Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

N12. Beard cloak .16.29.31.

A powerful character makes or tells you to make a cloak or fur coat from human beards and/or mustaches.

French, Welsh, British, Ossetians, Ingush, The Tristram and Isonda Saga, The Odda Arrow Saga.

{The parallel between Ossetian texts and Mallory's "The Death of Arthur" was noted in Abayev 1990:207; review and analysis of Western European, Icelandic and Ossetian data presented in Miller, D.A., 2007}.

Western Europe. The French [episode of Tom's The Novel of Tristan, excerpts of which are preserved in five manuscripts of the late 12th-13th centuries: the giant Orgil, who came from Africa, shaved the beards of the men he had defeated and decided sew a fur coat out of these beards; sent a messenger to King Arthur with a letter saying that he, Orgil, was making a fur coat for himself from his beards and that he lacked a piece of hair for fringes; Arthur, as stated in The message was to shave his hair off his face and send it through the messenger; Arthur was angry and refused; Orgil came with an army; Arthur cut off his head and took his fur coat; Orgil's nephew was a giant, intending to take the beard from the Spanish king; Tristan felt sorry for the king and killed the giant]: Mikhailov 1976:132-134 (Old French original: Bédier 1902:290-293); Welsh: Galfried Monmouth 1984 [episode of Galfried Monmouth's A Story of the Britons (based on a manuscript probably written around 1139): "Arthur said he had never met anyone as powerful after he killed giant Riton on Mount Arabia, who summoned him to fight. He made a fur coat from the beards of the kings he killed and ordered Arthur to carefully pluck his beard and deliver the hair plucked out of it to him, and since Arthur had defeated the other rulers, honoring him, he will style his beard hair on top of everyone else. Otherwise, he, Riton, summons him to fight, and whoever wins will get the loser's cloak and beard. They began the fight, and it was dominated by Arthur, who grabbed his opponent's beard along with the loot and later claimed, as we already know, that he had never met anyone as powerful, like this Riton"]: 112; Thomas 1907 [on a moonlit night, British kings Nynio and Peibio walked and talked; N. asks if N. sees his beautiful and vast fields; in response, B. asks if N. sees him countless herds of cows and sheep, i.e. stars that graze in these fields, and the Moon is their shepherdess; N. says he will not allow these herds to graze in their fields; kings began to fight, mutually After killing most of the troops and people; then King Uyles Rhitta Gawr decided to attack and destroy both mad kings; he defeated them and cut off their beards; then 28 other British kings went to war, to take revenge; but the WG also defeated them, resulting in all 30 beards; then the kings of other states went to war, but the WG defeated them; he made himself a cloak of beards from head to toe, and he was twice as tall above any other; after that, the WG sent men to King Arthur with the command to shave off his beard; in response, Arthur went with his army to Gwynedd; after a fierce duel, Arthur cut the WG in half with a blow to head; WG was buried at the top of Ireland's tallest mountain and every warrior laid a stone on the grave; this place became known as Gwyddfa Rhitta, i.e. the Rhitta Mound, but the British call it Snowdon]:? ; the British [episodes of Thomas Mallory's The Death of Arthur, completed 1469-1470: King Arthur was visited by an embassy from King Riens, who ruled North Wales and was also king all of Ireland and many islands; he reported that he had defeated and defeated eleven kings and that each of them had submitted to him by letting his beard be cut off; now he sent an embassy for King Arthur's beard, for he started to trim his robe with royal beards and was just not enough on one floor; King Arthur refused and told Riens that he would take off his head if he did not bow to him (I.XXIV; first book" Arthur's Death" dates back to a 13th century French prose compilation. "Merlin's Continuation"); a Genoese giant kidnapped the Duchess of Breton; King Arthur went to save her; met a woman who was grieving over the Duchess's grave; told her he had come from Arthur, to pay off the giant; he replied, "Ugh, on such an assignment! For he puts your king in nothing like anyone else. <... > Or don't you know what he did to fifteen kings? He made himself a cloak covered with precious stones and beards from fifteen kings of the greatest families on earth. He did not demand any other tribute from these fifteen kingdoms. And they sent him beards as a Christmas gift, thereby saving his subjects"; Arthur found and defeated the giant, took his cloak and club (V.V.; the fifth book is an arrangement of English the alliterative poem "Morte Arthure", dating from circa 1400)]: Mallory 1974:46-47, 138-141.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Ossetians: Khamitsaeva, Byazirov 1989, No. 42 (Irons, 1880) [=Miller 1881, No. 6:33-40; Satan washed her pants and put them to dry on a rock; Uastyrji spilled his seed on them; when Satan learned this, he counted the months and, when the time came, cut the stone; Sozyryko left him; he beat Burafarnyg's three sons, cut off their right arms and mustache and took out their right eyes; their mother said: "If you are strong, Sozyryko, kill Yeltagan, take his skin off his head, bring it and make a fur coat collar out of it"; Sozyryko came to E.; he asked about Sozyryko's sledge; Sozyryko replied that if you shoot two bullets in Sozyryko's chest, the bullets would fall in front of her like pears ; Yeltagan asked to shoot him, Sozyryko did it - the bullets fell like pears; Sozyryko said that if you sharpen your sword and hit Sozyryko on the head, even one and a half hair would not be cut off; E. asked him to hit him like this, Sozyryko did it and did not even cut off one and a half hair; Sozyryko: "In winter, if you dig a hole, you will let water from Terek go there, you will plant Sozyryko in this hole, and this hole for one week if it freezes, when it freezes, he will knock out [ice] with his head, so it is strong"; E. ordered to do this to himself; when the water froze, Sozyryko asked him if he could pull out the ice with his head; E. pierced the ice with his head, but his shoulders did not pass, and he got stuck; Sozyryko cut off his head, tore off his skin; took everything that was in E.'s house to him; told the girls: "Hide my scalp and skin coat with a mustache"; carried them out skin from their heads and mustaches, they recognized them as the skin of their fathers, brothers and husbands; after tailoring their fur coat, they decided to cheat and asked the witch how to do it; she advised me to leave the fur coat without a collar and say that he needs skin from Mukara's head; the girls did so; S. invited M. to play alchik on his head; M. agreed, S. threw the alchik, millet fell out of him; S.: "This millet needs to be collected"; M. threw his alchik, chickens fell out of him, pecking millet; M. threw the alchik again, a boar jumped out of it; S. left his own, three dogs jumped out, caught up and brought the wild boar; S. let the alchik go, Nart's houses caught fire; M. said he could do nothing more for them; S. threw the alchik, it rained and put out the houses; S. gave M. the right to quit again; M. threw it, three flew out of his alchik pigeon; three hawks flew out of Alchik S., caught and killed pigeons; S. said that M. was a good husband, ripped off his head and put a potion on his head; M. grew new skin on his head; S. brought skin home, girls sewed a collar out of it], 43 (Digortsy, 1941) [Soslan decided to sew a fur coat out of human beards; killed men, ripped off their beards, and his mother sewed them together; the fur coat was ready, only the collar was missing; S. decided to kill Khan Carc-Marc Ouare, who had a lush red beard; on his mother's advice, hired him and remained unrecognized; W. asked him what games S.; S. played: "He sends people to the top of the mountain. They throw stones from there. Exiled is standing under the mountain, and these stones break against his chest, turning into ash"; W. tried it for himself, the game did not surprise him; S.: "He plays another game. In winter, he goes into the sea, and tells him to pour brushwood around him. All this around him freezes tightly, and then he shakes and gets out [to land]"; W. decided to try it; S. visited him in the morning, told him to get out; W. tried, but could not get out of the water; S. cut off his head, ripped off his beard and returned home; this is how his fur coat was completely sewn]: 108-112; Khamitsaeva, Byazirov 1991 [list of archival Digor versions (5 texts)]: 29; Ingush: Dalgat 1972 [where Nasyr Kort is now located, Nyasarg was the first to settle on one of the hills; he had a mustache so long that if it was tied in a knot at the back of his head, the ends could be shut in his belt; Achamza founded the village of Ekazhevo; he raided robberies, kidnapped people, killed many; planning to make himself a fur coat {comment by W.B. Dalgat: "In the original, "beckh". In Ingush, "bekh" means a coat or jacket quilted from wool. "Fur coat" is not quite equivalent to the concept of "beckh"} from human beards, he ripped off everyone he met's beard along with his skin; after gathering people under his control, he asked: "What is missing in my fur coat?" ; the woman whose brother A. pulled out his beard said that a collar made of N.'s mustache would be good for a fur coat; A. came to N.'s house, hit him with an arrow from a bow; N. grabbed a sword and hacked A.]; [proud Circassian prince Acham-Ala ignored people with his wealth; he had a young wife who was waiting for him to die; A.-A. saw that she was sad and asked what the reason was; his wife replied: "I am sad because of you, because your burka, even though you're a prince, is like a burka of prisoners. And since you're a prince, your burka must be better than that of your captives. I would make you a good burka if you ripped people's beards out and brought them to me. I think these beards would make a good burka"; A.-A. pulled out and brought her beards; the burka was almost ready, all that remained was to make a collar; the wife saw the rider, it was Nyasar; said to her husband to bring his beard for his collar; A.-A. came to N.'s house, said that he had come for a beard and reached for her; N. grabbed a book, killed A.-A., then went to Georgia]; [a proud man lived in Kozashka and a strong Kozash sledge; his burka was made of the beards and mustaches of famous men; when going to visit or go to war, K. threw this burka; the entire Garman Valley belonged to him; leading mountain people, Nyasar came to the source of Nyasare; built a fortification there; K. became angry, gathered an army and attacked N.; N. killed him, the army fled]: 216-218, 385-390.

Baltoscandia. The Scandinavians [episode of The Tristram and Isonda Saga, translated into Old Norse in 1226 by order of King Hakon IV the Elder and known from a 17th-century manuscript: the mighty giant came from Africa, to fight kings and nobles; he hunted them, killed them and pulled out their beards; from these beards he made a long cloak for himself; when he heard about King Arthus, he sent his man to him and told him to say that the long cloak he wears is made of the beards of kings, dukes, Jarls and Lenniks; he asked Arthus for a favor: let him cut off his beard and send him as a sign of respect; promised honor this beard and hang it above all other beards; Artus became angry and refused; the giant came to the border of his land and showed him a cloak made of royal beards; Artus cut off his head and took the cloak for himself; that giant's nephew was a giant who demanded a beard from the Spanish king; Tristram stood up for the king's honor and killed the giant]: Mikhailov 1976:280-281; [in The Odda Arrow Saga { which dates back to the second half of the 13th century and was written by an Icelandic who collected materials for it in Norway} features the giant and wizard Ogmund Eythjof's s-Killer; he wears a royal beard cloak and mustaches; kings send him their beards and mustaches as tribute every 12 months]: Miller, D.A., 2007:313-314.