Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

M90a4. The jewel tree. .

A tree is described on which jewelry or ornaments hang instead of fruits; individual parts of the tree are made of different metals or (semi) precious stones.

Babylonia, Syrian Arabs, Tibetans, Garo, Assamese, Santals, Dayaks (West Sarawak), Makassars, Chinese (no records listed), Ingush, Georgians, Swans, Armenians, Persians, Uzbeks, Nanais, Ulchi.

Western Asia. Babylonia (the first 11 tablets of the Akkadian poem) [King Gilgamesh is cruel to his subjects; the gods create the wild man Enkidu to defeat G.; E. leaves animals and goes to people after how he was seduced by the harlot Shamkhat; G. and E. fight and become friends, kill the guards of the Khumbaba cedar forest; the gods want to punish them, E. dies; G. wants to understand the mystery of death; goes through the gorge the range of mountains surrounding the world, persuading a scorpion man to let him pass; visits a garden where gems grow on trees; Siduri, who lives by the sea, shows him the way; Urshanabi transports him through the waters of death to the island where the immortal Ut-Napishti lives; he tells G. the story of the flood, helps to get a flower of eternal youth from the bottom of the sea; while G. was sleeping, the snake stole the flower, returning to its hole, threw it off skin; G. laments that he has obtained the ability to rejuvenate not himself (and all people), but snakes]: Deacons 196:7-82; Syrian Arabs [the king has a tree with gold, silver and diamond leaves; falcon comes to tear them up; the king tells his sons to guard; the eldest two fall asleep, the youngest Aladin, the son of a black concubine, sprinkles salt on the cut so as not to fall asleep, knocks down the falcon's three feathers; the brothers go for the falcon, break up at the well; A. kills a male snake chasing a female; she turns into a girl, promises to help, flies with him to heaven, tells him to swallow pistachio seed (he will find falcons speech), take a falcon, but do not take the cage; A. takes the cage, but the local owner lets him get the horse; A. again violated the ban (not to take the stirrups); bring a sword (not to sheath); bring the king's daughter Fatima, who took the ghoul away; F. explains that a ghoul can only be killed with his own sword; A. gets a sword, kills a ghoul, takes F., also receives a sword, a horse and a falcon; the brothers throw him into the well; below is a genie, who has a black and white woman, A. chooses black, because he himself is a black son; calls a snake girl, she takes him to her father; he gave him the throne, executed his eldest sons]: Kuhr 1993:134-143.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Tibetans {the summary is sketchy and approximate, but the point is roughly conveyed} [King Utposhadha has a tumor on his head; she came out a beautiful boy called Mandhatar; he grew up and was away when his father died; demanded that all the regalia be brought to him where he is at the moment; the hermits were annoyed by the sound of crane wings, they made the cranes weak and could not fly; for this, M. expelled them from his state; seeing people farming, M. ordered all cultivated plants to fall from the sky; and so happened; the same happened; the same happened with fabrics and clothing; Información suplementaria a rain of precious stones, but only over the royal palace; M. asks if anything remains outside his subordination? such a dvipa remains; M. and his thousand sons go there and ruled there for thousands of years; then another dvipa is the same; in the Uttarakaru area on Mount Meru there are white spots; this is rice growing and ripening by itself for himself; then M. sees some trees in the same place: these are desire trees from which the inhabitants of that country take clothes for themselves; M. came to those lands and enjoyed their grace for thousands of years; etc.; finally, M. went to the palace on Mount Meru, where 33 gods lived; on the way he subdued 500 rishis; M. included the naga and various gods who guarded Meru into his army; M. mastered everything; in the city of Sudarśana, robes on trees four colors, and the others had all kinds of ornaments; any four-color dishes, musical instruments, etc. also grew on the wish trees; and in conclusion, the king of the gods Shakra planted M. next to him and they became the same and equal; the war between the gods and the asuras began; the asuras took possession of part of the fortifications of the city of the gods, but M. defeated them; then M. thought he was better than the gods, and this was his end; he immediately fell ill; when he died, he said that the desire for wealth and power is endless and pointless, sacrifices must be made; after that, many thousands of people abandoned everything and became hermits]: Ralston 1906, No. 1:1-20; garo [at first, people ate only wild yams, tarot, and other tubers and roots; there was a Tree of Wealth with 12 branches to the east and 12 to the west; on the east there were diamonds, precious gongs, gold, silver, etc., and in Western countries, plant seeds: rice, cotton, silk {mulberries?} etc.; on the rice branch, each branch had rice of its own color; even the gods could not pick them; you could only pick them from below, but only from above; then the Wind God, with the help of his friends, God of City and God Storms, the tree began to shake and the rice fell to the ground; the Wind God himself did not bother to pick up rice, a woman did it; she grew rice in her garden; after receiving grains from her, Heaven sowed them in his fields; one day I met Ahni Apilpa from the ground; when they began to eat them, I was surprised that he only had roots and tubers; shared rice with him; sent him rice with his servant, but out of envy he gave dried seeds, they did not sprout; then AA chained the messengers of the god of Heaven; he explained that only one was to blame, sent new rice; AA's servants, out of envy, began to collect still unripe seeds; now the god of Heaven was shackled by AA servants; but it turned out, Fig. they began to grow on the ground]: Rongmuthu 1960:229-233.

South Asia. The Assames [the lame prince and his half-brothers (stepbrothers) go to get a tree on which jewels hang; hunts the daughters of the King of Death, the King of Pigeons, the King of the Nagas, the King of the Nagas, the King of the Naga, the King of the Naga, the King of the Naga The serpent, the fan king (Fans), the king of the Vultures, and the tree; on the way back, his brothers kill him, take possession of the princesses and the chest with the tree inside; the chest can only be opened by the lame prince; the daughter of the King of Death revives him; the prince is made minister, his brothers are executed; the barber persuades the king to give the prince difficult assignments; 1) scatter lentil seeds (pulses) and mustard and overnight collect and divide them (pigeons fulfilled); 2) dig two reservoirs overnight and settle nagas in them (nagas performed); 3) establish a snake kingdom (snakes fulfilled); 4) get the king's magic ring ancestors (fans were performed); from the wave of one fan, the prince died, went to the afterlife, received a ring, and from the wave of another he came to life; the barber saw it; the prince tells the king that his ancestors need barber; he takes both fans and tells his wife to revive him second; but his wife is tired of waiting, hit the barber on the head and he dies]: Goswami 1960:110-111; Santals [Raja has two sons with two wives and one from the third; his name is Lelha (“fool”), his brothers despise him; Jugi (something like a dervish?) tells the Raja that if his garden is filled with flowering plants, the whole city will be fascinated; the Raja refuses food, his wives, then his sons come and persuade him; the older brothers have set up a garden; Jugi wants so that the branches have precious stones; the older brothers promise this too; but at night someone cuts off the flowers; the elders guard, fall asleep; L. takes 4 servings of roasted beans with him, eats slowly; in heaven four heavenly maidens descend successively, L. grabs each, she leaves her curl to call her if help is needed; in the morning, the Raja sees a blooming garden; but Jugi talks again about gems; older brothers go in search; L. easily catches up with them by summoning a heavenly horse, then hides it; cooks for brothers; a heavenly maiden will marry someone who jumps a certain distance over a certain distance time; L. summons her horses four times, each time she wins, jumping faster; marries a heavenly maiden; she teaches how to get stones; they are from her sleeping older sister; we must give grass to an elephant, a goat to a tiger, a shoe for a dog, the same on the way back; there is a tree on the island on which these stones grow; L. and his brothers mine stones, back the brothers sail in one boat and L. in another; the Raja demands to show the stones in The fruits picked by the brothers do not turn out to be anything, the brothers are thrown into prison; the Raja promises to give L. his daughter and the estate if he shows the stones; when he sees the stones, he gives them; frees the brothers; the same for another Raja ; the brothers push L. into the water, but he is safe, returns home before them; the brothers are forced to bring L.'s wives back; the heavenly maiden who slept came with the army; the brothers said that only L. knew about the stones ; L. asked his wife four times as large an army, took her older sister as his fourth wife; L. became Raja, his brothers became his servants]: Campbell 1891:65-89.

Malaysia—Indonesia. Dayaki (western Sarawak) [Klieng and four others, the youngest of them Limband, went hunting with their dogs; L. stayed where they had rice; gathered all the rice together, caught the wild boar, and returned; K. amazed; there is no way to carve fire; a faint light is visible in the distance, only L. went to get the fire; he met the giant Gua, who puts it in his ear, brings him home; G. ate all the people, decided to make L. his grandson; for the night he gives him a mat and a screen made of gold; tells him to wake himself up with a hammer; he woke up only after the third blow; when L. matured, G. gave him a luxurious outfit; marries Bunsu Mata-ari; swimming, she put the jewelry in a bowl, and she sailed along the river; she was picked up by the Malay wife; he promised to marry the owner of the jewelry; sent warriors, L. killed them easily, G. ate the dead; then the Malay gathered people different tribes, including brothers L.; L. fights with K.; they get to know each other; G. says he will soon die, gives all the property to L. and K.; G.'s skull grew banang (banyan?) ; its petals became beads, leaves became tissues, ripe fruits became ceramic vessels, branches became iron and steel]: Ling Roth 1896:328-332; makassars [seven sisters give the youngest only menial work ; she sees the fish, feeds it, the fish grows, the girl calls it every day with a song; the sisters are surprised why her sister is losing weight (she gives the fish half of her food); they watch her, catch fish (obviously luring her out with the same song), they eat it; the younger sister is shocked; the chicken tells her to bury fish bones; they grow into a giant tree with golden leaves and diamonds on its branches; one leaf falls on Java, The prince finds him, goes looking for a tree; his older sisters can't tell him anything; the tree leans over to the younger one; the prince marries the girl, takes her to Java; the sisters follow her]: Hambruch 1922:141-143.

China — Korea. Chinese (no place of recording) [Yaochenshu (“wood with gold, silver, and copper”) is popular in Chinese folk mythology; shake and jewels fall in; often depicted in pictures that are hung for the New Year; a man went to the mountains, fell into the abyss, but caught on a tree branch that grew from the top of his head; saw a black and white mouse gnawing at him roots; next to me I saw another tree with gold, silver and copper coins on its branches; it was Yaoshenshu; forgetting about the danger, he began to pluck these gold and silver fruits; the mice gnawed roots, the man flew down but woke up: he dreamed about it all]: Arndt 1891:329.

Caucasus — Asia Minor. Ingush [the prince has a copper tree with golden leaves; at night someone kidnaps them; the eldest son goes to guard, is frightened by the clouds and the wind, says that he saw nothing; the same middle son; the youngest became cut the cloud with a sword, cut off his black finger, followed a bloody trail in the morning; met and accompanied an arrow pulling trees, drinking the sea, which catches a bullet fired by him; the prince's son descends into a hole in the ground; a girl at the spring says that she and her two sisters were carried away by a three-headed eagle; so that they would not be bored, she brings them golden leaves; yesterday he returned without one head and without a finger; the prince's son teaches you to ask the eagle what his death is; over 7 mountains there is a huge ram, there is a hare in it, a duck in a hare, there are 3 chicks in the duck with his soul; the prince's son caught the chicks, the eagle died; the prince's son sent the girls upstairs; the youngest gave ring; 3 horses will appear at noon; if you touch white, you will find yourself in the upper world, red — you will stay here, black — you will go to the lower world; at the top, the brothers decided to take the girls to their place they threw the rope down; the young man touched the black one; in the lower world, the Sarmak blocked the river, gives water for the girls, it is the stepfather's daughter's turn; the young man took water several times, then killed Sarmak by nailing him with a sword: no one can pull it out except the one who stuck it; everyone tries, but only the young man pulled it out, gives half the kingdom and a daughter to the padchah; the young man refused: he needs to go upstairs; padchah: the snake eagle eagles are eaten by a snake; the young man cut the snake, the chick hid it under its wing so that the eagle, without understanding it, would not kill him; the eagle tells him to cook bulls' carcasses and barrels of water; supplies are over, the young man cut off the meat from his left game, right games; left hand; hands; right hand; no more meat; the eagle threw off the young man, caught him, carried him to the ground, put his muscles, they grew; dressed as a shepherd, the young man came to the wedding of his companions with rescued girls; the youngest recognized her ring; the prince killed insidious friends, the young man married his youngest girl, married her sisters as his brothers]: Tankieva 2003:153-159 (=Malsagov 1983, No. 1:23-29); (cf. Chechens [the prince has a tree with golden leaves, someone steals them; three sons take turns guarding; only the youngest does not fall asleep, cuts off someone's finger and head; follows a bloody trail; takes companions pulling trees, drinking the sea, a sharpshooter; they lower the prince's son into the hole; the girl says that they are three daughters of a three-headed eagle, their father has been cut off one head and finger; she asks the father what he can kill him; he replies that there is a ram around the corner, there is a hare in him, a duck in a hare, there are three chicks in a duck; the prince's son kills them all, the companions raise the girls upstairs, the youngest leaves her son Prince ring; tells you to touch the white horse, he will take you to the upper world; red — stay here, black — you will be lower; companions cut off the rope; the prince's son touches the black one; the old woman says that the Sarmak (dragon) closed the water; the Sarmak gives water three times, then the prince's son kills him; the padishah sends him to the eagle on the black mountain; the young man kills the snake that devours chicks every year; the eagle takes him to the ground; there is not enough meat, he cuts off his flesh from his leg, with both hands; the eagle regurgitates the meat, puts it back; under the guise of a shepherd, the young man comes to the wedding of the rescued princesses; the youngest recognizes ring him; a young man kills traitors, marries, marries two princesses to his brothers]: Malsagov 1983, No. 1:23-29); Georgians [the employee agrees to take from the merchant not 20 rubles, but two rubles instead of paying happy nickle; the merchant promises to take them to the worker's wife himself, who stays for another year; the merchant bought a cat for nickels; in another place where rats could not live, he sold it for pearls and precious stones took them to the worker's wife; in the second year, the same (the merchant bought a mirror on his heels, sold it to the king, who had never seen mirrors); after the third year, the merchant gives advice to the farmhand: whatever you find on the road, raise it and bury it at the doorstep; whoever asks, do not say you know where it comes from; do not open your heart to anyone; the poor man found a snake's tail on the road, buried it at the doorstep; found out how generously the merchant paid him but he did not talk about it to anyone; in one night a poplar grew at the doorstep with jewelry on the branches; the prince envied man's happiness; arranged a feast, ordered not a single knife on the table; the man was also invited , offered his knife; the prince said that the knife had been stolen from his father; they decided: if the prince found out what the poplar grew out of, the dagger and everything he would lay his hand on were his; the prince sent the sorceress to the man's wife, she persuaded her husband to share a secret; the merchant found out about the trouble, came; the prince forbade them to live together, so he turns to the cat so that the person can hear in the next room; say about the knife that it was found in the body of the father of the man who was killed by the robbers; when the prince climbs the ladder, cut off three steps, let him take it; the prince returned the dagger and ran away with shame]: Chikovani 1954, No. 63:311-315; Georgians [the branches of a mythical tree are dotted with gems, a bird sits at the top, a spring flows out at the roots; it reaches the sky with its crown, goes back to the underworld]: Surguladze 2004:202; svans [the man was hired to serve Solomon; when releasing him, he advised 1) finding a rarity on the road, pick him up, take him home; 2) not to reveal secrets to his wife; 3) not to give anything to anyone without a request; the man picked up , brought snake skin into the yard; in the morning there is a tree with jewelry on the branches; he did not tell his wife about the skin; merchants want to buy wood; man sets the condition: to guess what it came from in 3 days; they do not They guessed that he took their property, including a precious knife; a merchant persuaded the man's wife to find out what the tree had grown from; he said, his wife shouted loudly about it, and in the morning the merchant took the tree; Solomon took the man to the king next door; he did not have a knife, the man offered his own, the owner said it was his decorated knife, and the man was thrown into prison; but Solomon taught him what to answer in court; allegedly he is the son of a merchant, his father was stabbed to death, a knife was in his throat; if the owner of the knife is a king, then he is a murderer; the case was dismissed]: Virsaladze 1973, No. 187:252-254; Armenians [the snake orders to cut off her head, leave in the hut; there is a pomegranate tree that bears fruit with jewelry; the poor man gets rich, becomes king; others have found out about this, took the tree; he goes to God with a complaint; on the way two women they ask to know why they suffer from headaches, three horses — why scabies harass them; old god: women must marry, horses must serve people; they must be taken; the person who took grenades will come again bet; we must bet that the sun will rise from the west; this is what happened; the man regained his kingdom, but left his wife and children to the enemy]: Khachatryants 1933:246-252 (=Karapetyan 1967:154-158).

Iran — Central Asia. Persians [when Solomon was sitting surrounded by birds and animals, the starling did an unpraiseworthy act; asked him not to punish: everything is predetermined by God; Simurg: the starling is wrong, predestination no; S. is angry; Archangel Gabriel Solomon: we will make sure that the padishah of the East has a son and the padishah of the West has a daughter; they are destined to meet; S. will try to prevent, but will not be able to; S. takes the girl to a nest on a mountain across the seas; no one knows about it; the girl considers Simurg her mother; the son of the padishah of the East was shipwrecked, merchants sheltered him; he gained confidence in the owner and decided to look for origins Neil; he gave him Solomon's potion, which made it possible to understand the language of birds and animals; the prince came to the garden, where trees were made of gold, leaves of emeralds, fruits made of gems, everything was wrapped in canvas; the king demands learn the secret of the trees from the viziers, otherwise he executes; the viziers met the prince, they went together; the young man cuts off ripe and unripe crops and sprinkles everything into the water; the man at the well fills the vessels of those who come, and him its own vessel is empty; the snake stings those who pass by, but no one is wary of it; one butcher has fatty meat, the other has skinny and rotten meat, but customers prefer the second; people cling to the gazelle and run after her; man picks up firewood, can't pick up, puts it back; puppies bark in the dog's womb; the tripod is covered with cloth, people tear off pieces; old man: my brother is older, ask him; the second old man refers to to the oldest brother; he is black-haired, gives explanations; the king was so generous and fair that trees with gems grew, and everything was sewn into the canvas to tell about his justice; a young man with a sickle — angel of death; a man at the well labors gains benefits, and deprives his loved ones of them; the bird came out of the hole, but could not return — a word; a fat kid sucking his mother, but he did not become fatter himself: the king , oppressing subjects; the snake is life, it strikes; people and two butchers: turning away from his wife and leaning towards the forbidden; the gazelle is earthly life; the person who collected fuel is a sinner; puppies in the womb: who do not let their parents speak; the canvas is faith; my hair is black because my wife is good, and my younger brothers have bad wives; the prince stays with the young man; hears and understands the conversation between a bull and a donkey; a bull tired, the donkey advises to pretend to be sick; in the morning the plowman harnessed the donkey; in the evening, the donkey advises the bull to become cheerful again, otherwise they want to slaughter the patient; the prince laughs; the owner's wife demands an explanation; he asks for feces and ink to write about everything (and die); in the yard, the rooster praises the owner's mind; the dog: he is stupid because he will die, the king will find out about this and, as a result, the owner is executed, and his house will be ruined; let the husband he will beat his wife; the prince told her husband, and he beat his wife; the prince goes on; the elder orders to grab the bird, it will carry it across the sea, it is necessary to take water from the spring, return back on the bird; the elder will dead, it must be washed; in that land the dome is paradise, with four rivers flowing from it: the Nile, the Euphrates, the Tigris, and Jeyhun; in paradise, the prince picked a bunch of grapes; when he returned, the devil offered him an apple; the grapes immediately disappeared; the prince sailed on the ship, the ship sank, the prince got ashore with his horses; saw a girl in the tree; advised her to ask Simurg to bring a mirror; she was convinced that she did not look like Simurg; ask Simurg to take you to the seashore for a day; the prince began to come out of the horse's skin in which he wrapped himself, the girl became pregnant; then asked Simurg to bring her skin into the nest; in the prince's shoes; when he was 15 years old, S. ordered Simurg to bring that skin: it was wearing a girl, a prince and their child; in fear of the promised terrible execution, Simurg flew away and no one else saw him; wedding]: Romaskevich 1934a, No. 65:331-355 (=Braginsky 1977:289-315); Uzbeks [Shah tells craftsmen to make plane trees: a trunk of yakhonts, branches from chrysolites, emerald leaves, pearl fruits; after 7 years, the plane tree is ready ; the Shah put the bed under her, the sky is not visible behind the emerald foliage; but one day a ray of sunlight fell on his cheek: someone stole the leaves; the shah promises to cover with gold whoever finds the thief; around the guards fell asleep at night; the eldest, middle sons are also imprisoned; the youngest sees a nightingale, tears his pen off his tail; sons go to look for a nightingale; reach the fork; who will go on one road, he will return, on the other he will meet danger, on the third he will not return; the youngest chose the third road, the elders chose the first; everyone ate, began to work in the tavern; the youngest monkey eats the last cake; promises to help; tells you to take the nightingale with the cage, but not to remove the veil; the prince takes it off, he is grabbed; the king promises to give the nightingale for the girl; the monkey tells you to quietly take the girl away, prince kisses her; her father agrees to give her if the prince gets Kara Kardylgoch's horse; the monkey helps to get it, turns into a horse, the prince gets the girl, the imaginary horse (monkey) returns, the prince goes on a KK horse, a girl and a nightingale are lucky; the monkey leads to him, turns into a peri; promises to help; the prince finds brothers; they cut off his legs, gouge out his eyes, take everything away; the nightingale refuses to sing; Peri (a former monkey) makes the prince whole and healthy, brings him home; the nightingale tells the whole story, the princess dances, the Shah and his elder sons flee, the prince reigns]: Afzalov et al. 1972 (1): 81-94 .

Amur — Sakhalin. Nanai people: Smolyak 1991 [on the branches of this tree there are booney gas birds, which play an important role in the last funeral ceremony; its roots are snakes, joints are boas, bark is water frogs, bark scales are frogs, leaves are felts (discs, see ulchi), buds are bells, sue are the roots of this sounding tree; there are many options for describing and localizing this shaman tree]: 24- 25; Shimkevich 1896 [=2011:177-180; =Sem, Sem 2020, No. 17:106-108; the son of the first man and woman Doldchu-Khoday is alarmed by the immense multiplication of people; goes to the cave, the father fills the entrance with a stone; D. dies , but the revival of people does not stop; then Mother D. closes the entrance to the cave with her skins; when the last one has decayed, people begin to die; the next day three suns and three moons rise; Father D. at sunset kills two suns from a bow, kills two moons at sunrise; goes to a shaman tree, which has bark made of reptiles, roots are snakes, leaves are felts (round mirrors), flowers are bells, metal on the top horns; takes shamanic accessories and costume details (felts, bells, several horns knocked down by an arrow), brings him to the fanza, closes the doors, but the accessories begin to fly away through the hole for smoke comes out; in a dream, the old man tells him to keep all the items one at a time; the rest will fly away, other shamans will get it]: 9-10; ulchi [the invisible shaman tree had three knots with bright bright colors; one was to pray to the heavenly god Enduri, the second to go to the afterlife of the boule, the third to contact the underwater god Temu; bells were on the knots khahurakta and toli discs, at the top there was a kori bird that helped the shaman go to boules; legends have a podoho mo tree from which shamans came out; its roots are snakes, bark — toads and lizards, bells hang on branches]: Smolyak 1991:26-27.