Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

M84A. A revived goat. .

After supernatural characters put the bones of a dead and eaten deer, cow, ram, or goat in its skin, the animal is whole (and usually comes to life). See M84 motif.

Italians (Emilia Romagna, Rome), Ladins, Bretons, French (Gascony), Walloons, Germans (Switzerland, Swabia, Austria), British, Scots, Tibetans (Amdo), Sindhi, Slovenes, Croats, Hungarians, Romanians, Transylvania Germans, Abkhazians, Karachays, Ossetians, Chechens, Avars, Khvarshins, Laki, Kumyks, Megrelians, Georgians, Megrelians, Armenians, Turks, Shugnans, Kafirs, Dardas, Burish, Uzbeks, Scandinavians, Estonians, Bashkirs, Chuvash, Kazakhs, Mongols, Steppe Cree, Arapaho.

Southern Europe. Italians (Emilia Romagna: Modena) [Maurizio Bertolotti (119:42): During the trial, a witch in 1519 said that witches eat an ox during a coven, then wrap their bones in their skin, after which the mistress of the coven hits the skin with a rod and the ox comes to life]: Tolley 2012:96; Italians (Rome) [Jesus went into a poor house; the owner served bread for the guest and slaughtered the only sheep; I. threw it out bones out the window and in the morning a hundred of them hung up]: Sydov 1910:94-95; ladins [a man took a cow to the mountains and spent the night in a hut; woke up at night from the noise; it was the night people who slaughtered and ate his cow; his they were also invited; he cut off a piece, fried it and ate it; in the morning the cow is intact, only the piece he ate is missing]: Jecklin 1874:1.

Western Europe. The Bretons [the poor farmhand saw dwarfs dancing in the moonlight at night; when hungry, they made a fire and then slaughtered, fried and ate his cow; he came up and asked for a slice; they promised to resurrect the cow, let only the guy spend the night with them; in the morning he saw the cow whole, except for the piece he...]: Sydow 1910:84; the French (Gascony) [God revived the poor man's cow, from which had only bones left; before that, he put one bone aside, and when the cow came to life, her bone hung instead of a tongue in her bell]: Sydow 1910:94 (retelling in Tuite 1997:13); Walloons [slaughtered and eaten in the morning safe and well]: Sydov 1910:93-94; Germans [1) S.513, Switzerland, Eifisch Valley: a shepherd sees spirits killing a deer at midnight, having a feast; offer a piece to the shepherd; in the morning they put all the bones on the skin, the deer comes to life, but the piece eaten by the shepherd is missing; 2) S.513, Bern district: a shepherd comes to the dwarfs, reproaches them for taking them from it herds of the best calf; dwarfs apologize, give the shepherd a piece of calf meat they eat; in the morning the shepherd sees a live calf, all that is missing is a piece he has eaten; 3) S. 515, Swabs: on a fasting day Nachvolk came, slaughtered the best cow, had a feast; the children living in the house also had to eat, but not lose their bones; after the feast, they did not find one bone; the rest were put in their skin, the cow came to life; 4) Tyrol: the hunter sees three wild women cooking wild chamois meat; he is asked to participate in the meal but keep the bones; he accidentally swallowed one; on the way home he noticed a chamois limping on his back leg; three years later she was shot, she lacked that bone]: Schmidt 1952:512-521; the Germans (Carinthia) [the spirits are taken away from the ox stall, killed, fried, eaten, the bones are put in their skin, hit with a rod and return the living ox to the stall]: Schmidt 1952:519; the British [the peasant has three well-fed cows; suddenly one lost weight, the next day the other; he stayed in the barn to guard; ran into the barn many demons, knocked down, cut a third cow, ate the meat, put the bones in the right order without breaking them, and the cow came to life again; but the peasant hid the bone that had fallen back to life, so the cow limped on her front leg]: Jacobs 1894:81-91; Scots [the new queen tyrannites the daughter of the deceased, sends sheep to herd but does not feed; surprised that the stepdaughter is alive; asks the poultry house find out; she sends her daughter, the girl puts her to sleep, but the third eye on the back of her head when she falls asleep sees a sharp-horned gray sheep bringing meat to her stepdaughter; the queen demands that the sheep be slaughtered; she tells her stepdaughter collect her bones, wrap her in her skin, she will be reborn; the stepdaughter forgot to put her hooves, the sheep became limp, but began to bring meat again; the prince fell in love with his stepdaughter, the poultry house's daughter spied, the queen sent her own daughter to herd sheep, and left her stepdaughter to work in the kitchen; the prince gave her stepdaughter gold shoes; she secretly went to church for the service, leaving before her stepmother; for the third time, the prince chased she found a lost shoe; told everyone to try it on; the poultry house cut off the Queen's daughter's toes to fit her shoes; during the wedding, the bird began to scream that her shoes were blood and beautiful legs in the corner behind the hearth; prince marries stepdaughter]: Campbell 1890 (2), No. 43:300-303; Scots [the saint supervised the construction of the Ulster cathedral; he had a cow that worked every day they ate, put the bones in their skin, and in the morning the cow was intact again; once he saw his cow on three legs holy; one of the workers admitted that he had crushed the bone to eat his brain; for this his descendants were punished: if one of them climbs the wall, they will fall and break]: Kennedy 1875:128-129; the Welsh [Historia Brittorum 32, 9th century AD; Britain was ruled by the cruel King Benli (Belinus); St. Hermanus came to him to preach Christianity; hospitality was denied; then one of his servants brought St. G. and his men to him; he only has a cow with a theolen, but he did not hesitate to stab a calf for the guests; St. Hermanus asks the participants in the meal not to break their bones; in the morning, a whole and healthy calf stands beside the mother; St. S. baptized the owner and his nine sons, and the tyrant's palace was struck by heavenly fire; (and two other similar options)]: Sydov 1910:91-93; (brief retelling in Egeler 2013:34); the Irish [St. Fingar (Guignerius) and his men stayed with a poor woman; she slaughtered a cow for them; St. F. ordered not to break bones; in the morning the cow was intact and has since given three times more milk than the others; (two more short versions)]: Sydov 1910:93 (and two more options on p. 96).

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans (Amdo; the text is told "in Tangut" and translated as a shirongol; the informant is "Ami-salun, a tangut, originally from the Du-i area north of Labrana Monastery, on the southern slope of Mount Hara-uly"; referring to Labrang Monastery in Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Region, Gansu Province) [an episode of an epic story: "Geser healed his horse's leg and asks if Dyr is at home. The shepherds say that tomorrow Dyr will go to Obo and tell him to cook the sheep for slaughter. Geser ordered the designated sheep to be slaughtered. They slaughtered her; Geser told her to cook the meat. The shepherds cooked the meat. Then Geser told me to eat it. When the meat was eaten, Geser ordered the bones to be put together and covered with skin. When the shepherds did everything, as Geser ordered, the sheep were alive again."]: Potanin 1893, No. 1:24.

South Asia. Sindhi [the prince is chasing a gazelle with golden horns, she hides in the lake; a voice tells him that this is Lake Peri, they will appear in a year; in a year the prince hides in an iron cage, peri they bathe, he hides their clothes, demands the one whose name is Sedyan; makes him his wife; but she does not talk to her husband; a year later he sends him hunting, tells the maid to bring those clothes with the doors closed; puts on and flies through the chimney, saying that the prince will be able to return it within a year; the prince comes to the cannibal shepherd, who throws him into his goat pen, where there are already many people; every evening he puts one on the skewer, leaves it to fry, falls asleep himself; the prisoners drink milk; Peri S., in the form of a whirlwind, pours out the poisoned milk that the prince was going to drink; that night he heated his skewer, burned the ogre's eyes; he stabbed the ram, put on his horns, the ogre let him in; on the other side of the pit, the ogre called out, he rushed, failed, the prince finished him off; he came into the house, hid, three witches came there, killed him, they cooked and ate the goat, collected the bones, cast a spell, but the goat did not revive; this means that the cannibal shepherd was dead; the witches brought hyenas, went to the shepherd, and the prince shouted that He killed the shepherd; the witches rushed back, but Peri S., with the help of her friends, caused wind and rain, the hyenas were washed away by a stream; at the request of his daughter, Peri's father sent a horse to the prince; he arrived, the wedding; a son was born; S. flew away, telling her not to look into one of the rooms; the old woman said that there was sister S., who was more beautiful than her; but there was a parrot; he was a demon who fell in love with S. but was cunningly caught; he took the prince and his son, S. saw it, her 12 friends repulsed them, and S. put the parrot back in the locked room; Peri's father sent his son-in-law, wife and son back to their homeland; there the vizier seized power, but his army was defeated with a magic club; the prince put his father back on the throne]: Schimmel 1995, No. 22:140-147.

The Balkans. Romanians (Transylvania) [The Lord, in the form of an old man, asked the boy for meat; he was given him lamb; the Lord ate it, and then the lamb was reborn]: Sydow 1910:95; Germans (Transylvania) [ One neighbor has a hundred axles, and the other has three; (Google Translator failed further); the poor sheep were reborn, but the rich did not]: Sydow 1910:95.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Abkhazians; Adygs; Karachays; Ossetians; Chechens; Avars; Khvarshins; Kumyks; Megrels; Georgians; Armenians; Turks.

Iran - Central Asia. Shugnans; kafirs; dardas; Burish; Uzbeks in Khorezm.

Baltoscandia. Scandinavians (Gulvi's Vision): Younger Edda 1963:35 [Everyone in Valhalla is fed Sahrimnir's boar meat, he's safe again in the evening], 40-41 [Eku-Tor on his goat-drawn chariot and Loki set off and spent the night with one man; Thor stabbed and cooked his goats, and invited the owner, son and daughter to dinner; ordered bones to be thrown on their skins; Tialvi, the master's son, split his femur bone and brains; in the morning Thor revived the goats, but one limped; Thor was angry ready to kill everyone, but agreed to take the owner's children Tyalvi and Ryoskva as a ransom; they now follow him; ways to the land of giants Thor and his companions entered the forest, reached a house; at night they heard a rumble; in the morning they see a giant lying nearby and snoring; Thor was surrounded by the Belt of Power, the giant woke up, said his name was Skryumir (bragger?) ; the house with the extension in which they spent the night was his Scrumir mitten; S. asked for travel companions, took a bag of food; fell asleep at rest, and Thor could not untie a single knot and open the bag; hit S. Mjollner on the head; he: didn't the leaf fall? At night, Thor hits the giant on the head with a hammer and hears: has the acorn fallen? In the morning he hit his temple, the hammer went deep. - Didn't the knot fall? It's time to go, Utgard is coming soon, there are a lot of people there and bigger than me]; Estonians [sacrificed animals, sacrificed bones to the gods, and ate meat themselves because they assumed that the gods would turn the bones again per animal]: Merkel 1798:236 in Jonuks 2009:21; (cf. Western Sami: Pollan 2005, No. 115 [birds fly to Barbmo country every autumn; swan-sized dwarfs live there; they catch geese and other birds with a stick with a loop at the end; they don't break bones, they collect them, bring them to where the bird was caught; two brothers came there and noticed that the bones were not breaking; the brothers did the same; it's very warm there]: 225; Toivonen 1937 [(it is not directly mentioned about the revival of birds, but this follows from a desire not to break bones); for the winter, migratory birds fly to Loddaši nnám, the 'Land of Birds', aka barbmo-riika; there they are little men hunt, they do not break the bones of eaten birds, but they pile them up; they have been visited by two people, fulfilled the request not to break bones; the owner of migratory birds is Barbmo-akka; birds back from warm The country is led by a crane, reports to B. how many birds were born and how many died; after receiving the report, B. decides how many birds she should keep for herself, how many to release into the world]: 100-103).

Volga - Perm. The Bashkirs [the boy was at a perfume meeting; hid the edge of the cow they had slaughtered; after the feast, the spirits folded the cow's bones, replacing the missing rib with a wooden one; the cow was revived; in the village the boy spoke about what he saw; the owner stabbed a cow with a wooden edge in it]: Baishev 1895:31-32 in Chursin 1956:83; the Chuvash [The superstitious Chuvash thought that luck in hunting depended on arsuri, well-being in life. They say he feeds on animal meat. For example, he catches a deer and eats its entire carcass, and whips its bones, collected and folded, and the deer comes to life. The hunter can only catch animals eaten and revived by a goblin]: Enderov 2002:31.

Turkestan. Kazakhs.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Oirats (probably Kukunor Olets) [a book version of The Heceriade, printed in 1716 in Beijing in woodcut and similar in language to the southern Oirat dialects: Zuru (Geser) and his two half-brothers, Tsasa-Shikir and Rounsa, went to pasture; Zuru: "We herd so many cattle, but we walk completely hungry: let's slaughter and eat at least one calf!" ; Rounsa: "Shall we slaughter and eat it? Why, father and mother are scolding us!" ; Zuru: "I'm taking responsibility, Zasa, catch a calf!" ; Zasa caught; Zuru stabbed the calf and skinned it in the form of a bag; when eating meat, bones were thrown into this leather bag; Zuru pulled the bag's tail and waved his hand three times; the calf came to life and ran to the herd; the brothers returned home, went into the yurt; Zuru started eating, and Zasa and Rounsa stayed standing; the mother asked why they did not eat; Zaza and Rusna said that Zuru fed them a calf; Sanlong, named Father Zuru, rushed at him with a whip; then counted the calves: everyone was there; the next day, Zuru stabbed his calf again; Rounsa hid his tail in his bosom; when they ate meat, they threw bones in a bag; Zuru waved his hand three times and the revived calf ran into the herd; at home Rounsa said, "Let's eat the tail from the calf that our younger brother Zuru stabbed to death"; pulled out his tail from his bosom, buried it in ash; S. rushed to Zuru with a whip; then counted the calves: everyone was there, but one had his tail cut off; S. returned to the yurt, began to quilt Rounsa and accuse him of defamation]: Kozin 1935:49-50 (German translation in Schmidt 1839:22-24); (cf. Shors, Altaians, Telengits {there are ways to revive a killed animal, but they are different than in Europe, the Caucasus and the Pamir-Hindu Kush} [a killed beast may be resurrected; Shors, after ripping off the column, they throw their torso in the taiga, having previously stabbed it on the ridge 9 times; Kalars {one of the Shor families} do the same, hitting it 3 times; later it will be difficult for such a column run away from the hunter; the Altaians leave the sable's body on a hill on four pegs and cover it with branches; the telengites do not cook the meat of the animal with their eyes, but throw them into the taiga so that Altai gives them to another animal ; they mold figures of goats and sheep from barley oatmeal and place them in the taiga in confidence that Altai will turn them alive]: Potapov 1929:131).


Midwest. Steppe Cree [Windigo has a second person on the back of his head, he kills everyone; calls the woman to his boat, takes her to his grandmother, tells her to fatten her and then cook her; grandmother feels sorry for her, she tells her to kill her and cook himself, run; Windigo finds his grandmother's meat, chases the girl; she runs into an iron house; a man kills V. with a door; bowls, bowlers, spoons, etc. appear from his burned corpse; man does not tell a woman takes nothing, breaks everything; an evil spirit jumps from a tree, breaking women's knees; an elk takes a woman to his wife; her brothers are starving at this time; the elk agrees to be killed and eaten, but bones need save by wrapping it in its skin; then it will come to life]: Bloomfield 1930, #33:312-314.

Plains. Arapaho [A month hears a girl wanting to marry him and another wants a bright star as her husband; his brother Sun prefers the Frog because she does not wrinkle her eyes when looking at him ; The month turns into a porcupine, the girl follows it, climbs a tree, goes to heaven, becomes the wife of the Month; the Sun brings the Frog; The frog is going to get water, takes a vessel; The Month invites his wife and Frog to compete to see who chews a piece of gut better; the Wife of the Month crunches pleasantly, the Frog can't gnaw its gut, crunches with coals, black drools; she is offended, jumps on her chest For a month, she has been seen there ever since with a water vessel; the Month has two wives, a woman and Bisonicha, each with a son; sons and wives quarrel; The Month warns the female wife not to dig a deep hole by digging roots; she digs, makes a hole in the sky, sees her native village; weaves a rope from her tendons, climbs down it; the Month throws a stone, killing his wife, but the child falls and remains alive; sucks the chest dead mother; grows up; a person notices traces, leaves a bow and arrows, the boy picks them up; the man hardly grabs it, leads him to the parents of the deceased woman; The Month reproaches the Bisonicha Wife for what happened; she and her son leave; the month follows them; every day, bison kill one of them (one of the brothers of the wife of the Month) to feed their son-in-law; each time they collect bones in their skin, bison comes to life; A month peeks, piercing a hole in a tipi, sees his father-in-law hitting a snag, a man jumps out of there, runs, Bisons kill him for food; A month secretly makes bows, goes to hit him on a snag; first a woman provocateur jumps out, a month hits her, now her nose is injured, a month does not let her back; people go out, the Month gives them bows; tells them to hunt buffalo and the Bisons to become bison; father-in-law's hat will become head and spine, bird claws - horns, hailstones - eyes, elk round teeth - teeth, eagle feather - tongue, deer hooves - hooves, moon-shell - voice, wampum - larynx, water turtles - kidneys, Navajo cape - intestines, bast - tendons, eagle feathers - shoulders, aquatic plant root - penis, water foam - lungs, vine pod - heart]: Dorsey, Kroeber 1903, № 134:321-329.