Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

N28A. The roots of mountain .16.27.-.29.31.-.35.

The roots (belt) of mountains or stones are mentioned in myths, riddles, spells, and songs as something that does not really exist.

Germans, Slovenes, Czechs, Poles, Russians (Arkhangelsk, Novgorod, Pskov, Nizhny Novgorod, Tula, Tambov), Belarusians, Western, Eastern and Northern Ukrainians, Stavropol Turkmens, Scandinavians, Karelians, Veps, Estonians, Latvians, Kazan Tatars, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Altaians, Buryats, Dagurs, and Nenets.

Western Europe. The Germans (Sudetenland) [riddle: “Wächst ohne Wurz. — Stein”]: Peachy 1957:46.

The Balkans. Slovenes [riddle: kaj raste bres korenja? (what grows without a root?) — kamén]: Grimm 2019 (2): 98.

Central Europe. Czechs (“Enigmaticus”, compiled in Latin in the 1350s and 1360s by Master Claret, then a monk of the Opatovice Monastery) [abs radice manens (lapis) in campo quoque crescens — “remaining in the field and growing without a root (stone)”]: Peachy 1957, No. 106:46; Poles, Eastern Slavs (without specifying) [the mystery of “book origin” is popular: “What grows without a root?” (stone)]: Levkievskaya, Tolstaya 1999:448; Russians (Arkhangelskaya): Rybnikova 1932, No. 17 (Pinega) [riddle: “Does everything grow without a root?” (stone)]: 108; Kolpakova et al. 1963, No. 284 (Pechora, Naryan-Mar district) [song episode: “Wait, wench, /Wait, wench, /Wait, seven-year-old girl/I'll tell you, /Let me tan you, /I'll tell you mystery:/Why does it grow,/What does it grow,/What does it grow without a root? /Why does it bloom,/What blooms without color? /Why is it noisy,/Why does everything make noise without the wind?” /“Wait a minute, boy/Wait, the guy is white curly, /Yes, I'll get rid of them/I'll solve your riddle:/A stone grows, /Let a stone grow without a root, /Yes, a pine blooms,/ Pine blooms without color, /Yes the Volga rustles, /The Volga rustles without wind””]: 85; Russians (Novgorod region) [riddle: “What grows without roots?” (stone)]: Vlasova, Zhekulina 2006, No. 12:51; Russians (Pskov): Shane 1870, No. 89 (Ostrovsky University) [song episode: “A girl has gone /Seven years old, /A guy followed her/Like a master:/Wait, wench, /Seven years old! /I'll make a guess/ Three riddles: /What's rostet/Without a root? /What blossoms,/But without color? /What makes noise./But without the wind? /The girl steel/Guessed:/A stone grows/Without a root, /Pine blooms, /But without color, /The river rustles. /But without wind”]: 235-236; Sadovnikov 1876, No. 2433 [riddle: “ It grows without roots, blooms without blooming, makes noise without wind” (stone, spruce, water)]: 293; Russians (Nizhny Novgorod, Arzamassky district) [ballad episode: “How will the merchant's son say:/“What else do we have, girl, all the time? /What else do we have, girl, unrequited? /What else do we have without roots, girl? /What else do we have, maiden, more often than groves? /What else do we have above the forest, girl? /What else is more beautiful than the world, girl? /What else is green all winter long?” /The red girl answers him:/“Oh, you are, Yefim sir, a merchant's son! /Incessantly — fast rivers,/Unrequited — a horse, a kind horse,/Without roots — a combustible stone,/More often groves are frequent stars,/Above the forest is a bright month,/More beautiful than the light is the red sun,/ All winter, it's green — pine in a damp forest”]: Balashov 1963, No. 2:99; Russians (Nizhny Novgorod Krai, Arzamas District, p. Ketros) [riddle: “What grows without a root?” (stone)]: Rybnikova 1932, No. 124:241; Russians (Tula, Novosilsky district) [song: “Like across the bridge, across the bridge, /And a seven-year-old girl was walking, /The merchant's son followed the girl:/Wait a girl, a seven-year-old, /I'll make three riddles, /Please, girl, guess:/And what grows without roots, /And what blooms without a scarlet blossom,/And what makes noise without a wild wind? —/ A stone without roots grows, /Water rustles without a violent wind, /Pine blooms without alago in color”]: Shane 1870, No. 87:233; Russians (Tambov, manuscript “Fairy Tales, Sayings, Proverbs and Ave., Lipetsk Tambov Gubernia”, which was archived in 1848) [riddle: “It flies without wings, /It grows without roots” (month and stone)]: Meltz et al. 1961, No. 2:189; (cf. Russians (Moscow, Moscow University) [song: “Can you, maiden, guess five riddles? —/ I guess, a merchant's son, at least a dozen! /So what is this, girl, more beautiful than summer? /So what is it, girl, above the forest? /So what is it, maiden, more often than groves? /So what is it, girl, without a root? /So what is it, girl, all the time? /So what is it, girl, without an answer? —/More beautiful than summer, merchant son, red sun, /Above the forest, merchant's son, bright month, /More often groves, merchant's son, stars are frequent , /Without root, merchant son, pearls, /Without I'll stop, merchant son, the river flows, /No answer, merchant son, God's fate! —/ You guessed it, girl, you guessed it, So be with me, be my wife!”] : Shane 1870, No. 88:233-234); Russians (place of recording not specified): Dahl 1862 [“Blooms without flower (fern), stands unanswered (horse), without root (stone), above the forest (bright month), more often groves (stars are frequent), incessantly (river), without change (God's will)”]: 1060; Sadovnikov 1876, No. 2458 [riddle: “What grows without roots” (stone)]: 296; western (and eastern?) Ukrainians [one version of the song is a Jewish girl, in another, the little mermaid makes three riddles: what burns without a flame, what grows without a root and what blooms without flower; “Oh what to burn without polonia? /Oh, what growth without corin, /And what is it without any color? /(Galician version):/What's the quitne without blue color? /Burn gold without polonya, /The growth of fireplaces without corina, /Zvitu fern without zvitu”; according to the version in which a Jewish girl (divchya-zhidivchya) makes riddles, the kozak guesses, and to another - the girl did not guess and the little mermaid tickled her; a petrol song (the place of recording is not specified; probably Western): “The city has a sticky pid /Standing Kozak with Siritka, /Siritkoy - seven litre. /Kudi idesh, Produce, /Do you not guess the riddles? /And what about growth without corin? /What about wood? /And what to do without a run? /And what about climbing a steep mountain? /What about green biz heat? /Why should kintsya lie down? /Kozachenko odgadue:/Fireplace is tall without corin, /And hops curl on wood, /Water without a run, /Misyats turn a steep mountain, /Sontse grie without heat; /And go to lie down - kintsya dumb” ]: Kostomarov 1906:541, 570; Eastern Ukrainians (Poltava) [Trinity song: “Oh, a red girl is running, /And after her yes the little mermaid; /Listen to me, pannochka is red./I'll wish you three puzzles: /If you guess, I'll let my dad go; /And you can't guess yak, I'll take it to myself. /Oh, what's growing and without a root, /Oh what runs for no reason, /Oh what color without any color? —/ Stone growth without root, /Water runs for no reason, /Fern color without any color! /The girl did not guess the mystery, —/ The Little Mermaid gushed her”]: Snegirev 1827:274-275 (=Maksimovich 1827, No. 4:162; same text with minor changes or a very close version without reference or indication places of recording in Tereshchenko 1848:131-132); northern Ukrainians (Volyn) [a brief description of the carol from V. Abramovich “The Common Polis Calendar” (1834; the author is a priest with. Yapoloti Rovensky y.): “Oh, smoke early, drink drinks early, and even earlier the red panna got up,... went on the water; three gentlemen stumbled: oh give us water and try it out” (three riddles: what growth without a root , burns without flame, they make noise without violent vitru)” {no answers are given; taking into account comparative data, in the first case it is almost certainly a stone}]: Zelenin 1914, No. 6:278; northern Ukrainians (Chernigovskaya, Novgorod-Seversky) [charms called Krinichenki (well mermaids) sit at the Yaroslavl Spring and Krinitsy Zarucheyskaya and Sukhomlinskaya on the green week and make wishes for the passing : “What is growing without a root? ” (What grows without a root?) — and they themselves answer: “A stone of growth without a root”]: Tereshchenko 1848:144; Belarusians: Dobrovolsky 1903, No. 137 (Smolenskaya, Yelninsky, Porechsky, Smolensky and Dukhovshinsky.) [seven versions of a song in which well done, sometimes three, give the girl a few riddles; one of them is: What grows without a root? answer: a stone grows without a root (“What grows without a karen” — “The fireplace grows a business cave”, etc.)]: 153-156; Zavyalova 2006 (Mogilevskaya, Mstislavsky u.) [conspiracy episode: “As a stone on the Koran is not stayatsi, vetzsem is not mahatsi, listsem is not a noise, so the slave of God has a buynay galave more than baletsi, not noise, not lamitsi, padzinay, jumping, pa this hour, I see gadzin”]: 57; Rybnikova 1932, No. 17 (Polesie, Mozyr District, Turov) [riddle: “Shcho Rasze without a Koran?” (stone)]: 181.

Caucasus — Asia Minor. Stavropol Turkmens [riddle No. 25 of V. Zavarina {“Ottoman riddles collected in Brus”} corresponds to the following riddle of Stavropol Turkmens: Jer asti jeddi matal (seven riddles underground); The bird has no milk (kushta st jok), the kulan no bile, no cream in the stream, horses don't chew, cows don't felting, stones have no roots (Dashta damar jok)]: Samoilovich 1914a: 206-207.

Baltoscandia. Scandinavians [Loki, or Loft, son of giant Farbauti, his mother Liveia or Nal, brothers Büleist and Helblindi; from giantess Angrboda his children are the wolf Fenrir, the serpent Jormungand, daughter Hel; Ódin threw the snake into the surrounding sea, it encircles it, biting its tail; threw Hel into Niflheim, took possession of nine worlds to give shelter to all who died of illness and old age; Wolf aces they grew it at home, only Thur dared to feed him; persuaded him to test the strength of the Ledding chain; he tore both it and Dromy's even stronger chain; then Odin sent Skirnir, Freir's messenger, underground to the black alvas, they made Gleipnir fetters; they combined the sound of cat footsteps, a woman's beard, mountain roots, bear veins, fish breath, bird saliva; the fetters were soft as a silk ribbon , so Fenrir did not want to try them (if he broke them, he would not have gained fame), so he demanded that one of the aces put his hand in his mouth; Thur agreed and lost his right hand; the end of the fetters was fixed under With a big stone, a sword is placed in the wolf's mouth (the handle is in the tongue, the point is in the nebo); the gods do not want to desecrate their sanctuary with the Wolf's blood, so they do not kill him, although they know that he will kill Odin]: Younger Edda 1970:31-32 Karelians [riddle: “It grows without roots, flies without wings” (stone)]: Lavonen 1982, No. 1550:111; Estonians [proverb: “There are no three things in the world: a stone has a root, milk has birds, knots by the water”]: Krickmann, Sarv 1986, No. 3929:139; Latvians [riddle: “What grows without roots?” (stone)]: Ryzhakova 2000:16; Lithuanians: Zavyalova 2006 [the conspiracies emphasize that the stone has no ordinary signs of life — it has held its breath without blood, without flower, root and branches; plots from a snake: “A stone without a root, rejoice, Maria. A bird without milk, rejoice, Maria. Worm without chewing gum, rejoice, Maria”; “A stone without roots, a fern without a flower, a bird without milk. Black, gray, striped, brown, red, blue (other colors), I curse you to go to God's judgment in dry forests, in swamps, so that it does not hurt or swell”; “Fern without flowers, stone without roots, a bird without milk, and you, damn, don't walk on the land, do no harm to people, you go through the earth”]: 19, 45, 141, 250, 281-282; Vaitkevičienė 2013 [conspiracies: “A bird without milk, a stone without roots, a fern without blossom. In the name of Jesus, let it help the brindled cow”; “The stone without roots. Holy Mary. The bird without milk. Holy Mary. The snake without gristle. Holy Mary”; riddle: “What grows without roots, what flies without wings, what blooms without a flower?” (rock, wind, fern)]: 213-214; Veps (Medieval dialect, Pondala, 1965) [conspiracy: “I'm biting this hernia and illness. I bite my front tooth, throw my back tooth on a road without a path, into a swamp without moss, into a bottomless sea to be without a father, without a mother, rootless, barren and for life. Headache, back pain, chest pain, abdominal pain, navel pain, baby heel pain. And clean and get rid of this hernia, the disease from now on, from now on, for the rest of your life. Amen. [Like] a chicken doesn't have milk, a rooster doesn't have an egg, a stone has no roots, a finger doesn't have a name, even if this baby doesn't have this hernia either. And that's it”]: Zaitseva, Mullonen 1969, No. 50:113 (including Veps original).

Volga — Perm. Kazan Tatars: Makhmutov 2013, No. 110 [riddle: “What grows without roots?” (stone)], 2077 [riddle: “There are seven creatures in the world that lack seven things. What are these creatures?” (A pigeon has no milk, a horse has horns, an egg has stitches, a cow has a mane, a stone has roots, a snake has legs, a cat has a beard)]: 47, 283; Poppe 1971 [riddle: “There are seven no in the world. What are they?” ; answer: “The bird has no milk, the foal has no bile, in a spring there is no cream, a mantle has no sleeves, a horse has no cud, a cow has no intellect, a stone has no roots”]: 227.

Turkestan. Kazakhs [proverb: “The stone has no roots; the sultan has no relatives” (i.e. a just ruler should not take into account kinship or friendship)]: Bregel 196:232;

Kyrgyz [What doesn't have cream? /- Clean water doesn't have cream./ What doesn't have roots? /- The stone has no roots. /What doesn't have a bridge? /- The lake doesn't have a bridge./What doesn't have a support? /- The sky has no support./What doesn't have a soul? /- A log has no soul./ What doesn't have a language? /- Fish don't have a tongue./ What doesn't blood? /- The herb has no blood./ What doesn't have bile? /- A horse doesn't have bile./Why doesn't milk? /- Birds don't have milk./What don't they have hair? /- The snake has no hair]: Orozova 1998:25.

Southern Siberia — Mongolia. Altaians [When Earth and Sky appeared,/Three things were not perfect. What is this? /1. The mountain has no belt;/2. The sky has no support;/3. The river does not have a mixer]: Ukachina 1984:68; Buryats: Bazarov 1902a, No. 116 (Aginsky) [“There are three shortcomings in the world — what are? — 1) sky without support; 2) water without a roof; 3) a mountain without a belt”]: 29 (English translation in Taylor 1954, No. 1007:365); Bardakhanova 1982 [riddle: “What grows on earth without a root?” (stone)]: 112; Budaev 1988 [“There are three drawbacks in the world: a mountain without a belt, a sky without support, a sea without a cover” (p. Mogoytuy, Mogoytuy District, Aginsky District); there are three amazing ones in the world: “It's amazing that the mountain is without a belt, it's amazing that the sky is without support, it's amazing that the river is without a cover” (the recording place is not indicated); there are three drawbacks in the world: “The sea without a cover is a flaw, the sky without support is a flaw, a land without a belt is a flaw” (option: “Sky without support, sea without roof, mountain without belt”; place no record specified)]: 26, 181-182; barguts or Agin Buryats (also possibly: Uzumchins or Arukhorchins) [from “riddles collected by Sh.-Lh. Bases. Bazarov among the Barga- and Agin Buryats, as well as partly in the Uzumuchin and Aru-Khorchin Khoshuns in the summer of 1899, during the expedition of Gr. Nick Potanina”: “Three “nothing” in the world. Mount Sumeru without a belt is “nothing”; a “sea of milk” without a lid is “nothing”; a sky without a column is “nothing”]: Bazarov 1902b, No. 12:104 (English translation in Taylor 1954, No. 1006:365); Khalkha Mongols [V.A. Kazakevich's report on a trip to the Gobi in 1924; “a land devoid of roots”; the expression was used to describe the anhydrous Gobi steppe]: Nosov 2014:222; Dagurs (Buthas dialect, Hulun District- Buir, Inner Mongolia) [three missing: “The sky has no support. The sea has a bottom. The mountain has belts”]: Todayeva 1986:112.

Western Siberia. Nenets [riddle: “It grows without a root on the shore” (stone)]: Zhurinsky 2007:220.