Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

M84b1. A trip to the land of fish .

A person enters a country from where fish come to people (and comes back).

Nivhi, Ulchi, Nanai, Ainu, Tagish, Inner Tlingits, Tlingits, Haida, Bellacula, Uvikino, Quakiutl, Quarry, Chilkotin, Squamish, Upper Chehalis.

Amur - Sakhalin. Ulchi [four young and one old fisherman got lost in the fog; on the cape they see a stone house, beautiful in it; the young one leaves, does not return; so three times, an old man and one young remain; the door in the rock, there is a cauldron, fish, they ate; a huge man without a head comes in, shows them their village; this is Yz, the master of the sea; when he throws a quarter of the fish skin into the water, there are few fish, when half a skin is a lot, when whole - abundance; Y. you need to feed good berries and fish; on this day it was forbidden to comb your hair so that women's hair did not fall into the berries; in other cases, the owner of the fish is old Taygoch, an ordinary man species; in his whalemustache yurt, fish swims under sledges; he throws scales into the sea, they turn into fish]: Zolotarev 1939:97-98; nivkhi: Panfilov 1965 [fisherman loses his way to sea; sails to old man; he throws a handful of scales, it turns into fish; the old man sends the fisherman home in the box, tells him to kill the deer, lower the carcass for him in the same box; the fisherman meets his wife, both are old]: 245-247; Pilsudski 1991a [six seal hunters sail in the fog to an unknown land; in one house they open a box with a naked old cilantro; he and other cilantro are chasing people, grabbing one; in In another house, the owner strings one of those who come to the skewer, roasts like fish; the stone house has no holes; the old woman teaches him to remove the sword from the box, cut the exit; cilantro grabs the boat, people cut him off hand with a sword; they sail into the country of beautiful women; at night one of the hunters copulates, his penis is bitten off, he dies; the old woman teaches how to insert stones into the vaginas; by this time his uncle and nephew remain alive ; an uncle introduces a stone to women, they are happy to have got rid of their teeth; copulate with hunters; a man throws scales of chum salmon and pink salmon into the sea; scales turn into salmon; sends hunters home in a box; for this they donate red and white deer to him, put them in boats, they sail into the sea themselves]: 16-19; Sternberg 1908:165, note 14 [an old man in a village of sea people throws scales into the sea to give people prey ]; Nanais [the fish stopped catching; one man went east, reached the sea; there are three masters of the sea on the shore; the man threw a button into the sea, one began to look for it; the man spoke to him; he (this is killer whale?) carried him on his back across the sea; the man reached the snow-white mountain Yangi; with difficulty climbed; on the main ridge, a petrified man facing sunrise, a petrified snuffbox nearby; her man opened it, filled the pipe inside with tobacco, let the stone fish smoke; he said that all river and sea fish were his children; they complained that people were catching them needlessly; the stone fish promised to fix the situation; the man returned home the same way he came; fish from the sea rushed to Amur for him; it was Enduri who was offended by old Doro, who had lost a lot of fish; but now everything is as it was]: Kiel 1996, No. 58:419-420.

Japan. Ainu (Hokkaido, western 1996) [the man went fishing, but the storm carried him to the sea and six days later took him to an unknown shore; the local chief, an old man, offered to spend the night, and in the morning his men and women, who will go on business, will take him home; but he must lie in the boat all the way without raising his head; many boats left at the same time; he was taken to to his native village and threw him into the water, and the boats disappeared; at night, that old man appeared to man in a dream; he was the chief of the salmon; seeing a man in trouble, he saved him; it was not a day he thought, but a year; you must do it to me libations with rice beer and read; if you don't, you'll become impoverished]: Chamberlain 1888, No. 34:.

Subarctic. Tagish, inner tlingits [boy says salmon is spoiled; chasing a seagull, ends up in salmon land; he is told to throw all bones into the water when he eats fish; eaten are reborn as children; one boy is missing an eye; an earthly boy finds a lost eye, throws him into the water, the salmon boy is healthy again; an earthly boy in salmon guise is caught by his parents; identified by them by copper jewelry; the shaman restores his human appearance]: Cruickshank 1992:75-78.

NW Coast. Tlingit: Garfield, Forrest 1961 [The mother only feeds her son dried salmon; the seagull drags him into the water, he enters the salmon country; loses a pebble that must be kept in her mouth to always be full; a friend tells you to kill a child with a stick, fry it and eat it, throw the bones into the water; he loses one bone from his head, the leader's son is sick in the morning; finds a bone, throws it into the water, the leader's son recovers; salmon bring the boy home; mother catches salmon, cuts, finds her son's copper jewelry under her skin; parents put salmon on the roof, he turns into a boy again, tells her story]: 146-147; Smelcer 1992 [Yoloa's mother tells Yoloa to throw salmon bones into the water; he doesn't throw everything; Salmon disappear, take Y. with them; their leader is sick because some bones are missing; J. returns to people along with salmon, his mother catches him, recognizes him by the necklace around his neck; the shaman turns him back into a human; he teaches people the rituals of catching salmon; finds missing seeds, salmon it gets a lot]: 15-17; hyda (Skidgate) [salmon take the boy by boat to his country; on the shore he eats salmon caviar; children say it's their bowel movements; in the chief's house he sees a woman, down whose bodies are petrified; she tells him to burn salmon bones after eating; the chief's son and another salmon man fall ill; the young man finds seeds that he forgot to burn, burns them, the sick recover; salmon they return with him; the path lies under the edge of the sky, which rises and falls; the boat is crushed, some of the sailors are saved; the mother recognizes her son in the form of salmon by the necklace hanging on him; cuts off his head, puts his body on the roof, it turns into a human; he becomes a shaman; a year later he kills salmon; it's his own soul, he dies]: Swanton 1905:7-15; bellacula: Boas 1898, No. 5 [gutting salmon, the chief's wife finds a boy in one, brings up with her son, both grow up immediately; Salmon brother tells me to scream as he approaches his hut by the shore; the human brother forgets, He sees salmon half-alive on the floor; then a boat arrives, a man sails with it; they sail through the countries of Smelt, Herring, Candlefish; in Salmon Land, they jump into a house whose door every now and then slams shut; Salmon eat seaweed, offer a boy and a girl to a man; thrown into the water, they turn into salmon; the owners order to preserve bones and giblets, throw them into the water; children are reborn, but the boy is limping, the girl has no eye; an eye and bone are found, thrown into the water, the children recover; Salmon's daughter does not tell her to go to bed with her; a man sticks a stone, breaks her vaginal teeth; she gives birth to a son and daughter ; in the form of salmon, everyone returns to the human world; caught, man and wife take the form of human beings; man teaches how to throw fish bones into water; wife and children return to salmon; man climbs to heaven, marries daughters of the Sun; see motif K27]: 73-83; McIlwraith 1948 (1): 85-87 [The raven makes salmon out of wood, they don't live; swims across the sea to the salmon country; the chief throws his daughter into the water, she turns in salmon; The raven eats it, hides the bone in his mouth; salmon comes to life from the bones, but swims without a goal; 1) The raven is forced to return the bone; the girl comes to life, he takes it to the river. Bellacula; 2) The raven takes the bone, inserts it into wooden fish at home, which turns into real salmon], 664-665 [the young man was carried away on an ice floe to the salmon country; the leader tells him to throw the boy into the water and a girl; they turn into salmon; he eats them, throws bones into the water; a revived girl is blind in one eye; the young man drops a piece of boiled eye, finds it, throws it into the water, the girl recovers; in In the form of a salmon, a young man comes to people along with other salmon; his father catches him, he becomes human again; becomes a shaman]; uvikino [Kuēkuaqā'oh (Raven?) tells his sisters to make mats serving salmon meat, sails in a self-propelled boat to Salmon Country; there he tells his sister to make holes in local boats; the chief feeds guests salmon, telling them not to break and do not throw bones into the fire; one girl's nose is bleeding, the leader realizes that K. hid the nasal bone, they take it away, the girl recovers; K. pretends to be insulted, swims away, deliberately leaving it one of his mats; the chief sends her daughter to give the mat to the departing guests; when the girl enters the water, K. grabs it, sails away; the chief sends the unperforated boats in pursuit; K. throws his mats , the pursuers pick them up, fight over them; K. arrives home in Rivers Inlet; there are salmon there ever since]: Boas 1895, No. XX.1.5:210 (=2002:446-447); Quakiutl: Boas 1916, No. 189 [Raven comes to the Salmon Chief; he kills his two sons; they turn into salmon; when the bones are thrown into the water, the boys are reborn; the deer hides one bone from his chest, one of the boys does not grabs the pin with which his cape was fastened; Ravens and animals carry salmon children in a boat moving with a magic paddle; Salmon catch up with them, the Deer kills them; the Raven distributes the salmon on rivers]: 579; Wallace, Whitaker 1981 [the owner of a boat that changes dimensions at will sails with people to Salmon Country to take a bride for his son; The Chief gives a daughter, teaches how to catch, cook and eat salmon; heads and all bones must be preserved so that salmon can be reborn whole]: 131-135.

The coast is the Plateau. Chilcotin [the boy is carried on an ice floe down the river to the country of salmon; an old woman tells him to kill and bake a local boy who is actually salmon; after eating, a boy on earth throws his bones into the water the salmon boy comes to life; he is blind because his eyes have fallen to the ground; an old woman finds them, lets him swallow them, he sees them again; an earthly boy in salmon guise comes home, caught by his father, finds them again human form; goes to the Sun that killed his brothers; see motive K27]: Farrand 1900, No. 10:24-25; quarry [see motive K27; upon returning from the sky, a young man sails on an ice floe down the river into the country salmon; an old woman teaches him to kill a girl; she turns into salmon, he eats it; all skin and bones must be burned; he does not burn his eyes; the girl revives, her eye hurts; the old woman tells me to cook and eat eye, girl recovers; this is how the young man eats salmon children, they are reborn every time; he comes home in salmon guise; his father catches him, he becomes human again]: Jenness 1934, No. 1:109-110 ; squamish [Hill-Tout 1929:62-64; at a time when animals and humans were no different, four brothers sailed in a boat; the boat itself was a younger brother; and he stopped at the chief asked them to go to salmon land and bring them here; they went to the sun to find out where the salmon lived; this required luring the sun; the younger brother turned into salmon and was tied to the forest near the shore; but the sun put three brothers to sleep, turned into an eagle (probably an osprey) and carried the salmon, cutting off the line; when they woke up, the two brothers turned the third into a whale and also tied them up near the shore; on this time, the eagle could not cut the rope, and its claws were stuck in the body of a whale; the sun told the brothers that the salmon country was in the west, and they let him go; calling many squamish Indians with them who sailed in their own boats, and taking potions and amulets, the brothers sailed to the island, but could not dock: a layer of coal floats on the water; they swam the island and docked on the other side in the salmon village; chief villages - Chinook salmon; he was given amulets, he is friendly; sent two young men and two girls to the top; in the water they turned into salmon, they are cooked and served to the brothers; bones cannot be thrown away or broken; after meals, the bones were carefully collected and thrown into the water, boys and girls were reborn; on the fourth day, one guest hides the bones; the salmon boys are reborn, but one has no nose and cheek; the culprit pretended that found bones; one of those who came drowned when caught in floating coal; the brothers can revive him, but he is blind; the salmon chief began to offer the eyes of different types of salmon, and the third time his eyes came up, lively saw the light; the chief agreed to send his men to the squamish country, but on the condition that people would collect bones and throw them into the water; so it was]: Clark 1960:29-32; upper chehalis [Brother Spear catches fish and eats alone, and his sister collects fern rhizomes and when he brings them, his brother comes to eat them; realizing that she is deceived, his sister leaves; where the sky meets the ground, she marries Salmon, she has child; The spear comes there; the old man calls the elk, kills, takes the carcass out of the skin with his legs, tells the moose to leave, it (i.e. the skin with legs) leaves; the sister's sister's sister Spear (her name is the End of the World) gives him a bit of berries, but there are a lot of them, you can't eat everything; at dusk, salmon people come into the house dancing, each holding an object for catching or cooking fish; for example, 5 types of salmon; End of the World She killed Sister Spear's child, cooked it, ordered not to throw away the bones; then the bones were covered with a handkerchief, the baby came to life; like this every day; on the fifth day, the Spear hid his cheek bone with meat; the child could not be revived, he died; his sister told him to leave; he came to the house of Thunder, who allowed the Spear to take his daughter; his father-in-law teaches the Spear to become Thunder, he fails, he is afraid that he will be killed, leaves; he marries in another house, she can't get up in the morning, a board sticks to her back; the old woman separates her, tells her to leave - these are Resin People; The spear comes to the old man, he warns: when you meet another old man, you have to climb a dry spruce tree , her bark will fall on him, otherwise he will eat; that old man is killed by bark, the Spear burned him; the giant offers his daughter, asks for help defeat another who breaks his tops; the giants began to fight, the Spear killed both; comes to a blind old woman, blows in her eyes, she saw the light; warned her to shoot first when the Puma meets; the Spear killed, burned the Puma; Wild Rhubarb screams that they will kill the Spear, but do not recognize him; he turned them into wild rhubarb; his sister is waiting for the Spear at home; it has turned into a flower that blooms in May, the children play with it; the sister has also become something]: Adamson 1934, No. 45:87-94.