakes them under her arms and under her knees, brings them to their parents; people stop eating crushed stones, white clay and rotten wood, go cut down a tree; Nofueni takes a toad axe, but when blows, her liver comes out of her mouth; receives a red parrot axe from her ancestor, knocks down a tree; throws chips into the water, they turn into fish; from one Carves chips out a woman, marries Hitome (the Sun); turns into a cat, flies to heaven], 9:170-188, 319-320; Urbina 1986 (murui): 54-61; Yepez 1982 [as in Preuss 1921, No. 2; woodpecker, common axe, toad, piranha turn out to be unusable axes]: 63-69; andoque: Landaburu, Pineda 1981:58-59; Pineda 1975, No. 4:453; bora [without details]: Guyot 1972:168

Montagna - Jurua. Chayahuita [a huge genipa tree overshadows the sun; people cannot burn vegetable gardens in the dark; Kumpanama is about to knock it down to the east; the branches will turn into small rivers the trunk will be large; Indians will live along its shores, and mestizos in the upper reaches; Woodpeckers, Parrots, Monkeys cut down a tree; K.'s ax breaks, he sends the White Monkey to his wife (grandmother) for resin to repair axe; a woman shows the Monkey her pubic hair, says K. takes the resin from here; K. comes and finds them making love; the White Monkey turns into a white monkey; returning to the tree, K. sees it fall to the west; cries, tears turn into Aguaruna Indians, peanut shells into their boats; K. turns people into different animals and birds, asking everyone about their habits and methods sustenance]: García Tomas 1994 (3) :251-253.

Chaco. Nivacle [people make a hole through the fallen sky]: Wilbert, Simoneau 1987b, No. 33 [when the sky fell, only five people were saved under the pepper tree, the rest of the trees bent; only a young man who had not yet converged with a woman could cut a hole through the stone sky with an ax; those who came out spoke different languages], 34 [the sky rested on two tree trunks, old and new; Fitsakajich noticed that Tsiché began to cut the old trunk with an ax; realized that if the old one fell, the new one that did not harden would not withstand the weight of the sky; asked the trees which of them could withstand the weight of the sky ; only the Pepper Tree replied that it would not break under the weight of the sky; when the sky fell, F. chose a young man who had not yet met the woman, told him to make a hole with a knife; the knife cut through the stone sky, as if it were made of leather; people came to the surface], 35 [it kept raining, the sky began to fall, one person told me to hide under a molle tree; the sky fell, but the tree withstood; one person made a hole with a tuko-tuco rodent's tooth; people went outside; then the sky turned into smoke and rose up], 38 [when the earth and sky changed places, the sky fell, nine people escaped under wood; the earth and sky were tightly pressed together; the old man cut the hole, everyone went to the other side, to the present earth]: 96-97, 97-100, 101-102, 105-107.